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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is among the most common and costly disorders worldwide. The goal of current medical management for T2D is to transiently ameliorate hyperglycemia through daily dosing of one or more antidiabetic drugs. Hypoglycemia and weight gain are common side effects of therapy, and sustained disease remission is not obtainable with nonsurgical approaches. On the basis of the potent glucose-lowering response elicited by activation of brain fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors, we explored the antidiabetic efficacy of centrally administered FGF1, which, unlike other FGF peptides, activates all FGF receptor subtypes. We report that a single intracerebroventricular injection of FGF1 at a dose one-tenth of that needed for antidiabetic efficacy following peripheral injection induces sustained diabetes remission in both mouse and rat models of T2D. This antidiabetic effect is not secondary to weight loss, does not increase the risk of hypoglycemia, and involves a novel and incompletely understood mechanism for increasing glucose clearance from the bloodstream. We conclude that the brain has an inherent potential to induce diabetes remission and that brain FGF receptors are potential pharmacological targets for achieving this goal.
Insulin-independent glucose disposal (referred to as glucose effectiveness [GE]) is crucial for glucose homeostasis and, until recently, was thought to be invariable. However, GE is reduced in type 2 diabetes and markedly decreased in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Strategies aimed at increasing GE should therefore be capable of improving glucose tolerance in these animals. The gut-derived hormone FGF19 has previously been shown to exert potent antidiabetic effects in ob/ob mice. In ob/ob mice, we found that systemic FGF19 administration improved glucose tolerance through its action in the brain and that a single, low-dose i.c.v. injection of FGF19 dramatically improved glucose intolerance within 2 hours. Minimal model analysis of glucose and insulin data obtained during a frequently sampled i.v. glucose tolerance test showed that the antidiabetic effect of i.c.v. FGF19 was solely due to increased GE and not to changes of either insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity. The mechanism underlying this effect appears to involve increased metabolism of glucose to lactate. Together, these findings implicate the brain in the antidiabetic action of systemic FGF19 and establish the brain’s capacity to rapidly, potently, and selectively increase insulin-independent glucose disposal.
We examined the phenotypic composition of cells and the underlying mechanisms of demyelination following injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the corpus callosum of rats. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay showed fragmented DNA, which co-localized with oligodendrocytes in areas of demyelination following intracerebral injection with LPS. Immunostaining showed the presence of caspase 3 in cells which expressed the oligodendrocyte markers, suggesting activation of the apoptotic pathway. Commensurate reduction in glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)+/ gap junction protein connexin43+ (Cx43) cells, was also seen in the corpus callosum prior to histochemical evidence of demyelination. Expression of mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines was maximal 3 day postinjection, at a time when the numbers of TUNEL positive cells in the corpus callosum were declining and the total number of CD68+ cells peaked at day 14 postinjection. Our studies suggest that death of oligodendrocytes is an early event in LPS model of demyelination. We believe that the innate immune model of oligodendrocyte death will be useful in the development of neuroprotective agents capable of rescuing oligodendrocytes from apoptosis.
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus) are 7 Transmembrane Spanning Receptors (7TMs) that are differentially expressed throughout the brain and modulate synaptic transmission at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Recently, mGlus have been implicated as therapeutic targets for many disorders of the central nervous system, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have shown that nonselective agonists of group III mGlus have antiparkinsonian effects in several animal models of PD, suggesting that these receptors represent promising targets for treating the motor symptoms of PD. However, the relative contributions of different group III mGlu subtypes to these effects have not been fully elucidated. Here we report that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of the mGlu(8)-selective agonist (S)-3,4-dicarboxyphenylglycine (DCPG [ 2.5, 10, or 30 nmol]) does not alleviate motor deficits caused by acute (2 h) treatment with haloperidol or reserpine. However, following prolonged pretreatment with haloperidol (three doses evenly spaced over 18-20 h) or reserpine (18-20 h), DCPG robustly reverses haloperidol-induced catalepsy and reserpine-induced akinesia. Furthermore, DCPG (10 nmol, icv) reverses the long-lasting catalepsy induced by 20 h pretreatment with the decanoate salt of haloperidol. Finally, icv administration of DCPG ameliorates forelimb use asymmetry caused by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of substantia nigra dopamine neurons. These findings suggest that mGlu(8) may partially mediate the antiparkinsonian effects of group III mGlu agonists in animal models of PD in which dopamine depletion or blockade of D(2)-like dopamine receptors is prolonged and indicate that selective activation of mGlu(8) may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for alleviating the motor symptoms of PD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
To better understand the role of insulin signaling in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we utilized an animal model (intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin-ic-streptozotocin (STZ)) that displays insulin resistance only in the brain and exhibits AD pathology. In this model, deficits in hippocampal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) were observed. The decline in LTP correlated with decreased expression of NMDAR subunits NR2A and NR2B. The deficits in LTP were accompanied by changes in the expression and function of synaptic AMPARs. In ic-STZ animals, an alteration in integrin-linked kinase (ILK)-glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3-β) signaling was identified (p < 0.05). Similarly, there was decreased expression (p < 0.05) of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and stargazin, an AMPAR auxiliary subunit; both are required for driving AMPA receptors to the surface of the postsynaptic membrane. Our data illustrate that altered ILK-GSK-3β signaling due to impaired insulin signaling may decrease the trafficking and function of postsynaptic glutamate receptors; thereby, leading to synaptic deficits contributing to memory loss.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weight gain induced by an energy-dense diet is hypothesized to arise in part from defects in the neuronal response to circulating adiposity negative feedback signals, such as insulin. Peripheral tissue insulin resistance involves cellular inflammatory responses thought to be invoked by excess lipid. Therefore, we sought to determine whether similar signaling pathways are activated in the brain of rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. The ability of intracerebroventricular (icv) insulin to reduce food intake and activate hypothalamic signal transduction is attenuated in HF-fed compared with low-fat (LF)-fed rats. This effect was accompanied by both hypothalamic accumulation of palmitoyl- and stearoyl-CoA and activation of a marker of inflammatory signaling, inhibitor of kappaB kinase-beta (IKKbeta). Hypothalamic insulin resistance and inflammation were observed with icv palmitate infusion or HF feeding independent of excess caloric intake. Last, we observed that central IKKbeta inhibition reduced food intake and was associated with increased hypothalamic insulin sensitivity in rats fed a HF but not a LF diet. These data collectively support a model of diet-induced obesity whereby dietary fat, not excess calories, induces hypothalamic insulin resistance by increasing the content of saturated acyl-CoA species and activating local inflammatory signals, which result in a failure to appropriately regulate food intake.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by the death of dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia and results in motor symptoms such as tremor and bradykinesia. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) has been shown to modulate neurotransmission in the basal ganglia and results in antiparkinsonian effects in rodent PD models. N-Phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxamide (PHCCC) is a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of mGluR4 that has been used to further validate the role of mGluR4 in PD, but the compound suffers from a lack of selectivity, relatively low potency, and poor solubility. Via high-throughput screening, we discovered more than 400 novel PAMs of mGluR4. Compounds derived from a novel chemical scaffold were characterized in vitro at both rat and human mGluR4 using two distinct assays of mGluR4 function. The lead compound was approximately 8-fold more potent than PHCCC, enhanced the potency of glutamate at mGluR4 by 8-fold, and did not show any significant potentiator or antagonist activity at other mGluR subtypes. Resolution of the regioisomers of the lead revealed that the cis regioisomer, (+/-)-cis-2-(3,5-dichlorphenylcarbamoyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (VU0155041), contained the majority of the mGluR4 PAM activity and also exhibited partial agonist activity at mGluR4 at a site that was distinct from the glutamate binding site, suggesting that this compound is a mixed allosteric agonist/PAM of mGluR4. VU0155041 was soluble in an aqueous vehicle, and intracerebroventricular administration of 31 to 316 nmol of VU0155041 dose-dependently decreased haloperidol-induced catalepsy and reserpine-induced akinesia in rats. These exciting results provide continued support for mGluR4 as a therapeutic target in PD.
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is one of the two known mediators of the leptin regulation of bone mass. Cart is expressed in both the brain and peripheral tissues such as the pituitary gland and the pancreatic islets. Cart(-/-) mice present a low bone mass phenotype due to an isolated increase in osteoclast number. In an effort to rescue their bone phenotype, we delivered recombinant CART in the third ventricle of the mutant mice but never recorded any improvement of the low bone mass, although this procedure could affect fat pad mass. In contrast, transgenic mice harboring a 2-fold increase in CART circulating level display a high bone mass due to an isolated decrease in osteoclast number and could rescue the low bone mass phenotype of the Cart(-/-) mice. Thus, our results suggest that in its capacity of a regulator of bone remodeling, CART may act more as a circulating molecule than a neuropeptide.
OBJECTIVE - Elevated triglyceride (TG) is the major plasma lipid abnormality in obese and diabetic patients and contributes to cardiovascular morbidity in these disorders. We sought to identify novel mechanisms leading to hypertriglyceridemia. Resistance to negative feedback signals from adipose tissue in key central nervous system (CNS) energy homeostatic circuits contributes to the development of obesity. Because triglycerides both represent the largest energy depot in the body and are elevated in both the plasma and adipose in obesity and diabetes, we hypothesized that the same neural circuits that regulate energy balance also regulate the secretion of TGs into plasma.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In normal fasting rats, the TG secretion rate was estimated by serial blood sampling after intravascular tyloxapol pretreatment. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling in the CNS was modulated by intracerebroventricular injection of NPY, receptor antagonist, and receptor agonist.
RESULTS - A single intracerebroventricular injection of NPY increased TG secretion by 2.5-fold in the absence of food intake, and this was determined to be VLDL by fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC). This effect was recapitulated by activating NPY signaling in downstream neurons with an NPY-Y5 receptor agonist. An NPY-Y1 receptor antagonist decreased the elevated TGs in the form of VLDL secretion rate by 50% compared with vehicle. Increased TG secretion was due to increased secretion of VLDL particles, rather than secretion of larger particles, because apolipoprotein B100 was elevated in FPLC fractions corresponding to VLDL.
CONCLUSIONS - We find that a key neuropeptide system involved in energy homeostasis in the CNS exerts control over VLDL-TG secretion into the bloodstream.
Inhibition of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT-1) is reported to decrease food intake and body weight in rats. Yet, the fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor and CPT-1 stimulator C75 produces hypophagia and weight loss when given to rodents intracerebroventricularly (icv). Thus roles and relative contributions of altered brain CPT-1 activity and fatty acid oxidation in these phenomena remain unclarified. We administered compounds that target FAS or CPT-1 to mice by single icv bolus and examined acute and prolonged effects on feeding and body weight. C75 decreased food intake rapidly and potently at all doses (1-56 nmol) and dose dependently inhibited intake on day 1. Dose-dependent weight loss on day 1 persisted through 4 days of postinjection monitoring. The FAS inhibitor cerulenin produced dose-dependent (560 nmol) hypophagia for 1 day, weight loss for 2 days, and weight regain to vehicle control by day 3. The CPT-1 inhibitor etomoxir (32, 320 nmol) did not alter overall day 1 feeding. However, etomoxir attenuated the hypophagia produced by C75, indicating that CPT-1 stimulation is important for C75's effect. A novel compound, C89b, was characterized in vitro as a selective stimulator of CPT-1 that does not affect fatty acid synthesis. C89b (100, 320 nmol) decreased feeding in mice for 3 days and produced persistent weight loss for 6 days without producing conditioned taste aversion. Similarly, intraperitoneal administration decreased feeding and body weight without producing conditioned taste aversion. These results suggest a role for brain CPT-1 in the regulation of energy balance and implicate CPT-1 stimulation as a pharmacological approach to weight loss.