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BACKGROUND - Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a diverse clinical syndrome with a heterogeneous pathophysiology. Early attempts to identify CRS endotypes and biomarkers have largely relied on analysis of surgically obtained tissue, thus limiting their practical utility. This study examined the ability of mucus T helper 2 (Th2) biomarkers to predict CRS disease severity and clinical characteristics.
METHODS - CRS (n = 90) and healthy control subjects (n = 17) were prospectively enrolled prior to surgical intervention and mucus levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were determined using a multiplex cytometric bead assay. Data for relevant cytokines was then scaled, normalized, and later combined to develop standardized metrics indicative of Th2-associated inflammation. Th2-high and Th2-low subgroups were consequently identified and validated against factors associated with disease severity and clinical outcomes.
RESULTS - Mucus levels of IL-5 and IL-13 were elevated in CRS subjects compared to controls, while no significant difference was noted for IL-4. IL-5 and IL-13 high CRS were associated with worse objective measures of disease severity and greater rates of revision surgery. Similar relationships were noted for both cytokines when CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) patients were analyzed separately. Th2-high CRS and Th2-low CRS were then categorized using a scaled IL-5/IL-13 metric. Th2-high CRS was characterized by an increased number of subjects with nasal polyps and comorbid asthma, and worse symptom and computed tomography (CT) scores.
CONCLUSION - The Th2-associated cytokines, IL-5 and IL-13, are detectable in sinonasal mucus and their levels can be used to define Th2-high and Th2-low CRS. Identification of Th2-high and Th2-low endotypes using mucus-based biomarkers could facilitate stratification of CRS subgroups and guide personalized therapies.
© 2018 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
OBJECTIVE - Obesity is a metabolic disorder that has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and leads to increased risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, asthma, certain cancers, and various other diseases. Obesity and its comorbidities are associated with impaired adipose tissue (AT) function. In the last decade, eosinophils have been identified as regulators of proper AT function. Our study aimed to determine whether normalizing the number of AT eosinophils in obese mice, to those of lean healthy mice, would reduce obesity and/or improve metabolic fitness.
METHODS - C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) were simultaneously given recombinant interleukin-5 (rIL5) for 8 weeks to increase AT eosinophils. Metabolic fitness was tested by evaluating weight gain, AT inflammation, glucose, lipid, and mixed-meal tolerance, AT insulin signaling, energy substrate utilization, energy expenditure, and white AT beiging capacity.
RESULTS - Eosinophils were increased ∼3-fold in AT of obese HFD-fed mice treated with rIL5, and thus were restored to levels observed in lean healthy mice. However, there were no significant differences in rIL5-treated mice among the above listed comprehensive set of metabolic assays, despite the increased AT eosinophils.
CONCLUSIONS - We have shown that restoring obese AT eosinophils to lean healthy levels is not sufficient to allow for improvement in any of a range of metabolic features otherwise impaired in obesity. Thus, the mechanisms that identified eosinophils as positive regulators of AT function, and therefore systemic health, are more complex than initially understood and will require further study to fully elucidate.
Published by Elsevier GmbH.
BACKGROUND & AIMS - There is controversy regarding the role of the type 2 immune response in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC)-few data are available from treatment-naive patients. We investigated whether genes associated with a type 2 immune response in the intestinal mucosa are up-regulated in treatment-naive pediatric patients with UC compared with patients with Crohn's disease (CD)-associated colitis or without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and whether expression levels are associated with clinical outcomes.
METHODS - We used a real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction array to analyze messenger RNA (mRNA) expression patterns in rectal mucosal samples from 138 treatment-naive pediatric patients with IBD and macroscopic rectal disease, as well as those from 49 children without IBD (controls), enrolled in a multicenter prospective observational study from 2008 to 2012. Results were validated in real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of rectal RNA from an independent cohort of 34 pediatric patients with IBD and macroscopic rectal disease and 17 controls from Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.
RESULTS - We measured significant increases in mRNAs associated with a type 2 immune response (interleukin [IL]5 gene, IL13, and IL13RA2) and a type 17 immune response (IL17A and IL23) in mucosal samples from patients with UC compared with patients with colon-only CD. In a regression model, increased expression of IL5 and IL17A mRNAs distinguished patients with UC from patients with colon-only CD (P = .001; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.72). We identified a gene expression pattern in rectal tissues of patients with UC, characterized by detection of IL13 mRNA, that predicted clinical response to therapy after 6 months (odds ratio [OR], 6.469; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.553-26.94), clinical response after 12 months (OR, 6.125; 95% CI, 1.330-28.22), and remission after 12 months (OR, 5.333; 95% CI, 1.132-25.12).
CONCLUSIONS - In an analysis of rectal tissues from treatment-naive pediatric patients with IBD, we observed activation of a type 2 immune response during the early course of UC. We were able to distinguish patients with UC from those with colon-only CD based on increased mucosal expression of genes that mediate type 2 and type 17 immune responses. Increased expression at diagnosis of genes that mediate a type 2 immune response is associated with response to therapy and remission in pediatric patients with UC.
Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Allergic airway diseases are immune disorders associated with heightened type 2 immune responses and IL-5 and IL-13 production at the site of inflammation. We have previously reported that cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition by indomethacin augmented allergic airway inflammation in a STAT6-independent manner. However, the key COX product(s) responsible for restraining indomethacin-mediated STAT6-independent allergic inflammation is unknown. In this study, using the mouse model of OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation, we identified that PGI2 receptor (IP) signaling was critical for indomethacin-induced, STAT6-independent proallergic effects. We demonstrated that IP deficiency increased inflammatory cell infiltration, eosinophilia, and IL-5 and IL-13 expression in the lung in a STAT6-independent manner. The augmented STAT6-independent allergic inflammation correlated with enhanced primary immune responses to allergic sensitization and elevated production of multiple inflammatory chemokines (CCL11, CCL17, CCL22, and CXCL12) in the lung after allergen challenge. We also showed that the PGI2 analogue cicaprost inhibited CD4 T cell proliferation and IL-5 and IL-13 expression in vitro, and IP deficiency diminished the stimulatory effect of indomethacin on STAT6-independent IL-5 and IL-13 responses in vivo. The inhibitory effects of PGI2 and the IP signaling pathway on CD4 T cell activation, inflammatory chemokine production, and allergic sensitization and airway inflammation suggest that PGI2 and its analogue iloprost, both Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, may be useful in treating allergic diseases and asthma. In addition, inhibiting PGI2 signaling by drugs that either block PGI2 production or restrain IP signaling may augment STAT6-independent pathways of allergic inflammation.
Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Bilirubin is thought to exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent leukocyte migration and by suppressing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). As VCAM-1 and iNOS are important mediators of tissue injury in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) murine model of inflammatory colitis, we examined whether bilirubin prevents colonic injury in DSS-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days, while simultaneously receiving intraperitoneal injections of bilirubin (30 mg/kg) or potassium phosphate vehicle. Disease activity was monitored, peripheral blood counts and serum nitrate levels were determined, and intestinal specimens were analyzed for histological injury, leukocyte infiltration, and iNOS expression. The effect of bilirubin on IL-5 production by HSB-2 cells and on Jurkat cell transendothelial migration also was determined. DSS-treated mice that simultaneously received bilirubin lost less body weight, had lower serum nitrate levels, and exhibited reduced disease severity than vehicle-treated animals. Concordantly, histopathological analyses revealed that bilirubin-treated mice manifested significantly less colonic injury, including reduced infiltration of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, and diminished iNOS expression. Bilirubin administration also was associated with decreased eosinophil and monocyte infiltration into the small intestine, with a corresponding increase in peripheral blood eosinophilia. Bilirubin prevented Jurkat migration but did not alter IL-5 production. In conclusion, bilirubin prevents DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting the migration of leukocytes across the vascular endothelium and by suppressing iNOS expression.
Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation during obesity is mediated by immune cells and closely correlates with systemic insulin resistance. In lean AT, eosinophils are present in low but significant numbers and capable of promoting alternative macrophage activation in an IL-4/IL-13-dependent manner. In WT mice, obesity causes the proportion of AT eosinophils to decline, concomitant with inflammation and classical activation of AT macrophages. In this study, we show that CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophil accumulation in AT. Furthermore, in contrast to WT mice, the increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) AT is sustained and even amplified during obesity. Interestingly, a significant portion of eosinophils is found in CLSs in AT of obese CCR2(-/-) mice, which is the first time eosinophils have been shown to localize to these inflammatory hot spots. CCR2(-/-) bone marrow precursors displayed increased expression of various key eosinophil genes during in vitro differentiation to eosinophils, suggesting a potentially altered eosinophil phenotype in the absence of CCR2. In addition, the proportion of eosinophils in AT positively correlated with local expression of Il5, a potent eosinophil stimulator. The increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) mice was detected in all white fat pads analyzed and in the peritoneal cavity but not in bone marrow, blood, spleen, or liver. In AT of CCR2(-/-) mice, an increased eosinophil number positively correlated with M2-like macrophages, expression of the Treg marker Foxp3, and type 2 cytokines, Il4, Il5, and Il13. This is the first study to link CCR2 function with regulation of AT eosinophil accumulation.
© Society for Leukocyte Biology.
Although the lung is the most common metastatic site for cancer cells, biologic mechanisms regulating lung metastasis are not fully understood. Using heterotopic and intravenous injection models of lung metastasis in mice, we found that IL5, a cytokine involved in allergic and infectious diseases, facilitates metastatic colonization through recruitment of sentinel eosinophils and regulation of other inflammatory/immune cells in the microenvironment of the distal lung. Genetic IL5 deficiency offered marked protection of the lungs from metastasis of different types of tumor cells, including lung cancer, melanoma, and colon cancer. IL5 neutralization protected subjects from metastasis, whereas IL5 reconstitution or adoptive transfer of eosinophils into IL5-deficient mice exerted prometastatic effects. However, IL5 deficiency did not affect the growth of the primary tumor or the size of metastatic lesions. Mechanistic investigations revealed that eosinophils produce CCL22, which recruits regulatory T cells to the lungs. During early stages of metastasis, Treg created a protumorigenic microenvironment, potentially by suppressing IFNγ-producing natural killer cells and M1-polarized macrophages. Together, our results establish a network of allergic inflammatory circuitry that can be co-opted by metastatic cancer cells to facilitate lung colonization, suggesting interventions to target this pathway may offer therapeutic benefits to prevent or treat lung metastasis.
©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
BACKGROUND - Insulin-dependent Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a devastating autoimmune disease that destroys beta cells within the pancreatic islets and afflicts over 10 million people worldwide. These patients face life-long risks for blindness, cardiovascular and renal diseases, and complications of insulin treatment. New therapies that protect islets from autoimmune destruction and allow continuing insulin production are needed. Increasing evidence regarding the pathomechanism of T1D indicates that islets are destroyed by the relentless attack by autoreactive immune cells evolving from an aberrant action of the innate, in addition to adaptive, immune system that produces islet-toxic cytokines, chemokines, and other effectors of islet inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that targeting nuclear import of stress-responsive transcription factors evoked by agonist-stimulated innate and adaptive immunity receptors would protect islets from autoimmune destruction.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS - Here we show that a first-in-class inhibitor of nuclear import, cSN50 peptide, affords in vivo islet protection following a 2-day course of intense treatment in NOD mice, which resulted in a diabetes-free state for one year without apparent toxicity. This nuclear import inhibitor precipitously reduces the accumulation of islet-destructive autoreactive lymphocytes while enhancing activation-induced cell death of T and B lymphocytes derived from autoimmune diabetes-prone, non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that develop T1D. Moreover, in this widely used model of human T1D we noted attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in immune cells.
CONCLUSIONS - These results indicate that a novel form of immunotherapy that targets nuclear import can arrest inflammation-driven destruction of insulin-producing beta cells at the site of autoimmune attack within pancreatic islets during the progression of T1D.
RATIONALE - IL-5 is a T helper 2 cytokine important in the trafficking and survival of eosinophils. Because eosinophils can be found in malignant pleural effusions (MPE) from mice and humans, we asked whether IL-5 is involved in the pathogenesis of MPE.
OBJECTIVES - To determine the role of IL-5 in MPE formation.
METHODS - The effects of IL-5 on experimental MPE induced in C57BL/6 mice by intrapleural injection of syngeneic lung (Lewis lung cancer [LLC]) or colon (MC38) adenocarcinoma cells were determined using wild-type (il5(+/+)) and IL-5-deficient (il5⁻(/)⁻) mice, exogenous administration of recombinant mouse (rm) IL-5, and in vivo antibody-mediated neutralization of endogenous IL-5. The direct effects of rmIL-5 on LLC cell proliferation and gene expression in vitro were determined by substrate reduction and microarray.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - Eosinophils and IL-5 were present in human and mouse MPE, but the cytokine was not detected in mouse (LLC) or human (A549) lung and mouse colon (MC38) adenocarcinoma-conditioned medium, suggesting production by host cells in MPE. Compared with il5(+/+) mice, il5⁻(/)⁻ mice showed markedly diminished MPE formation in response to both LLC and MC38 cells. Exogenous IL-5 promoted MPE formation in il5(+/+) and il5⁻(/)⁻ mice, whereas anti-IL-5 antibody treatment limited experimental MPE in il5(+/+) mice. Exogenous IL-5 had no effects on LLC cell proliferation and gene expression; however, IL-5 was found to be responsible for recruitment of eosinophils and tumor-promoting myeloid suppressor cells to MPE in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS - Host-derived IL-5 promotes experimental MPE and may be involved in the pathogenesis of human MPE.
OBJECTIVES - The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between pleural fluid (PF) eosinophilia, and the PF and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-5, eotaxin-2, eotaxin-3, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in patients with post-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) pleural effusions.
DESIGN - A prospective observational study.
SETTING - A tertiary teaching hospital.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - Thirty-eight patients with post-CABG pleural effusions were recruited into the study. An effusion that contained at least 10% eosinophils was called "eosinophilic." The PF and serum levels of the cytokines and VCAM-1 were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS - (1) The number of PF eosinophils significantly correlated with the number of blood eosinophils. (2) PF IL-5 levels were significantly higher than the corresponding serum levels, and there was a significant correlation between the PF and serum IL-5 levels. PF IL-5 levels significantly correlated with the PF eosinophil count, and serum IL-5 levels significantly correlated with the number of blood eosinophils. (3) PF eotaxin-3 levels were significantly higher than serum levels, and PF eotaxin-3 levels significantly correlated with the PF eosinophil count. (4) PF VCAM-1 levels were significantly lower than the corresponding serum levels, and PF VCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in eosinophilic pleural effusions (EPEs) than in non-EPEs.
CONCLUSION - In patients with post-CABG pleural effusions, IL-5 and eotaxin-3 are produced preferentially in the pleural cavity, and they are strongly associated with PF eosinophilia.