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Although the histologic features of alveolar soft part sarcoma and granular cell tumor are typically distinctive, occasional cases show a significant morphologic overlap. Differentiating these entities is crucial because granular cell tumor is almost always benign and alveolar soft part sarcoma is invariably malignant. We evaluated a panel of immunohistochemical stains (S-100 protein, inhibin, SOX10, nestin, calretinin, and TFE3) in 13 alveolar soft part sarcomas and 11 granular cell tumors. Tissue sections were also stained by the periodic acid-Schiff method after diastase digestion (PAS-D) and evaluated for coarse cytoplasmic granularity or crystalline cytoplasmic inclusions. S-100 protein, inhibin, SOX10, and nestin each distinguished granular cell tumor and alveolar soft part sarcoma with 100% sensitivity and specificity. PAS-D staining also distinguished cases with 100% accuracy, as granular cell tumor consistently demonstrated coarsely granular, PAS-D-positive cytoplasm and alveolar soft part sarcoma showed only focal intracytoplasmic crystalline inclusions. Although all granular cell tumors were calretinin positive, so were 46% of alveolar soft part sarcomas. TFE3 was positive in 91% of granular cell tumors and all alveolar soft part sarcomas. Together with PAS-D, immunohistochemical stains for S-100 protein, inhibin, SOX10, and nestin accurately identify alveolar soft part sarcoma and granular cell tumor. Although TFE3 has been reported as a relatively specific marker for alveolar soft part sarcoma, it should be recalled that it is also expressed in most granular cell tumors.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - The aim of this article is to summarize the recommended updates to the 2001 Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) criteria. The 2011 STRAW + 10 reviewed advances in understanding of the critical changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function that occur before and after the final menstrual period.
METHOD(S) - Scientists from five countries and multiple disciplines evaluated data from cohort studies of midlife women and in the context of chronic illness and endocrine disorders on change in menstrual, endocrine, and ovarian markers of reproductive aging including antimüllerian hormone, inhibin-B, follicle-stimulating hormone, and antral follicle count. Modifications were adopted by consensus.
RESULT(S) - STRAW + 10 simplified bleeding criteria for the early and late menopausal transition, recommended modifications to criteria for the late reproductive stage (Stage -3) and the early postmenopause stage (Stage +1), provided information on the duration of the late transition (Stage -1) and early postmenopause (Stage +1), and recommended application regardless of women's age, ethnicity, body size, or lifestyle characteristics.
CONCLUSION(S) - STRAW + 10 provides a more comprehensive basis for assessing reproductive aging in research and clinical contexts. Application of the STRAW + 10 staging system should improve comparability of studies of midlife women and facilitate clinical decision making. Nonetheless, important knowledge gaps persist, and seven research priorities are identified.
Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - The aim of this article is to summarize the recommended updates to the 2001 Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) criteria. The 2011 STRAW +10 reviewed advances in understanding of the critical changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function that occur before and after the final menstrual period.
METHODS - Scientists from five countries and multiple disciplines evaluated data from cohort studies of midlife women and in the context of chronic illness and endocrine disorders on change in menstrual, endocrine, and ovarian markers of reproductive aging including antimüllerian hormone, inhibin-B, follicle-stimulating hormone, and antral follicle count. Modifications were adopted by consensus.
RESULTS - STRAW +10 simplified bleeding criteria for the early and late menopausal transition, recommended modifications to criteria for the late reproductive stage (Stage -3) and the early postmenopause stage (Stage +1), provided information on the duration of the late transition (Stage -1) and early postmenopause (Stage +1), and recommended application regardless of women's age, ethnicity, body size, or lifestyle characteristics.
CONCLUSIONS - STRAW +10 provides a more comprehensive basis for assessing reproductive aging in research and clinical contexts. Application of the STRAW +10 staging system should improve comparability of studies of midlife women and facilitate clinical decision making. Nonetheless, important knowledge gaps persist, and seven research priorities are identified.
Given the aging population and the increased incidence of fracture in the elderly population, the need exists for agents that can enhance bone healing, particularly in situations of delayed fracture healing and/or non-union. Our previous studies demonstrated that overexpression of the gonadal peptide, human inhibin A (hInhA), in transgenic mice enhances bone formation and strength via increased osteoblast activity. We tested the hypothesis that hInhA can also exert anabolic effects in a murine model of distraction osteogenesis (DO), using both transgenic hInhA overexpression and administration of normal physiological levels of hInhA in adult male Swiss-Webster mice. Tibial osteotomies and external ring fixation were performed, followed by a 3-day latency period, 14-day distraction, and sacrifice on day 18. Supraphysiological levels of hInhA in transgenic mice, but not normal physiological levels of hInhA, significantly increased endosteal bone formation and mineralized bone area in the distraction gap, as determined by radiographic and µCT analysis. Significantly, increased PCNA and osteocalcin expression in the primary matrix front suggested that hInhA increased osteoblast proliferation. This mechanism is consistent with the effects of other agents and pathologies that modulate bone formation during DO, and demonstrates the potential of hInhA to enhance bone repair and regeneration.
Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Accumulating evidence demonstrates increasing bone turnover and bone loss in women prior to menopause and decreases in serum estradiol levels. Increased follicle-stimulating hormone levels have been correlated with some of these peri-menopausal changes. However, decreases in gonadal inhibins of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily strongly correlate with increases in bone formation and resorption markers across the menopause transition and predict lumbar bone mass in peri-menopausal women, likely as a result of direct inhibin suppression of osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Inhibins bind specifically to cells during osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. They can block bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-stimulated osteoblast and osteoclast development as well as BMP-stimulated SMAD1 phosphorylation, likely via inhibin-beta-glycan sequestration of BMP Type II receptor (BMPRII). Interestingly, continuous in vivo exposure to inhibin A is anabolic and protective against gonadectomy-induced bone loss in mice, suggesting that inhibins contribute to the endocrine regulation of bone metabolism via a bimodal mechanism of action whereby cycling inhibin exposure suppresses bone turnover and continuous exposure to inhibins is anabolic.
There is both cellular and physiological evidence demonstrating that both Activins and Inhibins regulate osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and regulate bone mass in vivo. Although Activins and Inhibins were initially isolated from the gonad, Activins are also produced and stored in bone, whereas Inhibins exert their regulation on bone cell differentiation and metabolism via endocrine effects. The accumulating data provide evidence that reproductive hormones, distinct from classical sex steroids, are important regulators of bone mass and bone strength. Given the well described dominant antagonism of Inhibin over Activin, as well as over BMPs and TGFbeta, the gonadally derived Inhibins are important regulators of locally produced osteotrophic factors. Thus, the cycling Inhibins in females and diurnal changes in Inhibin B in males elicit temporal shifts in Inhibin levels (tone) that de-repress the pituitary. This fundamental action has the potential to de-repress locally stimulated changes in osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, thereby altering bone metabolism.
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, the largest subfamily of the structurally conserved transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of growth factors, are multifunctional regulators of development, proliferation, and differentiation. The TGF-beta type III receptor (TbetaRIII or betaglycan) is an abundant cell surface proteoglycan that has been well characterized as a TGF-beta and inhibin receptor. Here we demonstrate that TbetaRIII functions as a BMP cell surface receptor. TbetaRIII directly and specifically binds to multiple members of the BMP subfamily, including BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-7, and GDF-5, with similar kinetics and ligand binding domains as previously identified for TGF-beta. TbetaRIII also enhances ligand binding to the BMP type I receptors, whereas short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of endogenous TbetaRIII attenuates BMP-mediated Smad1 phosphorylation. Using a biologically relevant model for TbetaRIII function, we demonstrate that BMP-2 specifically stimulates TbetaRIII-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal cell transformation. The ability of TbetaRIII to serve as a cell surface receptor and mediate BMP, inhibin, and TGF-beta signaling suggests a broader role for TbetaRIII in orchestrating TGF-beta superfamily signaling.
Gonadal function plays a major role in bone homeostasis. It is widely held that the skeletal consequences of hypogonadism are solely due to a loss of sex steroids; however, increases in bone turnover begin during perimenopause before decreases in serum estradiol levels. These data and our demonstration that inhibins acutely regulate bone cell differentiation in vitro led us to test whether inhibin A (InhA) regulates bone mass in vivo. Using a transgenic model of inducible human InhA expression, InhA increased total body bone mineral density, increased bone volume, and improved biomechanical properties at the proximal tibia in intact mice and also prevented the loss of BMD and bone volume and strength associated with gonadectomy at both the spine and proximal tibia. In addition, InhA increased mineral apposition rate, double-labeled surface, and serum osteocalcin levels in vivo and osteoblastogenesis ex vivo without affecting osteoclast number or activity. Together these results demonstrate novel stimulatory effects of InhA on the skeleton in vivo. These studies provide in vivo evidence demonstrating that gonadal factors other than sex steroids play an important role in regulating bone mass and strength and, combined with our previous clinical data, suggest that gonadal InhA may be a component of the normal endocrine repertoire that regulates bone quality in both the axial and appendicular skeleton.
CONTEXT - Longitudinal clinical studies demonstrate that increases in bone turnover that occur in perimenopausal women correlate better with elevated serum FSH than with changes in serum estradiol (E2). This perimenopausal rise in FSH is due to a selective decrease in ovarian inhibin B (InhB). Our previous demonstration that inhibins suppress both osteoblast and osteoclast development suggests that changes in serum inhibins may regulate osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and thereby bone turnover, independent of changes in sex steroids.
OBJECTIVE - The objective of this study was to determine whether decreased serum inhibin A (InhA) and InhB levels correlate with increases in markers of bone turnover in women across the menopause transition and to evaluate serum inhibins as better predictors of bone turnover markers across the menopause transition than FSH or bioavailable E2.
DESIGN - We studied a cross-sectional age-stratified population sample of 188 pre- and postmenopausal women not using oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy (age, 21-85 yr).
RESULTS - Serum InhA and InhB levels significantly correlated inversely with markers of bone formation and bone resorption in pre- and perimenopausal women and with markers of bone formation in postmenopausal women (InhA only). FSH was not significantly correlated with bone turnover in either pre- or postmenopausal women; however, FSH was significantly correlated with bone resorption (C-terminal collagen I cross-link) in perimenopausal women (age, 45-54 yr). Using multivariate analyses, serum InhA better predicted bone formation and resorption markers in premenopausal women than either FSH or bioavailable E2.
CONCLUSIONS - Decreases in inhibin levels across the menopause transition are associated with increasing bone turnover, regardless of changes in sex steroids or FSH.