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Heightened interest in sensory function in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) presents an unprecedented opportunity for impactful, interdisciplinary work between neuroscientists and clinical practitioners for whom sensory processing is a focus. In spite of this promise, and a number of overlapping perspectives on sensory function in persons with ASD, neuroscientists and clinical practitioners are faced with significant practical barriers to transcending disciplinary silos. These barriers include divergent goals, values, and approaches that shape each discipline, as well as different lexical conventions. This commentary is itself an interdisciplinary effort to describe the shared perspectives, and to conceptualize a framework that may guide future investigation in this area. We summarize progress to date and issue a call for clinical practitioners and neuroscientists to expand cross-disciplinary dialogue and to capitalize on the complementary strengths of each field to unveil the links between neural and behavioral manifestations of sensory differences in persons with ASD. Joining forces to face these challenges in a truly interdisciplinary way will lead to more clinically informed neuroscientific investigation of sensory function, and better translation of those findings to clinical practice. Likewise, a more coordinated effort may shed light not only on how current approaches to treating sensory processing differences affect brain and behavioral responses to sensory stimuli in individuals with ASD, but also on whether such approaches translate to gains in broader characteristics associated with ASD. It is our hope that such interdisciplinary undertakings will ultimately converge to improve assessment and interventions for persons with ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 920-925. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
© 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
OBJECTIVE - The study goal is to highlight strategies for promoting relevance of research capacity-building efforts targeting community organizations (CO)s.
METHODS - Two community partners, representing two COs, were invited to participate in CO research development trainings, Community Research Forums (Forum)s. Their contributions were documented via Forum document review. Forum participants, representatives from other COs, completed post-Forum surveys to identify additional training needs and rate Forum impact relative to their training expectations. A content-based analysis and descriptive statistics were used to summarize needs assessment- and impact-related survey responses, respectively.
RESULTS - Community partners were involved in eight Forum-related activities including marketing (planning), facilitation (implementation), and manuscript coauthorship (dissemination). Eighty-one individuals, representing 55 COs, attended the Forums. Needs assessment responses revealed a desire for additional assistance with existing Forum topics (e.g., defining research priorities) and a need for new ones (e.g., promoting organizational buy in for research). Ninety-one percent of participants agreed that the Forum demonstrated the value of research to COs and how to create a research agenda.
CONCLUSIONS - Including community partners in all Forum phases ensured that CO perspectives were integrated throughout. Post-Forum needs and impact assessment results will help in tailoring, where needed, future training topics and strategies, respectively.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
BACKGROUND - Early preparation for renal replacement therapy (RRT) is recommended for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet many patients initiate RRT urgently and/or are inadequately prepared.
METHODS - We conducted audio-recorded, qualitative, directed telephone interviews of nephrology health care providers (n = 10, nephrologists, physician assistants, and nurses) and primary care physicians (PCPs, n = 4) to identify modifiable challenges to optimal RRT preparation to inform future interventions. We recruited providers from public safety-net hospital-based and community-based nephrology and primary care practices. We asked providers open-ended questions to assess their perceived challenges and their views on the role of PCPs and nephrologist-PCP collaboration in patients' RRT preparation. Two independent and trained abstractors coded transcribed audio-recorded interviews and identified major themes.
RESULTS - Nephrology providers identified several factors contributing to patients' suboptimal RRT preparation, including health system resources (e.g., limited time for preparation, referral process delays, and poorly integrated nephrology and primary care), provider skills (e.g., their difficulty explaining CKD to patients), and patient attitudes and cultural differences (e.g., their poor understanding and acceptance of their CKD and its treatment options, their low perceived urgency for RRT preparation; their negative perceptions about RRT, lack of trust, or language differences). PCPs desired more involvement in preparation to ensure RRT transitions could be as "smooth as possible", including providing patients with emotional support, helping patients weigh RRT options, and affirming nephrologist recommendations. Both nephrology providers and PCPs desired improved collaboration, including better information exchange and delineation of roles during the RRT preparation process.
CONCLUSIONS - Nephrology and primary care providers identified health system resources, provider skills, and patient attitudes and cultural differences as challenges to patients' optimal RRT preparation. Interventions to improve these factors may improve patients' preparation and initiation of optimal RRTs.
The Society for Vascular Medicine was founded in 1989. During the subsequent 25 years, the Society has grown to approximately 500 members and has achieved international recognition while making important contributions to vascular disease education, clinical vascular medicine and biology research, and patient care. In celebration of the Society's 25th anniversary, its past and current presidents reflect on the Society's history, challenges, and achievements, and emphasize the vital role of the SVM in the discipline of vascular medicine.
© The Author(s) 2015.
BACKGROUND - Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of genetic variants associated with specific cancers. A few of these risk regions have been associated with more than one cancer site; however, a systematic evaluation of the associations between risk variants for other cancers and lung cancer risk has yet to be performed.
METHODS - We included 18023 patients with lung cancer and 60543 control subjects from two consortia, Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) and Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung (TRICL). We examined 165 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were previously associated with at least one of 16 non-lung cancer sites. Study-specific logistic regression results underwent meta-analysis, and associations were also examined by race/ethnicity, histological cell type, sex, and smoking status. A Bonferroni-corrected P value of 2.5×10(-5) was used to assign statistical significance.
RESULTS - The breast cancer SNP LSP1 rs3817198 was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 to 1.14; P = 2.8×10(-6)). This association was strongest for women with adenocarcinoma (P = 1.2×10(-4)) and not statistically significant in men (P = .14) with this cell type (P het by sex = .10). Two glioma risk variants, TERT rs2853676 and CDKN2BAS1 rs4977756, which are located in regions previously associated with lung cancer, were associated with increased risk of adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.22; P = 1.1×10(-8)) and squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 1.13; CI = 1.07 to 1.19; P = 2.5×10(-5)), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS - Our findings demonstrate a novel pleiotropic association between the breast cancer LSP1 risk region marked by variant rs3817198 and lung cancer risk.
OBJECT - Recent legislation and media coverage have heightened awareness of concussion in youth sports. Previous work by the authors' group defined significant variation of care in management of children with concussion. To address this variation, a multidisciplinary concussion program was established based on a uniform management protocol, with emphasis on community outreach via traditional media sources and the Internet. This retrospective study evaluates the impact of standardization of concussion care and resource utilization before and after standardization in a large regional pediatric hospital center.
METHODS - This retrospective study included all patients younger than 18 years of age evaluated for sports-related concussion between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2011. Emergency department, sports medicine, and neurosurgery records were reviewed. Data collected included demographics, injury details, clinical course, Sports Concussion Assessment Tool-2 (SCAT2) scores, imaging, discharge instructions, and referral for specialty care. The cohort was analyzed comparing patients evaluated before and after standardization of care.
RESULTS - Five hundred eighty-nine patients were identified, including 270 before standardization (2007-2011) and 319 after standardization (2011-2012). Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001) were observed between the 2 groups for multiple variables: there were more girls, more first-time concussions, fewer initial presentations to the emergency department, more consistent administration of the SCAT2, and more consistent supervision of return to play and return to think after adoption of the protocol.
CONCLUSIONS - A combination of increased public awareness and legislation has led to a 5-fold increase in the number of youth athletes presenting for concussion evaluation at the authors' center. Establishment of a multidisciplinary clinic with a standardized protocol resulted in significantly decreased institutional resource utilization and more consistent concussion care for this growing patient population.
BACKGROUND - In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Surgery Residency Review Committee first provided guidelines for elective international general surgery rotations. The Vanderbilt general surgery residency program received Surgery Residency Review Committee approval for a fourth-year elective in Kenya beginning in the 2011-2012 academic year. Because this rotation would break ground culturally and geographically, and as an educational partnership, a briefing and debriefing process was developed for this ground-breaking year.
OBJECTIVES - Our objectives were to prepare residents to maximize the experience without competing for cases with local trainees or overburdening the host institution and to perform continuous quality assessment and improvement as each resident returned back.
METHODS - Briefing included health protection strategies, a procedures manual containing step-by-step preparation activities, and cultural-sensitivity training. Institutional Review Board exemption approval was obtained to administer a questionnaire created for returning residents concerning educational value, relations with local trainees, physical environment, and personal perceptions that would provide the scaffold for the debriefing conference.
RESULTS - The questionnaire coupled with the debriefing discussion for the first 9 participants revealed overall satisfaction with the rotation and the briefing process, good health, and no duty hours or days-off issues. Other findings include the following: (1) emotional effect of observing African families weigh cost in medical decision making; (2) satisfactory access to educational resources; (3) significant exposure to specialties such as urology and radiology; and (4) toleration of 4 weeks as a single and expressed need for leisure activity materials such as books, DVDs, or games. The responses triggered adjustments in the briefing sessions and travel preparation. The host institution invited the residents to return for the 2012-2013 year as well as 2013-2014.
CONCLUSION - Detailed preparation and the follow-up evaluation for assessment and improvement of this nascent international surgery experience are associated with resident satisfaction and the host institution has agreed to continue the rotation.
Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. All rights reserved.
The National Kidney Foundation and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) convened a symposium in September 2010, bringing together more than 70 experts, including representatives from the FDA, the National Institutes of Health, the Critical Path Institute, nephrologists, patients, and the pharmaceutical industry to discuss the feasibility and process of developing patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures to access how patients feel or function to be used in clinical trials for regulatory review of treatment benefit. Three disease areas were evaluated for development of end point models in which PRO measures may be useful: anemia secondary to chronic kidney disease, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and nephrotic syndrome. The participants thought it valuable to use observational data to generate hypotheses regarding patient baseline characteristics that are likely to predict clinically important changes in PROs in response to anemia treatment and to design adequately powered blinded randomized controlled trials of anemia treatment using PROs as primary rather than secondary end points. Validated PRO instruments that reflect the patient experience in ADPKD and nephrotic syndrome are essential to incorporate into clinical trials of new therapeutic interventions because glomerular filtration rate decline may occur late in the disease course, at which point therapeutic benefit is less likely. Conference attendees addressed how PRO measures could be used to evaluate, monitor, provide care, and facilitate the introduction of treatments for patients with these challenging conditions.
Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Increasingly, national programs and leaders are looking at interdisciplinary collaborations as essential to future research. Twelve years ago, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) developed and implemented the Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health (BIRCWH) K12 program to focus on interdisciplinary mentored career development for junior faculty in women's health research.
METHODS - We applied a mixed-methods approach using an electronic survey and in-person presentations and discussions to understand best practices and lessons learned for interdisciplinary mentoring across BIRCWH K12 program leaders.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - We received responses from all 29 active BIRCWH programs. Factors associated with success included ensuring sufficient protected time for regular (weekly or biweekly) mentoring; mentors promoting the research independence of the Scholar; a team mentoring approach, including career as well as content mentors; and explicit and clear expectations outlined between the Scholar and mentor. The majority of programs conduct formal evaluations of mentorship, and 79% of programs offer training in mentorship for either Scholars, mentors, or both. This article presents program leaders' best practices, challenges, and lessons learned from mentoring junior faculty who are conducting women's health research, whether basic, clinical, behavioral, translational, or health services research, using an interdisciplinary mentoring approach.