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Importance - Polygenic risk scores comprising millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be useful for population-wide coronary heart disease (CHD) screening.
Objective - To determine whether a polygenic risk score improves prediction of CHD compared with a guideline-recommended clinical risk equation.
Design, Setting, and Participants - A retrospective cohort study of the predictive accuracy of a previously validated polygenic risk score was assessed among 4847 adults of white European ancestry, aged 45 through 79 years, participating in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and 2390 participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) from 1996 through December 31, 2015, the final day of follow-up. The performance of the polygenic risk score was compared with that of the 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association pooled cohort equations.
Exposures - Genetic risk was computed for each participant by summing the product of the weights and allele dosage across 6 630 149 SNPs. Weights were based on an international genome-wide association study.
Main Outcomes and Measures - Prediction of 10-year first CHD events (including myocardial infarctions, fatal coronary events, silent infarctions, revascularization procedures, or resuscitated cardiac arrest) assessed using measures of model discrimination, calibration, and net reclassification improvement (NRI).
Results - The study population included 4847 adults from the ARIC study (mean [SD] age, 62.9 [5.6] years; 56.4% women) and 2390 adults from the MESA cohort (mean [SD] age, 61.8 [9.6] years; 52.2% women). Incident CHD events occurred in 696 participants (14.4%) and 227 participants (9.5%), respectively, over median follow-up of 15.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 6.3 years) and 14.2 (IQR, 2.5 years) years. The polygenic risk score was significantly associated with 10-year CHD incidence in ARIC with hazard ratios per SD increment of 1.24 (95% CI, 1.15 to 1.34) and in MESA, 1.38 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.58). Addition of the polygenic risk score to the pooled cohort equations did not significantly increase the C statistic in either cohort (ARIC, change in C statistic, -0.001; 95% CI, -0.009 to 0.006; MESA, 0.021; 95% CI, -0.0004 to 0.043). At the 10-year risk threshold of 7.5%, the addition of the polygenic risk score to the pooled cohort equations did not provide significant improvement in reclassification in either ARIC (NRI, 0.018, 95% CI, -0.012 to 0.036) or MESA (NRI, 0.001, 95% CI, -0.038 to 0.076). The polygenic risk score did not significantly improve calibration in either cohort.
Conclusions and Relevance - In this analysis of 2 cohorts of US adults, the polygenic risk score was associated with incident coronary heart disease events but did not significantly improve discrimination, calibration, or risk reclassification compared with conventional predictors. These findings suggest that a polygenic risk score may not enhance risk prediction in a general, white middle-aged population.
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS - Neonatal patients requiring prolonged intubation are susceptible to both infection and laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS). This study investigated the effect of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) on the development of LTS in neonates.
STUDY DESIGN - Retrospective case-control study.
METHODS - The incidence of LTS in neonates with VAP was compared with the incidence of LTS in matched intubated controls without VAP. Patients were treated at a tertiary-care medical center from 2004 to 2014. Eligible patient records were assessed for the development of LTS. Demographics, medical comorbidities, infection characteristics, and treatment variables were compared using unpaired t test or χ test. Statistical significance was set a priori at P < .05.
RESULTS - When comparing the VAP patients with matched non-VAP controls, we found no significant differences in the incidence of LTS (VAP vs. non-VAP, 8.3% vs. 6.7%; P = .73). In subgroup analysis of the VAP cohort, LTS and non-LTS patients demonstrated similar VAP organisms on broncho-alveolar lavage (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterobacter). Additionally, within the VAP cohort, LTS and non-LTS patients showed similar gestational age (LTS vs. non-LTS, 31.3 days vs. 28.1 days; P = .22), birth weight (LTS vs. non-LTS, 1.6 kg vs. 1.2 kg; P = .33), and similar intubation duration (LTS vs. non-LTS, 37.8 days vs. 27.5 days; P = .52).
CONCLUSIONS - In this neonatal cohort, VAP was not associated with an increased incidence of LTS. Given severity of the burden of LTS on the healthcare system, multi-institutional longitudinal investigation into contributing risk factors for neonatal LTS is warranted.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE - NA Laryngoscope, 130:2252-2255, 2020.
© 2019 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
OBJECTIVES - Upper airway injury is a recognized complication of prolonged endotracheal intubation, yet little attention has been paid to the consequences of laryngeal injury and functional impact. The purpose of our study was to prospectively define the incidence of acute laryngeal injury and investigate the impact of injury on breathing and voice outcomes.
DESIGN - Prospective cohort study.
SETTING - Tertiary referral critical care center.
PATIENTS - Consecutive adult patients intubated greater than 12 hours in the medical ICU from August 2017 to May 2018 who underwent laryngoscopy within 36 hours of extubation.
INTERVENTIONS - Laryngoscopy following endotracheal intubation.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - One hundred consecutive patients (62% male; median age, 58.5 yr) underwent endoscopic examination after extubation. Acute laryngeal injury (i.e., mucosal ulceration or granulation tissue in the larynx) was present in 57 patients (57%). Patients with laryngeal injury had significantly worse patient-reported breathing (Clinical Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Questionnaire: median, 1.05; interquartile range, 0.48-2.10) and vocal symptoms (Voice Handicap Index-10: median, 2; interquartile range, 0-6) compared with patients without injury (Clinical Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Questionnaire: median, 0.20; interquartile range, 0-0.80; p < 0.001; and Voice Handicap Index-10: median, 0; interquartile range, 0-1; p = 0.005). Multivariable logistic regression independently associated diabetes, body habitus, and endotracheal tube size greater than 7.0 with the development of laryngeal injury.
CONCLUSIONS - Acute laryngeal injury occurs in more than half of patients who receive mechanical ventilation and is associated with significantly worse breathing and voicing 10 weeks after extubation. An endotracheal tube greater than size 7.0, diabetes, and larger body habitus may predispose to injury. Our results suggest that acute laryngeal injury impacts functional recovery from critical illness.
Novel biomarkers of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and response to preventative treatment in individuals with similar clinical risk may highlight metabolic pathways that are important in disease development. We profiled 331 metabolites in 2,015 baseline plasma samples from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Cox models were used to determine associations between metabolites and incident T2D, as well as whether associations differed by treatment group (i.e., lifestyle [ILS], metformin [MET], or placebo [PLA]), over an average of 3.2 years of follow-up. We found 69 metabolites associated with incident T2D regardless of treatment randomization. In particular, cytosine was novel and associated with the lowest risk. In an exploratory analysis, 35 baseline metabolite associations with incident T2D differed across the treatment groups. Stratification by baseline levels of several of these metabolites, including specific phospholipids and AMP, modified the effect that ILS or MET had on diabetes development. Our findings highlight novel markers of diabetes risk and preventative treatment effect in individuals who are clinically at high risk and motivate further studies to validate these interactions.
© 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.
BACKGROUND - Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are systemic diseases of multifactorial etiology that share aberrant immune responses as the common final pathway. With rising globalization, their incidence is increasing in developing countries and among immigrants. Our primary objective was to systematically review the epidemiology of IMIDs in immigrants and conduct a meta-analysis to estimate the risk of IMIDs in immigrant populations according to their origin and destination countries.
METHODS - We systematically searched five biomedical databases and reviewed population-based studies, from inception through August 2018, that reported incidence or prevalence data of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes (T1D), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) or psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PPA) among immigrants and the host population.
RESULTS - The incidence and prevalence of IMIDs among immigrants differ from host populations, and evolve over subsequent generations. The risk of IBD among immigrants approximates that in hosts, especially among South Asians, with ulcerative colitis incidence changing prior to Crohn's disease incidence. MS risk is highest in Iranian immigrants, T1D in African immigrants and SLE in African and Iraqi immigrants. Data on other IMIDs are sparse. Significant heterogeneity between the studies precluded meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION - Based on our systematic review, the epidemiology of IMIDs among immigrants varies according to native and host countries, immigrant generation, and IMID type. The rapid evolution suggests a role for non-genetic factors and gene-environment interactions. Future studies should focus on these pattern shifts, given implications of rising global burden of IMIDs and immigration.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
INTRODUCTION - Evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine impact on anogenital warts (AGWs) by race or urbanicity in the US is lacking. We evaluated HPV vaccine impact in Tennessee by assessing AGW trends among Tennessee Medicaid (TennCare) enrollees aged 15-39 years from 2006-2014.
METHODS - Persons with incident AGWs were identified using diagnosis/pharmacy codes from TennCare billing claims. We calculated sex-specific annual AGW incidence by age group, race, and urbanicity; estimated annual percent changes (APCs) using log-linear models; and performed pairwise comparisons by race and urbanicity.
RESULTS - AGW incidence decreased among females aged 15-19 (APC = -10.6; P < 0.01) and 20-24 years (APC = -3.9; P = 0.02). Overall trends were similar between Whites and Blacks, and between those living in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and non-MSAs. Rates among males aged 15-19 years began decreasing after 2010. Among enrollees aged 25-39 years, rates increased or were stable.
CONCLUSIONS - Following introduction of the HPV vaccine in 2006, AGWs decreased among age groups most likely to be vaccinated. The change in trend among young males after 2010 suggests early herd effects. Our findings indicate vaccine effects and support the importance of improving adherence to current vaccination recommendations for preventing AGWs and other HPV-related diseases.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.
OBJECTIVE - Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoO) and IBD are immune-mediated diseases of the gastrointestinal tract with possible overlapping pathogenic mechanisms. Our aim was to define the epidemiology and clinical implications of concurrent EoO and IBD diagnoses.
DESIGN - We conducted a prospective cohort analysis using the Truven MarketScan database (2009-2016) to estimate the incidence and prevalence of EoO in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) or UC and vice versa. Cox proportional hazards and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the risk of EoO-related or IBD-related complications among patients with concurrent diagnoses.
RESULTS - Among 134 013 536 individuals, the incidence of EoO, CD and UC were 23.1, 51.2 and 55.2 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. The risk of EoO was higher among patients with CD (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 5.4, p<0.01; prevalence ratio (PR) 7.8, p<0.01) or UC (IRR 3.5, p<0.01; PR 5.0, p<0.01), while the risk of IBD was higher among patients with EoO (CD: IRR 5.7, p<0.01; PR 7.6, p<0.01; UC: IRR 3.4, p<0.01; PR 4.9, p<0.01) versus individuals without either diagnosis. Concurrent diagnosis of EoO and IBD was associated with greater composite risk of IBD-related complications (CD: adjusted HR (aHR) 1.09, p=0.01; UC: aHR 1.10, p=0.04) but lower composite risk of EoO-related complications (aHR 0.59; p<0.01).
CONCLUSION - Based on a population-based prospective cohort analysis, the risk of EoO is significantly higher among patients with IBD and vice versa. Concurrent diagnoses might modify the risk of IBD-related and EoO-related complications. Studies defining the mechanisms underlying these observations are needed.
© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved outcomes for patients with numerous hematological and solid cancers. Hematologic toxicities have been described, but the spectrum, timing, and clinical presentation of these complications are not well understood. We used the World Health Organization's pharmacovigilance database of individual-case-safety-reports (ICSRs) of adverse drug reactions, VigiBase, to identify cases of hematologic toxicities complicating immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. We identified 168 ICSRs of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), hemolytic anemia (HA), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, aplastic anemia, and pure red cell aplasia in 164 ICSRs. ITP ( = 68) and HA ( = 57) were the most common of these toxicities and occurred concomitantly in four patients. These events occurred early on treatment (median 40 days) and were associated with fatal outcome in 12% of cases. Ipilimumab-based therapy (monotherapy or combination with anti-programmed death-1 [PD-1]) was associated with earlier onset (median 23 vs. 47.5 days, = .006) than anti-PD-1/programmed death ligand-1 monotherapy. Reporting of hematologic toxicities has increased over the past 2 years (98 cases between January 2017 and March 2018 vs. 70 cases before 2017), possibly because of increased use of checkpoint inhibitors and improved recognition of toxicities. Future studies should evaluate incidence of hematologic toxicities, elucidate risk factors, and determine the most effective treatment algorithms. KEY POINTS: Immune-mediated hematologic toxicities are a potential side effect of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).Providers should monitor complete blood counts during treatment with ICIs.Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for immune-mediated hematologic toxicities.Further research is needed to define patient-specific risk factors and optimal management strategies for hematologic toxicities.
© AlphaMed Press 2019.