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Human but not mouse islets transplanted into immunodeficient NSG mice effectively accumulate lipid droplets (LDs). Because chronic lipid exposure is associated with islet β-cell dysfunction, we investigated LD accumulation in the intact human and mouse pancreas over a range of ages and states of diabetes. Very few LDs were found in normal human juvenile pancreatic acinar and islet cells, with numbers subsequently increasing throughout adulthood. While accumulation appeared evenly distributed in postjuvenile acinar and islet cells in donors without diabetes, LDs were enriched in islet α- and β-cells from donors with type 2 diabetes (T2D). LDs were also found in the islet β-like cells produced from human embryonic cell-derived β-cell clusters. In contrast, LD accumulation was nearly undetectable in the adult rodent pancreas, even in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic models or 1.5-year-old mice. Taken together, there appear to be significant differences in pancreas islet cell lipid handling between species, and the human juvenile and adult cell populations. Moreover, our results suggest that LD enrichment could be impactful to T2D islet cell function.
© 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.
Infancy is marked by rapid neural and emotional development. The relation between brain function and emotion in infancy, however, is not well understood. Methods for measuring brain function predominantly rely on the BOLD signal; however, interpretation of the BOLD signal in infancy is challenging because the neuronal-hemodynamic relation is immature. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) provides a context for the infant BOLD signal and can yield insight into the developmental maturity of brain regions that may support affective behaviors. This study aims to elucidate the relations among rCBF, age, and emotion in infancy. One hundred and seven mothers reported their infants' (infant age M ± SD = 6.14 ± 0.51 months) temperament. A subsample of infants completed MRI scans, 38 of whom produced usable perfusion MRI during natural sleep to quantify rCBF. Mother-infant dyads completed the repeated Still-Face Paradigm, from which infant affect reactivity and recovery to stress were quantified. We tested associations of infant age at scan, temperament factor scores, and observed affect reactivity and recovery with voxel-wise rCBF. Infant age was positively associated with CBF in nearly all voxels, with peaks located in sensory cortices and the ventral prefrontal cortex, supporting the formulation that rCBF is an indicator of tissue maturity. Temperamental Negative Affect and recovery of positive affect following a stressor were positively associated with rCBF in several cortical and subcortical limbic regions, including the orbitofrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus. This finding yields insight into the nature of affective neurodevelopment during infancy. Specifically, infants with relatively increased prefrontal cortex maturity may evidence a disposition toward greater negative affect and negative reactivity in their daily lives yet show better recovery of positive affect following a social stressor.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In this comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of group design studies of nonpharmacological early interventions designed for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we report summary effects across 7 early intervention types (behavioral, developmental, naturalistic developmental behavioral intervention [NDBI], TEACCH, sensory-based, animal-assisted, and technology-based), and 15 outcome categories indexing core and related ASD symptoms. A total of 1,615 effect sizes were gathered from 130 independent participant samples. A total of 6,240 participants, who ranged in age from 0-8 years, are represented across the studies. We synthesized effects within intervention and outcome type using a robust variance estimation approach to account for the nesting of effect sizes within studies. We also tracked study quality indicators, and report an additional set of summary effect sizes that restrict included studies to those meeting prespecified quality indicators. Finally, we conducted moderator analyses to evaluate whether summary effects across intervention types were larger for proximal as compared with distal effects, and for context-bound as compared to generalized effects. We found that when study quality indicators were not taken into account, significant positive effects were found for behavioral, developmental, and NDBI intervention types. When effect size estimation was limited to studies with randomized controlled trial (RCT) designs, evidence of positive summary effects existed only for developmental and NDBI intervention types. This was also the case when outcomes measured by parent report were excluded. Finally, when effect estimation was limited to RCT designs and to outcomes for which there was no risk of detection bias, no intervention types showed significant effects on any outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
OBJECTIVES - Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are often used in pediatrics to treat common gastrointestinal disorders, and there are growing concerns for infectious adverse events. Because CYP2C19 inactivates PPIs, genetic variants that increase CYP2C19 function may decrease PPI exposure and infections. We tested the hypothesis that CYP2C19 metabolizer phenotypes are associated with infection event rates in children exposed to PPIs.
METHODS - This retrospective biorepository cohort study included individuals aged 0 to 36 months at the time of PPI exposure. Respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract infection events were identified by using codes in the year after the first PPI mention. Variants defining , , , , , and were genotyped, and all individuals were classified as CYP2C19 poor or intermediate, normal metabolizers (NMs), or rapid or ultrarapid metabolizers (RM/UMs). Infection rates were compared by using univariate and multivariate analyses.
RESULTS - In all, 670 individuals were included (median age 7 months; 44% girls). CYP2C19 NMs ( = 267; 40%) had a higher infection rate than RM/UMs ( = 220; 33%; median 2 vs 1 infections per person per year; = .03). There was no difference between poor or intermediate ( = 183; 27%) and NMs. In multivariable analysis of NMs and RM/UMs adjusting for age, sex, PPI dose, and comorbidities, CYP2C19 metabolizer status remained a significant risk factor for infection events (odds ratio 0.70 [95% confidence interval 0.50-0.97] for RM/UMs versus NMs).
CONCLUSIONS - PPI therapy is associated with higher infection rates in children with normal CYP2C19 function than in those with increased CYP2C19 function, highlighting this adverse effect of PPI therapy and the relevance of genotypes to PPI therapeutic decision-making.
Copyright © 2019 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
To identify valid measures of vocal development in young children with autism spectrum disorder in the early stages of language learning, we evaluated the convergent validity, divergent validity, and sensitivity to change (across 12 months) of two measures of vocal communication and two measures of vocal complexity through conventional coding of communication samples. Participants included 87 children with autism spectrum disorder (M = 23.42 months at entry). All four vocal variables demonstrated consistent evidence of convergent validity, divergent validity, and sensitivity to change with large effect sizes for convergent validity and sensitivity to change. The results highlight the value of measuring vocal communication and vocal complexity in future studies.
To identify clinical andgenetic factors associated with indomethacin treatment failure in preterm neonates with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). This is a multicenter cohort study of 144 preterm infants (22-32 weeks gestational age) at three centers who received at least one treatment course of indomethacin for PDA. Indomethacin failure was defined as requiring subsequent surgical intervention. In multivariate analysis, gestational age (AOR 0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.96), surfactant use (AOR 9.77, 95% CI 1.15-83.26), and (AOR 3.74; 95% CI 1.34-10.44) were each associated with indomethacin failure. Age, surfactant use, and influence indomethacin treatment outcome in preterm infants with PDA. This combination of clinical and genetic factors may facilitate targeted indomethacin use for PDA.
BACKGROUND - CaM (calmodulin) mutations are associated with congenital arrhythmia susceptibility (calmodulinopathy) and are most often de novo. In this report, we sought to broaden the genotype-phenotype spectrum of calmodulinopathies with 2 novel calmodulin mutations and to investigate mosaicism in 2 affected families.
METHODS - CaM mutations were identified in 4 independent cases by DNA sequencing. Biochemical and electrophysiological studies were performed to determine functional consequences of each mutation.
RESULTS - Genetic studies identified 2 novel CaM variants (-E141K in 2 cases; -E141V) and one previously reported CaM pathogenic variant (-D130G) among 4 probands with shared clinical features of prolonged QTc interval (range 505-725 ms) and documented ventricular arrhythmia. A fatal outcome occurred for 2 of the cases. The parents of all probands were asymptomatic with normal QTc duration. However, 2 of the families had multiple affected offspring or multiple occurrences of intrauterine fetal demise. The mother from the family with recurrent intrauterine fetal demise exhibited the -E141K mutant allele in 25% of next-generation sequencing reads indicating somatic mosaicism, whereas -D130G was present in 6% of captured molecules of the paternal DNA sample, also indicating mosaicism. Two novel mutations (E141K and E141V) impaired Ca binding affinity to the C-domain of CaM. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes overexpressing mutant or wild-type CaM showed that both mutants impaired Ca-dependent inactivation of L-type Ca channels and prolonged action potential duration.
CONCLUSIONS - We report 2 families with somatic mosaicism associated with arrhythmogenic calmodulinopathy, and demonstrate dysregulation of L-type Ca channels by 2 novel CaM mutations affecting the same residue. Parental mosaicism should be suspected in families with unexplained fetal arrhythmia or fetal demise combined with a documented CaM mutation.