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Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has increased in Western countries due to the prevalence of obesity. Current interests are aimed at identifying the type and function of immune cells that infiltrate the liver and key factors responsible for mediating their recruitment and activation in NASH. We investigated the function and phenotype of CD8 T cells under obese and nonobese NASH conditions. We found an elevation in CD8 staining in livers from obese human subjects with NASH and cirrhosis that positively correlated with α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. CD8 T cells were elevated 3.5-fold in the livers of obese and hyperlipidemic NASH mice compared with obese hepatic steatosis mice. Isolated hepatic CD8 T cells from these mice expressed a cytotoxic IL-10-expressing phenotype, and depletion of CD8 T cells led to significant reductions in hepatic inflammation, HSC activation, and macrophage accumulation. Furthermore, hepatic CD8 T cells from obese and hyperlipidemic NASH mice activated HSCs in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in the lean NASH mouse model, depletion and knockdown of CD8 T cells did not impact liver inflammation or HSC activation. We demonstrated that under obese/hyperlipidemia conditions, CD8 T cell are key regulators of the progression of NASH, while under nonobese conditions they play a minimal role in driving the disease. Thus, therapies targeting CD8 T cells may be a novel approach for treatment of obesity-associated NASH. Our study demonstrates that CD8 T cells are the primary hepatic T cell population, are elevated in obese models of NASH, and directly activate hepatic stellate cells. In contrast, we find CD8 T cells from lean NASH models do not regulate NASH-associated inflammation or stellate cell activation. Thus, for the first time to our knowledge, we demonstrate that hepatic CD8 T cells are key players in obesity-associated NASH.
Acute myocardial infarction (MI) provokes an inflammatory response in the heart that removes damaged tissues to facilitate tissue repair/regeneration. However, overactive and prolonged inflammation compromises healing, which may be counteracted by antiinflammatory mechanisms. A key regulatory factor in an inflammatory response is the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10, which can be produced by a number of immune cells, including subsets of B lymphocytes. Here, we investigated IL-10-producing B cells in pericardial adipose tissues (PATs) and their role in the healing process following acute MI in mice. We found that IL-10-producing B cells were enriched in PATs compared to other adipose depots throughout the body, with the majority of them bearing a surface phenotype consistent with CD5 B-1a cells (CD5 B cells). These cells were detected early in life, maintained a steady presence during adulthood, and resided in fat-associated lymphoid clusters. The cytokine IL-33 and the chemokine CXCL13 were preferentially expressed in PATs and contributed to the enrichment of IL-10-producing CD5 B cells. Following acute MI, the pool of CD5 B cells was expanded in PATs. These cells accumulated in the infarcted heart during the resolution of MI-induced inflammation. B cell-specific deletion of IL-10 worsened cardiac function, exacerbated myocardial injury, and delayed resolution of inflammation following acute MI. These results revealed enrichment of IL-10-producing B cells in PATs and a significant contribution of these cells to the antiinflammatory processes that terminate MI-induced inflammation. Together, these findings have identified IL-10-producing B cells as therapeutic targets to improve the outcome of MI.
Chronic inflammation and gut microbiota dysbiosis, in particular the bloom of genotoxin-producing strains, are risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer. Here, we sought to determine whether precision editing of gut microbiota metabolism and composition could decrease the risk for tumor development in mouse models of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Expansion of experimentally introduced strains in the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium colitis model was driven by molybdoenzyme-dependent metabolic pathways. Oral administration of sodium tungstate inhibited molybdoenzymes and selectively decreased gut colonization with genotoxin-producing and other Enterobacteriaceae. Restricting the bloom of Enterobacteriaceae decreased intestinal inflammation and reduced the incidence of colonic tumors in two models of CAC, the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium colitis model and azoxymethane-treated, -deficient mice. We conclude that metabolic targeting of protumoral Enterobacteriaceae during chronic inflammation is a suitable strategy to prevent the development of malignancies arising from gut microbiota dysbiosis.
© 2019 Zhu et al.
The gastric bacterium causes a persistent infection that is directly responsible for gastric ulcers and gastric cancer in some patients and protective against allergic and other immunological disorders in others. The two outcomes of the -host interaction can be modeled in mice that are infected as immunocompetent adults and as neonates, respectively. Here, we have investigated the contribution of the immunomodulator VacA to -specific local and systemic immune responses in both models. We found that neonatally infected mice are colonized at higher levels than mice infected as adults and fail to generate effector T-cell responses to the bacteria; rather, T-cell responses in neonatally infected mice are skewed toward Foxp3-positive (Foxp3) regulatory T cells that are neuropilin negative and express RORγt. We found these peripherally induced regulatory T cells (pTregs) to be enriched, in a VacA-dependent manner, not only in the gastric mucosa but also in the lungs of infected mice. Pulmonary pTreg accumulation was observed in mice that have been infected neonatally with wild-type but not in mice that have been infected as adults or mice infected with a VacA null mutant. Finally, we traced VacA to gastric lamina propria myeloid cells and show that it suppressed interleukin-23 (IL-23) expression by dendritic cells and induced IL-10 and TGF-β expression in macrophages. Taken together, the results are consistent with the idea that creates a tolerogenic environment through its immunomodulator VacA, which skews T-cell responses toward Tregs, favors persistence, and affects immunity at distant sites. has coexisted with humans for at least 60.000 years and has evolved persistence strategies that allow it to evade host immunity and colonize its host for life. The VacA protein is expressed by all strains and is required for high-level persistent infection in experimental mouse models. Here, we show that VacA targets myeloid cells in the gastric mucosa to create a tolerogenic environment that facilitates regulatory T-cell differentiation, while suppressing effector T-cell priming and functionality. Tregs that are induced in the periphery during infection can be found not only in the stomach but also in the lungs of infected mice, where they are likely to affect immune responses to allergens.
Copyright © 2019 Altobelli et al.
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor capable of recognizing multiple pathogen-associated and danger-associated molecular patterns that contributes to the initiation and potentiation of inflammation in many disease processes. During infection, RAGE functions to either exacerbate disease severity or enhance pathogen clearance depending on the pathogen studied. is an opportunistic human pathogen capable of causing severe infections, including pneumonia and sepsis, in impaired hosts. The role of RAGE signaling in response to opportunistic bacterial infections is largely unknown. In murine models of pneumonia, RAGE signaling alters neither inflammation nor bacterial clearance. In contrast, RAGE mice systemically infected with exhibit increased survival and reduced bacterial burdens in the liver and spleen. The increased survival of RAGE mice is associated with increased circulating levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Neutralization of IL-10 in RAGE mice results in decreased survival during systemic infection that mirrors that of wild-type (WT) mice, and exogenous IL-10 administration to WT mice enhances survival in this model. These findings demonstrate the role for RAGE-dependent IL-10 suppression as a key modulator of mortality from Gram-negative sepsis.
Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB is positioned to provide the interface between COPD and carcinogenesis through regulation of chronic inflammation in the lungs. Using a tetracycline-inducible transgenic mouse model that conditionally expresses activated IκB kinase β (IKKβ) in airway epithelium (IKTA), we found that sustained NF-κB signaling results in chronic inflammation and emphysema by 4 months. By 11 months of transgene activation, IKTA mice develop lung adenomas. Investigation of lung inflammation in IKTA mice revealed a substantial increase in M2-polarized macrophages and CD4+/CD25+/FoxP3+ regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs). Depletion of alveolar macrophages in IKTA mice reduced Tregs, increased lung CD8+ lymphocytes, and reduced tumor numbers following treatment with the carcinogen urethane. Alveolar macrophages from IKTA mice supported increased generation of inducible Foxp3+ Tregs ex vivo through expression of TGFβ and IL-10. Targeting of TGFβ and IL-10 reduced the ability of alveolar macrophages from IKTA mice to induce Foxp3 expression on T cells. These studies indicate that sustained activation of NF-κB pathway links COPD and lung cancer through generation and maintenance of a pro-tumorigenic inflammatory environment consisting of alternatively activated macrophages and regulatory T cells.
BACKGROUND & AIMS - Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2, Tnfrsf1b) regulates multiple aspects of immune function, but little is known about its role in the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated whether TNFR2 restricts the activity of specific immune cell subtypes to protect against the development of colitis in mice.
METHODS - Tnfr2(-/-) mice were crossed with interleukin (Il) 10(-/-) mice, which spontaneously develop colitis, to generate Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) mice. Colonic tissues were collected from Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) mice along with Il10(-/-) mice (controls) and analyzed by flow cytometry and histology. Bone marrow was transplanted into Il10(-/-) and Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) mice from Il10(-/-) or Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) donors by intravenous injection. CD8(+) T cells were neutralized in Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) mice by intraperitoneal injection of anti-CD8 or isotype control antibodies. Colitis was induced in Rag2(-/-) mice by intravenous injections of naïve CD8(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 or Tnfr2(-/-) mice.
RESULTS - Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) mice spontaneously developed more severe colitis compared with Il10(-/-) controls, characterized by selective expansion of colonic CD8(+) T cells. Transplantation of TNFR2-deficient bone marrow resulted in significantly increased incidence and severity of colitis. Transcriptome analyses showed that the expression of genes regulated by TNFR2 were specific to CD8(+) T cells and included genes associated with risk for IBD. Depletion of CD8(+) T cells from Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) mice prevented colonic inflammation. Adoptive transfer of TNFR2-null naïve CD8(+) T cells compared with CD8(+) T cells from control mice increased the severity of colitis that developed in Rag2(-/-) mice.
CONCLUSIONS - TNFR2 protects mice from colitis by inhibiting the expansion of colonic CD8(+) T cells. TNFR2 regulates expression of genes that regulate CD8(+) T cells and have been associated with susceptibility to IBD. Disruption in TNFR2 signaling might therefore be associated with pathogenesis. Strategies to increase levels or activity of TNFR2 and thereby reduce the activity of CD8(+) T cells might be developed to treat IBD patients with CD8(+) T cell dysfunction.
Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is an ancient pathogen and a major cause of death worldwide. Although various virulence factors of M. tuberculosis have been identified, its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. TlyA is a virulence factor in several bacterial infections and is evolutionarily conserved in many Gram-positive bacteria, but its function in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we report that TlyA significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis. We show that a TlyA mutant M. tuberculosis strain induces increased IL-12 and reduced IL-1β and IL-10 cytokine responses, which sharply contrasts with the immune responses induced by wild type M. tuberculosis. Furthermore, compared with wild type M. tuberculosis, TlyA-deficient M. tuberculosis bacteria are more susceptible to autophagy in macrophages. Consequently, animals infected with the TlyA mutant M. tuberculosis organisms exhibited increased host-protective immune responses, reduced bacillary load, and increased survival compared with animals infected with wild type M. tuberculosis. Thus, M. tuberculosis employs TlyA as a host evasion factor, thereby contributing to its virulence.
© 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Apart from their role in humoral immunity, B cells can exhibit IL-10-dependent regulatory activity (Bregs). These regulatory subpopulations have been shown to inhibit inflammation and allograft rejection. However, our understanding of Bregs has been hampered by their rarity, lack of a specific marker, and poor insight into their induction and maintenance. We previously demonstrated that T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-1 (TIM-1) identifies over 70% of IL-10-producing B cells, irrespective of other markers. We now show that TIM-1 is the primary receptor responsible for Breg induction by apoptotic cells (ACs). However, B cells that express a mutant form of TIM-1 lacking the mucin domain (TIM-1(Δmucin) ) exhibit decreased phosphatidylserine binding and are unable to produce IL-10 in response to ACs or by specific ligation with anti-TIM-1. TIM-1(Δmucin) mice also exhibit accelerated allograft rejection, which appears to be due in part to their defect in both baseline and induced IL-10(+) Bregs, since a single transfer of WT TIM-1(+) B cells can restore long-term graft survival. These data suggest that TIM-1 signaling plays a direct role in Breg maintenance and induction both under physiological conditions (in response to ACs) and in response to therapy through TIM-1 ligation. Moreover, they directly demonstrate that the mucin domain regulates TIM-1 signaling.
© Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
T cell Ig and mucin domain (Tim)-1 identifies IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs). Mice on the C57BL/6 background harboring a loss-of-function Tim-1 mutant showed progressive loss of IL-10 production in B cells and with age developed severe multiorgan tissue inflammation. We demonstrate that Tim-1 expression and signaling in Bregs are required for optimal production of IL-10. B cells with Tim-1 defects have impaired IL-10 production but increased proinflammatory cytokine production, including IL-1 and IL-6. Tim-1-deficient B cells promote Th1 and Th17 responses but inhibit the generation of regulatory T cells (Foxp3(+) and IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells) and enhance the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Mechanistically, Tim-1 on Bregs is required for apoptotic cell (AC) binding to Bregs and for AC-induced IL-10 production in Bregs. Treatment with ACs reduces the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in hosts with wild-type but not Tim-1-deficient Bregs. Collectively, these findings suggest that in addition to serving as a marker for identifying IL-10-producing Bregs, Tim-1 is also critical for maintaining self-tolerance by regulating IL-10 production in Bregs.
Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.