The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS - Neonatal patients requiring prolonged intubation are susceptible to both infection and laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS). This study investigated the effect of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) on the development of LTS in neonates.
STUDY DESIGN - Retrospective case-control study.
METHODS - The incidence of LTS in neonates with VAP was compared with the incidence of LTS in matched intubated controls without VAP. Patients were treated at a tertiary-care medical center from 2004 to 2014. Eligible patient records were assessed for the development of LTS. Demographics, medical comorbidities, infection characteristics, and treatment variables were compared using unpaired t test or χ test. Statistical significance was set a priori at P < .05.
RESULTS - When comparing the VAP patients with matched non-VAP controls, we found no significant differences in the incidence of LTS (VAP vs. non-VAP, 8.3% vs. 6.7%; P = .73). In subgroup analysis of the VAP cohort, LTS and non-LTS patients demonstrated similar VAP organisms on broncho-alveolar lavage (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterobacter). Additionally, within the VAP cohort, LTS and non-LTS patients showed similar gestational age (LTS vs. non-LTS, 31.3 days vs. 28.1 days; P = .22), birth weight (LTS vs. non-LTS, 1.6 kg vs. 1.2 kg; P = .33), and similar intubation duration (LTS vs. non-LTS, 37.8 days vs. 27.5 days; P = .52).
CONCLUSIONS - In this neonatal cohort, VAP was not associated with an increased incidence of LTS. Given severity of the burden of LTS on the healthcare system, multi-institutional longitudinal investigation into contributing risk factors for neonatal LTS is warranted.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE - NA Laryngoscope, 130:2252-2255, 2020.
© 2019 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
BACKGROUND - Pediatric acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and length of stay. We performed a pragmatic randomized trial testing the hypothesis that AKI risk alerts increase AKI screening.
METHODS - All intensive care and ward admissions of children aged 28 days through 21 years without chronic kidney disease from 12/6/2016 to 11/1/2017 were included. The intervention alert displayed if calculated AKI risk was > 50% and no serum creatinine (SCr) was ordered within 24 h. The primary outcome was SCr testing within 48 h of AKI risk > 50%.
RESULTS - Among intensive care admissions, 973/1909 (51%) were randomized to the intervention. Among those at risk, more SCr tests were ordered for the intervention group than for controls (418/606, 69% vs. 361/597, 60%, p = 0.002). AKI incidence and severity were the same in intervention and control groups. Among ward admissions, 5492/10997 (50%) were randomized to the intervention, and there were no differences between groups in SCr testing, AKI incidence, or severity of AKI.
CONCLUSIONS - Alerts based on real-time prediction of AKI risk increased screening rates in intensive care but not pediatric ward settings. Pragmatic clinical trials provide the opportunity to assess clinical decision support and potentially eliminate ineffective alerts.
INTRODUCTION - Respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation accounts for a significant proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. Little attention has been paid to the laryngeal consequences of endotracheal intubation. Acute laryngeal injury (ALgI) after intubation occurs at the mucosal interface of the endotracheal tube and posterior larynx and although not immediately manifest at extubation, can progress to mature fibrosis, restricted glottic mobility and clinically significant ventilatory impairment. A recent prospective observational study has shown that >50% of patients intubated >24 hours in an ICU develop ALgI. Strikingly, patients with AlgI manifest significantly worse subjective breathing at 12 weeks. Current ALgI treatments are largely surgical yet offer a marginal improvement in symptoms. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A prospective, single-centre, double-blinded, randomised, control trial will be conducted at Vanderbilt Medical Center. Participants will be recruited from adult patients in ICUs. Participants will undergo a bedside flexible nasolaryngoscopy for the identification of ALgI within 72 hours postextubation. In addition, participants will be asked to complete peak expiratory flow measurements immediately postintubation. Patients found to have ALgI will be randomised to the placebo control or medical therapy group (azithromycin 250 mg and budesonide 0.5 mg for 14 days). Repeat peak expiratory flow, examination of the larynx and patient-reported Clinical COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Questionnaire, Voice Handicap Index and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaires will be conducted at 12 weeks postextubation. Consented patients will also have patient-specific, disease-specific and procedure-specific covariates abstracted from their medical record.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION - The Institutional Review Board (IRB) Committee of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center has approved this protocol (IRB #171066). The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER - NCT03250975.
© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
Inhalation injury is independently associated with burn mortality, yet little information is available on the incidence, risk factors, or functional outcomes of thermal injury to the airway. In patients with thermal inhalation injury, we sought to define the incidence of laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS), delineate risk factors associated with LTS development, and assess long-term tracheostomy dependence as a proxy for laryngeal function. Retrospective cohort study of adult patients treated for thermal inhalation injury at a single institution burn critical care unit from 2012 to 2017. Eligible patients' records were assessed for LTS (laryngeal, subglottic, or tracheal stenosis). Patient characteristics, burn injury characteristics, and treatment-specific covariates were assessed. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U-tests, odds ratio, and chi-square tests compared LTS versus non-LTS groups. Of 129 patients with thermal inhalation injury during the study period, 8 (6.2%) developed LTS. When compared with the non-LTS group, patients with LTS had greater mean TBSA (mean 30.3, Interquartile Range 7-57.5 vs 10.5, Interquartile Range 0-15.12, P = .01), higher grade of inhalation injury (mean 2.63 vs 1.80, P = .05), longer duration of intubation (12.63 vs 5.44; P < .001), and greater inflammatory response (mean white blood cell count on presentation 25.8 vs 14.9, P = .02, mean hyperglycemia on presentation 176.4 vs 136.9, P = .01). LTS patients had a significantly higher rate of tracheostomy dependence at last follow-up (50 vs 1.7%, P < .001). Six percent of patients with thermal inhalation injury develop LTS. LTS was associated with more severe thermal airway injury, longer duration of intubation, and more severe initial host inflammation. Patients with inhalation injury and LTS are at high risk for tracheostomy dependence. In burn patients with thermal inhalation injury, laryngeal evaluation and directed therapy should be incorporated early into multispecialty pathways of care.
© American Burn Association 2019. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Importance - Whether low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are associated with increased risk of sepsis and poorer outcomes is unknown.
Objective - To examine the association between LDL-C levels and risk of sepsis among patients admitted to the hospital with infection.
Design, Setting, and Participants - Cohort study in which deidentified electronic health records were used to define a cohort of patients admitted to Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, with infection. Patients were white adults, had a code indicating infection from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, and received an antibiotic within 1 day of hospital admission (N = 61 502). Data were collected from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 2017, and analyzed from January 24 through October 31, 2018.
Interventions - Clinically measured LDL-C levels (excluding measurements <1 year before hospital admission and those associated with acute illness) and a genetic risk score (GRS).
Main Outcomes and Measures - The primary outcome was sepsis; secondary outcomes included admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and in-hospital death.
Results - Among the 3961 patients with clinically measured LDL-C levels (57.8% women; mean [SD] age, 64.1 [15.9] years) and the 7804 with a GRS for LDL-C (54.0% men; mean [SD] age, 59.8 [15.2] years), lower measured LDL-C levels were significantly associated with increased risk of sepsis (odds ratio [OR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.94; P = .001) and ICU admission (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96; P = .008), but not in-hospital mortality (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.63-1.00; P = .06); however, none of these associations were statistically significant after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidity variables (OR for risk of sepsis, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.88-1.06]; OR for ICU admission, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.83-1.06]; OR for in-hospital death, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.76-1.22]; P > .05 for all). The LDL-C GRS correlated with measured LDL-C levels (r = 0.24; P < 2.2 × 10-16) but was not significantly associated with any of the outcomes.
Conclusions and Relevance - Results of this study suggest that lower measured LDL-C levels were significantly associated with increased risk of sepsis and admission to ICU in patients admitted to the hospital with infection; however, this association was due to comorbidities because both clinical models adjusted for confounders, and the genetic model showed no increased risk. Levels of LDL-C do not appear to directly alter the risk of sepsis or poor outcomes in patients hospitalized with infection.
BACKGROUND - Prior retrospective cross-sectional work has associated antimicrobials with a non-specific phrase: encephalopathy without seizures. The purpose of this study is to determine whether different classes of antimicrobials have differential associations with the daily risk of delirium after critical illness is adjusted for.
METHODS - Our study was a nested cohort that enrolled non-neurological critically ill adults from a medical or surgical intensive care unit (ICU) with daily follow-up to 30 days. Our independent variable was exposure to previous-day antimicrobial class: beta-lactams (subclasses: penicillins, first- to third-generation cephalosporins, fourth-generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems), macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and other. We adjusted for baseline covariates (age, comorbidities, cognition scores, sepsis, and mechanical ventilation), previous-day covariates (delirium, doses of analgesics/sedatives, and antipsychotic use), and same-day covariates (illness severity). Our primary outcome of delirium was measured by using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. A daily delirium logistic regression model was used with an ICU time-restricted sensitivity analysis including daily adjustment for sepsis and mechanical ventilation.
RESULTS - Of 418 ICU patients, delirium occurred in 308 (74%) with a median of 3 days (interquartile range 2-6) among those affected and 318 (76%) were exposed to antimicrobials. When covariates and ICU type were adjusted for, only first- to third-generation cephalosporins were associated with delirium (logistic regression model odds ratio (OR) = 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-3.79, P = 0.004; sensitivity analysis OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.10-4.10, P = 0.024).
CONCLUSIONS - First-, second-, and third-generation cephalosporins doubled the odds of delirium after baseline co-morbidities, ICU type, the course of critical care, and other competing antimicrobial and psychotropic medication risks were adjusted for. We did not find an association between delirium and cefepime, penicillins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, or macrolides.
OBJECTIVE - To determine whether deficits in a key aspect of executive functioning, namely, initiation, were associated with current and future functional disabilities in intensive care unit survivors.
METHODS - A nested substudy within a 2-center prospective observational cohort. We used 3 tests of initiation at 3 and 12 months: the Ruff Total Unique Design, Controlled Oral Word Association, and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function initiation. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was measured with the Functional Activities Questionnaire. We used a proportional odds logistic regression model to evaluate the association between initiation and disability. Covariates in the model included age, education, baseline Functional Activities Questionnaire, pre-existing cognitive impairment, comorbidities, admission severity of illness, episodes of hypoxia, and days of severe sepsis.
RESULTS - In 195 patients, after adjusting for covariates, only the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function initiation was associated with disability at any time point. Comparing the 25th vs the 75th percentile scores (95% confidence interval) of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function initiation at 3 months, patients with worse initiation scores had 5.062 times the odds (95% confidence interval: 2.539, 10.092) of disability according to the Functional Activities Questionnaire at 3 months, with similar odds at 12 months (odds ratio: 3.476, 95% confidence interval: 1.943, 6.216). Worse Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function initiation scores at 3 months were associated with future disability at 12 months odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 5.079 (2.579, 10.000).
CONCLUSIONS - Executive function deficits acquired after a critical illness in the domain of initiation are common in intensive care unit survivors, and when they are identified via self-report tools, they are associated with current and future disability in instrumental activities of daily living.
Copyright © 2018 Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. All rights reserved.
RATIONALE - Intensive care unit (ICU) delirium is highly prevalent and a potentially avoidable hospital complication. The current cost of ICU delirium is unknown.
OBJECTIVES - To specify the association between the daily occurrence of delirium in the ICU with costs of ICU care accounting for time-varying illness severity and death.
RESEARCH DESIGN - We performed a prospective cohort study within medical and surgical ICUs in a large academic medical center.
SUBJECTS - We analyzed critically ill patients (N=479) with respiratory failure and/or shock.
MEASURES - Covariates included baseline factors (age, insurance, cognitive impairment, comorbidities, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II Score) and time-varying factors (sequential organ failure assessment score, mechanical ventilation, and severe sepsis). The primary analysis used a novel 3-stage regression method: first, estimation of the cumulative cost of delirium over 30 ICU days and then costs separated into those attributable to increased resource utilization among survivors and those that were avoided on the account of delirium's association with early mortality in the ICU.
RESULTS - The patient-level 30-day cumulative cost of ICU delirium attributable to increased resource utilization was $17,838 (95% confidence interval, $11,132-$23,497). A combination of professional, dialysis, and bed costs accounted for the largest percentage of the incremental costs associated with ICU delirium. The 30-day cumulative incremental costs of ICU delirium that were avoided due to delirium-associated early mortality was $4654 (95% confidence interval, $2056-7869).
CONCLUSIONS - Delirium is associated with substantial costs after accounting for time-varying illness severity and could be 20% higher (∼$22,500) if not for its association with early ICU mortality.
OBJECTIVES - The Society of Critical Care Medicine recommends routine delirium monitoring, based on data in critically ill patients without primary neurologic injury. We sought to answer whether there are valid and reliable tools to monitor delirium in neurocritically ill patients and whether delirium is associated with relevant clinical outcomes (e.g., survival, length of stay, functional independence, cognition) in this population.
DATA SOURCES - We systematically reviewed Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, and PubMed.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION - Inclusion criteria allowed any study design investigating delirium monitoring in neurocritically ill patients (e.g., neurotrauma, ischemic, and/or hemorrhagic stroke) of any age. We extracted data relevant to delirium tool sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, interrater reliability, and associated clinical outcomes.
DATA SYNTHESIS - Among seven prospective cohort studies and a total of 1,173 patients, delirium was assessed in neurocritically patients using validated delirium tools after considering primary neurologic diagnoses and associated complications, finding a pooled prevalence rate of 12-43%. When able to compare against a common reference standard, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, the test characteristics showed a sensitivity of 62-76%, specificity of 74-98%, positive predictive value of 63-91%, negative predictive value of 70-94%, and reliability kappa of 0.64-0.94. Among four studies reporting multivariable analyses, delirium in neurocritically patients was associated with increased hospital length of stay (n = 3) and ICU length of stay (n = 1), as well as worse functional independence (n = 1) and cognition (n = 2), but not survival.
CONCLUSIONS - These data from studies of neurocritically ill patients demonstrate that patients with primary neurologic diagnoses can meet diagnostic criteria for delirium and that delirious features may predict relevant untoward clinical outcomes. There is a need for ongoing investigations regarding delirium in these complicated neurocritically ill patients.