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Integrins are transmembrane cell-extracellular matrix adhesion receptors that impact many cellular functions. A subgroup of integrins contain an inserted (I) domain within the α-subunits (αI) that mediate ligand recognition where function is contingent on binding a divalent cation at the metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS). Ca is reported to promote α1I but inhibit α2I ligand binding. We co-crystallized individual I-domains with MIDAS-bound Ca and report structures at 1.4 and 2.15 Å resolution, respectively. Both structures are in the "closed" ligand binding conformation where Ca induces minimal global structural changes. Comparisons with Mg-bound structures reveal Mg and Ca bind α1I in a manner sufficient to promote ligand binding. In contrast, Ca is displaced in the α2I domain MIDAS by 1.4 Å relative to Mg and unable to directly coordinate all MIDAS residues. We identified an E152-R192 salt bridge hypothesized to limit the flexibility of the α2I MIDAS, thus, reducing Ca binding. A α2I E152A construct resulted in a 10,000-fold increase in Mg and Ca binding affinity while increasing binding to collagen ligands 20%. These data indicate the E152-R192 salt bridge is a key distinction in the molecular mechanism of differential ion binding of these two I domains.
OBJECTIVE - Platelets express the α2β1 integrin and the glycoprotein VI (GPVI)/FcRγ complex, both collagen receptors. Understanding platelet-collagen receptor function has been enhanced through use of genetically modified mouse models. Previous studies of GPVI/FcRγ-mediated collagen-induced platelet activation were perfomed with mice in which the FcRγ subunit was genetically deleted (FcRγ-/-) or the complex was depleted. The development of α2β1-/- and GPVI-/- mice permits side-by-side comparison to address contributions of these collagen receptors in vivo and in vitro.
APPROACH AND RESULTS - To understand the different roles played by the α2β1 integrin, the GPVI receptor or FcRγ subunit in collagen-stimulated hemostasis and thrombosis, we compared α2β1-/-, FcRγ-/-, and GPVI-/- mice in models of endothelial injury and intravascular thrombosis in vivo and their platelets in collagen-stimulated activation in vitro. We demonstrate that both the α2β1 integrin and the GPVI receptor, but not the FcRγ subunit influence carotid artery occlusion in vivo. In contrast, the GPVI receptor and the FcRγ chain, but not the α2β1 integrin, play similar roles in intravascular thrombosis in response to soluble Type I collagen. FcRγ-/- platelets showed less attenuation of tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins including RhoGDI when compared to GPVI-/- and wild type platelets. The difference between FcRγ-/- and GPVI-/- platelet phosphotyrosine levels correlated with the in vivo thrombosis findings.
CONCLUSION - Our data demonstrate that genetic deletion of GPVI receptor, FcRγ chain, or the α2β1 integrin changes the thrombotic potentials of these platelets to collagen dependent on the stimulus mechanism. The data suggest that the FcRγ chain may provide a dominant negative effect through modulating signaling pathways in platelets involving several tyrosine phosphorylated proteins such as RhoGDI. In addition, these findings suggest a more complex signaling network downstream of the platelet collagen receptors than previously appreciated.
The α2β1 integrin, also known as VLA-2, GPIa-IIa, CD49b, was first identified as an extracellular matrix receptor for collagens and/or laminins [55, 56]. It is now recognized that the α2β1 integrin serves as a receptor for many matrix and nonmatrix molecules [35, 79, 128]. Extensive analyses have clearly elucidated the α2 I domain structural motifs required for ligand binding, and also defined distinct conformations that lead to inactive, partially active or highly active ligand binding [3, 37, 66, 123, 136, 137, 140]. The mechanisms by which the α2β1 integrin plays a critical role in platelet function and homeostasis have been carefully defined via in vitro and in vivo experiments [76, 104, 117, 125]. Genetic and epidemiologic studies have confirmed human physiology and disease states mediated by this receptor in immunity, cancer, and development [6, 20, 21, 32, 43, 90]. The role of the α2β1 integrin in these multiple complex biologic processes will be discussed in the chapter.
INTRODUCTION - There is a major need to better understand the molecular basis of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in order to develop effective therapeutic strategies. Using gene expression data from 587 TNBC patients we previously identified six subtypes of the disease, among which a mesenchymal-stem like (MSL) subtype. The MSL subtype has significantly higher expression of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway-associated genes relative to other subtypes, including the TGF-β receptor type III (TβRIII). We hypothesize that TβRIII is tumor promoter in mesenchymal-stem like TNBC cells.
METHODS - Representative MSL cell lines SUM159, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 were used to study the roles of TβRIII in the MSL subtype. We stably expressed short hairpin RNAs specific to TβRIII (TβRIII-KD). These cells were then used for xenograft tumor studies in vivo; and migration, invasion, proliferation and three dimensional culture studies in vitro. Furthermore, we utilized human gene expression datasets to examine TβRIII expression patterns across all TNBC subtypes.
RESULTS - TβRIII was the most differentially expressed TGF-β signaling gene in the MSL subtype. Silencing TβRIII expression in MSL cell lines significantly decreased cell motility and invasion. In addition, when TβRIII-KD cells were grown in a three dimensional (3D) culture system or nude mice, there was a loss of invasive protrusions and a significant decrease in xenograft tumor growth, respectively. In pursuit of the mechanistic underpinnings for the observed TβRIII-dependent phenotypes, we discovered that integrin-α2 was expressed at higher level in MSL cells after TβRIII-KD. Stable knockdown of integrin-α2 in TβRIII-KD MSL cells rescued the ability of the MSL cells to migrate and invade at the same level as MSL control cells.
CONCLUSIONS - We have found that TβRIII is required for migration and invasion in vitro and xenograft growth in vivo. We also show that TβRIII-KD elevates expression of integrin-α2, which is required for the reduced migration and invasion, as determined by siRNA knockdown studies of both TβRIII and integrin-α2. Overall, our results indicate a potential mechanism in which TβRIII modulates integrin-α2 expression to effect MSL cell migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity.
PURPOSE - The α2β1 integrin plays an important but complex role in angiogenesis and vasculopathies. Published GWAS studies established a correlation between genetic polymorphisms of the α2β1 integrin gene and incidence of diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies indicated that α2-null mice demonstrate superior vascularization in both the wound and diabetic microenvironments. The goal of this study was to determine whether the vasculoprotective effects of α2-integrin deficiency extended to the retina, using the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).
METHODS - In the OIR model, wild-type (WT) and α2-null mice were exposed to 75% oxygen for 5 days (postnatal day [P] 7 to P12) and subsequently returned to room air for 6 days (P12-P18). Retinas were collected at postnatal day 7, day 13, and day 18 and examined via hematoxylin and eosin and Lectin staining. Retinas were analyzed for retinal vascular area, neovascularization, VEGF expression, and Müller cell activation. Primary Müller cell cultures from WT and α2-null mice were isolated and analyzed for hypoxia-induced VEGF-A expression.
RESULTS - In the retina, the α2β1 integrin was minimally expressed in endothelial cells and strongly expressed in activated Müller cells. Isolated α2-null primary Müller cells demonstrated decreased hypoxia-induced VEGF-A expression. In the OIR model, α2-null mice displayed reduced hyperoxia-induced vaso-attenuation, reduced pathological retinal neovascularization, and decreased VEGF expression as compared to WT counterparts.
CONCLUSIONS - Our data suggest that the α2β1 integrin contributes to the pathogenesis of retinopathy. We describe a newly identified role for α2β1 integrin in mediating hypoxia-induced Müller cell VEGF-A production.
Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
BACKGROUND - Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor, GRP-R, are critically involved in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis; however, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that are responsible for GRP/GRP-R-induced cell migration and invasion remain unclear. In this study, we sought to determine the cell signals involved in GRP/GRP-R-mediated neuroblastoma cell migration and invasion.
METHODS - Human neuroblastoma cell lines SK-N-SH, LAN-1, and IMR-32 were used for our study. Transwell migration and invasion assays were performed after GRP (10(-7) M) stimulation. The cDNA GEArray Microarray kit was used to determine GRP-R-induced gene expression changes. Protein and membrane expression of integrin subunits were confirmed by Western blotting and flow cytometry analysis. siRNA transfection was performed using Lipofectamine 2000. For scratch assay, a confluent monolayer of cells in 6-well plates were wounded with micropipette tip and observed microscopically at 24 to 72 h.
RESULTS - GRP increased neuroblastoma cell migration and expressions of MMP-2 whereas the TIMP-1 level decreased. GRP-R overexpression stimulated SK-N-SH cell migration and upregulated integrin α2, α3, and β1 protein as well as mRNA expression. Targeted silencing of integrin β1 inhibited cell migration.
CONCLUSION - GRP/GRP-R signaling contributes to neuroblastoma cell migration and invasion. Moreover, the integrin ß1 subunit critically regulates GRP-R-mediated neuroblastoma cell migration and invasion.
Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rab25 is a tumor suppressor for colon cancer in humans and mice. To identify elements of intestinal polarity regulated by Rab25, we developed Caco2-BBE cell lines stably expressing short hairpin RNA for Rab25 and lines rescuing Rab25 knockdown with reexpression of rabbit Rab25. Rab25 knockdown decreased α2-, α5-, and β1-integrin expression. We observed colocalization and direct association of Rab25 with α5β1-integrins. Rab25 knockdown also up-regulated claudin-1 expression, increased transepithelial resistance, and increased invasive behavior. Rab25-knockdown cells showed disorganized brush border microvilli with decreases in villin expression. All of these changes were reversed by reintroduction of rabbit Rab25. Rab25 knockdown altered the expression of 29 gene transcripts, including the loss of α5-integrin transcripts. Rab25 loss decreased expression of one transcription factor, ETV4, and overexpression of ETV4 in Rab25-knockdown cells reversed losses of α5β1-integrin. The results suggest that Rab25 controls intestinal cell polarity through the regulation of gene expression.
Mesangial cells and podocytes express integrins α1β1 and α2β1, which are the two major collagen receptors that regulate multiple cellular functions, including extracellular matrix homeostasis. Integrin α1β1 protects from glomerular injury by negatively regulating collagen production, but the role of integrin α2β1 in renal injury is unclear. Here, we subjected wild-type and integrin α2-null mice to injury with adriamycin or partial renal ablation. In both of these models, integrin α2-null mice developed significantly less proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. In addition, selective pharmacological inhibition of integrin α2β1 significantly reduced adriamycin-induced proteinuria, glomerular injury, and collagen deposition in wild-type mice. This inhibitor significantly reduced collagen synthesis in wild-type, but not integrin α2-null, mesangial cells in vitro, demonstrating that its effects are integrin α2β1-dependent. Taken together, these results indicate that integrin α2β1 contributes to glomerular injury by positively regulating collagen synthesis and suggest that its inhibition may be a promising strategy to reduce glomerular injury and proteinuria.
Expression of the α2β1 integrin, a receptor for collagens and laminin, is altered during tumor progression. Recent studies have linked polymorphisms in the α2 integrin gene with oral, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To determine the α2β1 integrin's role in SCC progression, we crossed α2-null mice with K14-HPV16 transgenic animals. Pathological progression to invasive carcinoma was evaluated in HPV-positive, α2-null (HPV/KO) and HPV-positive, wild-type (HPV/WT) animals. α2β1 integrin expression stimulated progression from hyperplasia and papillomatosis to dysplasia with concomitant dermal mast cell infiltration. Moreover, lymph node metastasis was decreased by 31.3% in HPV/KO, compared to HPV/WT, animals. To evaluate the integrin-specific impact on the malignant epithelium versus the microenvironment, we developed primary tumor cell lines. Although transition from dysplasia to carcinoma was unaltered during spontaneous tumor development, isolated primary HPV/KO SCC cell lines demonstrated decreased migration and invasion, compared to HPV/WT cells. When HPV/WT and HPV/KO SCC cells were orthotopically injected into WT or KO hosts, tumor α2β1 integrin expression resulted in decreased tumor latency, regardless of host integrin status. HPV/WT SCC lines failed to demonstrate a proliferative advantage in vitro, however, the HPV/WT tumors demonstrated increased growth compared to HPV/KO SCC lines in vivo. Although contributions of the integrin to the microenvironment cannot be excluded, our studies indicate that α2β1 integrin expression by HPV-transformed keratinocytes modulates SCC growth and progression.
Mast cells, critical mediators of inflammation and anaphylaxis, are poised as one of the first lines of defense against external assault. Mast cells release several classes of preformed and de novo synthesized mediators. Cross-linking of the high-affinity FcεRI results in degranulation and the release of preformed, proinflammatory mediators including histamine and serotonin. We previously demonstrated that mast cell activation by Listeria monocytogenes requires the α2β1 integrin for rapid IL-6 secretion both in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanism of IL-6 release is unknown. Here, we demonstrate the Listeria- and α2β1 integrin-mediated mast cell release of preformed IL-6 without the concomitant release of histamine or β-hexosaminidase. α2β1 integrin-dependent mast cell activation and IL-6 release is calcium independent. In contrast, IgE cross-linking-mediated degranulation is calcium dependent and does not result in IL-6 release, demonstrating that distinct stimuli result in the release of specific mediator pools. These studies demonstrate that IL-6 is presynthesized and stored in connective tissue mast cells and can be released from mast cells in response to distinct, α2β1 integrin-dependent stimulation, providing the host with a specific innate immune response without stimulating an allergic reaction.
Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.