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Metastasis is the main cause of death in cancer patients, and understanding mechanisms that control tumor cell dissemination may lead to improved therapy. Tumor cell adhesion receptors contribute to cancer spreading. We noted earlier that tumor cells can expressing the adhesion receptor integrin αvβ3 in distinct states of activation, and found that cells which metastasize from the blood stream express it in a constitutively high affinity form. Here, we analyzed steps of the metastatic cascade in vivo and asked, when and how the affinity state of integrin αvβ3 confers a critical advantage to cancer spreading. Following tumor cells by real time PCR, non-invasive bioluminescence imaging, intravital microscopy and histology allowed us to identify tumor cell extravasation from the blood stream as a rate-limiting step supported by high affinity αvβ3. Successful transendothelial migration depended on cooperation between tumor cells and platelets involving the high affinity tumor cell integrin and release of platelet granules. Thus, this study identifies the high affinity conformer of integrin αvβ3 and its interaction with platelets as critical for early steps during hematogenous metastasis and target for prevention of metastatic disease.
© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The current paradigm suggests that Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) adheres to host cells via the outer membrane proteins Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) or invasin (Inv) to facilitate injection of Yops by the type III secretion system. In this process Inv binds directly to β1 integrins of host cells while YadA may bind indirectly via extracellular matrix proteins to β1 integrins. Here we challenged this paradigm and investigated the requirements for Yop injection. We demonstrate that Inv- but not YadA-mediated adhesion depends on β1 integrin binding and activation, and that tight adhesion is a prerequisite for Yop injection. By means of novel transgenic cell lines, shRNA approaches and RGD peptides, we found that YadA, in contrast to Inv, may use a broad host cell receptor repertoire for host cell adhesion. In the absence of β1 integrins, YadA mediates Yop injection by interaction with αV integrins in cooperation with yet unknown cofactors expressed by epithelial cells, but not fibroblasts. Electron microscopic and flow chamber studies revealed that a defined intimate contact area between Ye and host cells resulting in adhesion forces resisting shear stress is required for Yop injection. Thus, the indirect binding of YadA to a broad extracellular matrix (ECM) binding host cell receptor repertoire of different cell types makes YadA a versatile tool to ensure Yop injection. In conclusion, given the differential expression of the outer membrane proteins Inv and YadA in the course of Ye infection and differential expression of integrins by various host cell populations, the data demonstrate that Ye is flexibly armed to accomplish Yop injection in different host cell types, a central event in its immune evasion strategy.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vitronectin (Vtn) is a glycoprotein found in normal serum and pathological extracellular matrix. Given its known interactions with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and Vtn cellular receptors, especially αvβ3 integrin and the urokinase receptor (uPAR), this study was designed to investigate its role in renal fibrogenesis in the mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Kidney Vtn mRNA levels were increased ×1.8-5.1 and Vtn protein levels ×1.9-3 on days 7, 14, and 21 after UUO compared with sham kidney levels. Groups of age-matched C57BL/6 wild-type (Vtn+/+) and Vtn-/- mice (n = 10-11/group) were killed 7, 14, or 21 days after UUO. Absence of Vtn resulted in the following significant differences, but only on day 14: fewer αSMA+ interstitial myofibroblasts (×0.53), lower procollagen III mRNA levels (×0.41), lower PAI-1 protein (×0.23), higher uPA activity (×1.1), and lower αv protein (×0.32). The number of CD68+ macrophages did not differ between the genotypes. Despite these transient differences on day 14, the absence of Vtn had no effect on fibrosis severity based on both picrosirius red-positive interstitial area and total kidney collagen measured by the hydroxyproline assay. These findings suggest that despite significant interstitial Vtn deposition in the UUO model of chronic kidney disease, its fibrogenic role is either nonessential or redundant. These data are remarkable given Vtn's strong affinity for the potent fibrogenic molecule PAI-1.
TP508, a 23-amino acid RGD-containing synthetic peptide representing residues 508 to 530 of human prothrombin, mitigates the effects of endothelial dysfunction in ischaemic reperfusion injury. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TP508 binds to members of the integrin family of transmembrane receptors leading to nitric oxide synthesis. Immobilised TP508 supported adhesion of endothelial cells and alphavbeta3-expressing human embryonic kidney cells in a dose- and RGD-dependent manner. Soluble TP508 also inhibited cell adhesion to immobilised fibrinogen. The involvement of alphavbeta3 was verified with function-blocking antibodies and surface plasmon resonance studies. Adhesion of the cells to immobilised TP508 resulted in an induction of phosphorylated FAK and ERK1/2. In endothelial cells, TP508 treatment resulted in an induction of nitric oxide that could be inhibited by LM609, an alphavbeta3-specific, function-blocking monoclonal antibody. Finally, TP508 treatment of isolated rat aorta segments enhanced carbachol-induced vasorelaxation. These results suggest that TP508 elicits a potentially therapeutic effect through an RGD-dependent interaction with integrin alphavbeta3.
BACKGROUND - The alpha (v) beta (3) (alpha(v)beta(3)) integrin is involved in intracellular signaling regulating cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation and is important for tumor-induced angiogenesis.
METHODS - This phase 2, randomized, open-label, 2-arm study was designed to capture safety data and evaluate the antitumor efficacy of etaracizumab (Abegrin), an IgG1 humanized monoclonal antibody against the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin, in patients with previously untreated metastatic melanoma. The objective was to evaluate whether etaracizumab + or - dacarbazine had sufficient clinical activity to warrant further study in a phase 3 clinical trial.
RESULTS - One hundred twelve patients were randomized to receive etaracizumab alone (N = 57) or etaracizumab + dacarbazine (N = 55). Safety of etaracizumab + or - dacarbazine was acceptable with infusion-related, gastrointestinal, and metabolic reactions being the most common adverse events (AEs). The majority of AEs were grade 1 or 2 in severity in both study arms; most events were not considered serious, except for cardiovascular (myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation) and thromboembolic events, which occurred in 3 and 5 patients, respectively. None of the patients in the etaracizumab-alone study arm and 12.7% of patients in the etaracizumab + dacarbazine study arm achieved an objective response. The median duration of objective response in the etaracizumab + dacarbazine study arm was 4.2 months. Stable disease rate, time to progression (TTP), and progression-free survival (PFS) appeared to be similar between the 2 treatment arms. Stable disease occurred in 45.6% of patients in the etaracizumab-alone study arm and 40.0% of patients in the etaracizumab + dacarbazine study arm. Median TTP and median PFS were both 1.8 months in the etaracizumab-alone study arm and 2.5 and 2.6 months in the etaracizumab + dacarbazine study arm, respectively. Median overall survival was 12.6 months in the etaracizumab-alone study arm and 9.4 months in the etaracizumab + dacarbazine study arm.
CONCLUSIONS - The survival results in both treatment arms of this study were considered unlikely to result in clinically meaningful improvement over dacarbazine alone.
Exogenous soluble human alpha3 noncollagenous (NC1) domain of collagen IV inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. These biological functions are attributed to the binding of alpha3NC1 to integrin alphavbeta3. However, in some tumor cells that express integrin alphavbeta3, the alpha3NC1 domain does not inhibit proliferation, suggesting that integrin alphavbeta3 expression is not sufficient to mediate the anti-tumorigenic activity of this domain. Therefore, in the present study, we searched for novel binding receptors for the soluble alpha3NC1 domain in cells lacking alphavbeta3 integrin. In these cells, soluble alpha3NC1 bound integrin alpha3beta1; however, unlike alphavbeta3, alpha3beta1 integrin did not mediate cell adhesion to immobilized alpha3NC1 domain. Interestingly, in cells lacking integrin alpha3beta1, adhesion to the alpha3NC1 domain was enhanced due to activation of integrin alphavbeta3. These findings indicate that integrin alpha3beta1 is a receptor for the alpha3NC1 domain and transdominantly inhibits integrin alphavbeta3 activation. Thus integrin alpha3beta1, in conjunction with integrin alphavbeta3, modulates cellular responses to the alpha3NC1 domain, which may be pivotal in the mechanism underpinning its anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activities.
Perturbation of interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) of renal glomeruli may contribute to characteristic histopathological lesions found in the kidneys of patients with diabetic nephropathy. However, the mechanism by which the diabetic conditions may affect cell-ECM interactions is unknown. Existing hypotheses suggest a role of glucose in direct modification of ECM. Here, we have demonstrated that carbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO) completely inhibited endothelial cell adhesion to recombinant alpha3 noncollagenous 1 domain of type IV collagen mediated via a short collagenous region containing RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence as well as binding of purified alpha(v)beta(3) integrin to this protein. Specific MGO adducts of the arginine residue were detected within RGD sequence using mass spectrometry. Modification by carbonyl compounds glyoxal or glycolaldehyde had similar but smaller effects. MGO strongly inhibited adhesion of renal glomerular cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells to native collagen IV and laminin-1 as well as binding of collagen IV to its major receptor in glomerular cells, alpha(1)beta(1) integrin. In contrast, modification of these proteins by glucose had no effect on cell adhesion. Pyridoxamine, a promising drug for treatment of diabetic nephropathy, protected cell adhesion and integrin binding from inhibition by MGO. We suggest that in diabetes, perturbation of integrin-mediated cell-matrix interactions occurs via the modification of critical arginine residues in renal ECM by reactive carbonyl compounds. This mechanism may contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy.
The CD51 integrin subunit is important in many functions ranging from mediation of adenovirus attachment and internalization to facilitation of angiogenesis. CD51 has also gained interest as an attractive ligand for directed therapy studies, including those for targeted gene delivery. While the function and importance of several CD51-specific targeting molecules have been examined, studies are often carried out without quantitative assessment of the receptor. A lack of this data complicates further mathematical analysis of targeting data and elucidation of the mechanism(s) underlying specific targeting. We performed a quantitative evaluation of CD51 receptors on the surface of HeLa cells, a common cell line utilized in many receptor-based studies, and compared them to other similar and dissimilar cell types. Unstimulated HeLa cells strongly express the CD51 receptor at a level of 212,700 +/- 12,000 (mean +/- SD) antibody binding capacity (ABC) cell(-1) (n = 3). Following irradiation with 3 Gy, receptor expression increases dramatically, peaking at a value of 403,700 +/- 26,400 (n = 4). The utility of this quantitative information is highlighted by the application of our data to targeting studies from the literature. Taken together, the results yield more detailed information than is available with experimental targeting data alone.
The NC1 domains of human type IV collagen, in particular alpha3NC1, are inhibitors of angiogenesis and tumor growth (Petitclerc, E., Boutaud, A., Prestayko, A., Xu, J., Sado, Y., Ninomiya, Y., Sarras, M. P., Jr., Hudson, B. G., and Brooks, P. C. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 8051-8061). The recombinant alpha3NC1 domain contained a RGD site as part of a short collagenous sequence at the N terminus, designated herein as RGD-alpha3NC1. Others, using synthetic peptides, have concluded that this RGD site is nonfunctional in cell adhesion, and therefore, the anti-angiogenic activity is attributed exclusively to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin interactions with non-RGD motifs of the RGD-alpha3NC1 domain (Maeshima, Y., Colorado, P. C., and Kalluri, R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 23745-23750). This nonfunctionality is surprising given that RGD is a binding site for alpha(v)beta(3) integrin in several proteins. In the present study, we used the alpha3NC1 domain with or without the RGD site, expressed in HEK 293 cells for native conformation, as an alternative approach to synthetic peptides to assess the functionality of the RGD site and non-RGD motifs. Our results demonstrate a predominant role of the RGD site for endothelial adhesion and for binding of alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(v)beta(5) integrins. Moreover, we demonstrate that the two non-RGD peptides, previously identified as the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-binding sites of the alpha3NC1 domain, are 10-fold less potent in competing for integrin binding than the native protein, indicating the importance of additional structural and/or conformational features of the alpha3NC1 domain for integrin binding. Therefore, the RGD site, in addition to non-RGD motifs, may contribute to the mechanisms of endothelial cell adhesion in the human vasculature and the anti-angiogenic activity of the RGD-alpha3NC1 domain.
Members of the integrin family influence several aspects of tumor progression and metastasis, including cell survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Specific integrins such as alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(v)beta(5) are involved in regulating endothelial cell function, and thus angiogenesis. We evaluated the effect of the alpha(v)beta(3)/alpha(v)beta(5) integrin antagonist S247 on the growth and angiogenesis of colon cancer liver metastases in an orthotopic murine model. Murine colon cancer cells were injected into the spleens of BALB/c mice to produce liver metastases. On day 7, miniature osmotic pumps were implanted into the subcutis to continuously infuse either saline or 70 mg/kg/day S247. All mice were sacrificed when control mice became moribund. Mice that received S247 developed significantly fewer liver metastases than did controls (P < 0.05). Using the same model, a subsequent survival study was performed. Mice were sacrificed when moribund as determined by an observer blinded to the treatment given. Treatment with S247 significantly prolonged overall survival (P < 0.05). Interestingly, primary tumors in the spleen were the cause of death in the S247-treated group as S247 appeared to have little effect on these tumors. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a significant reduction of vessels in liver metastases of S247-treated mice (P < 0.001), a significant increase in endothelial cell apoptosis (P < 0.05), and a significant decrease in pericyte coverage (P < 0.0001). To determine the role of S247 on angiogenesis, we examined the effect of S247 in vitro on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs). The addition of S247 to HUVECs and hVSMCs growing on vitronectin-coated flasks and in Matrigel significantly impaired cell growth and colony formation, respectively (P < 0.05). Furthermore, S247 completely inhibited the attachment of HUVECs and hVSMCs and increased apoptosis by six- to 9fold compared with controls. In in vitro invasion assays, S247-treated cells demonstrated decreased migration (P < 0.05). In conclusion, S247 demonstrated significant antimetastatic and antiangiogenic activity and impaired both endothelial and hVSMC/pericyte function in vitro and in vivo. The use of agents such as integrin antagonists that target multiple cell types involved in angiogenesis may be a more effective method of inhibiting angiogenesis than agents targeting only the endothelial cells.