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Central EP3 (E Prostanoid 3) Receptors Mediate Salt-Sensitive Hypertension and Immune Activation.
Xiao L, Itani HA, do Carmo LS, Carver LS, Breyer RM, Harrison DG
(2019) Hypertension 74: 1507-1515
MeSH Terms: Adaptive Immunity, Analysis of Variance, Animals, Biomarkers, Biopsy, Needle, Brain, Dinoprostone, Disease Models, Animal, Female, Flow Cytometry, Hypertension, Immunohistochemistry, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester, Random Allocation, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP3 Subtype, Sodium, Dietary
Show Abstract · Added December 3, 2019
We recently identified a pathway underlying immune activation in hypertension. Proteins oxidatively modified by reactive isoLG (isolevuglandin) accumulate in dendritic cells (DCs). PGE (Prostaglandin E2) has been implicated in the inflammation associated with hypertension. We hypothesized that PGE via its EP (E prostanoid) 3 receptor contributes to DC activation in hypertension. EP3 mice and wild-type littermates were exposed to sequential hypertensive stimuli involving an initial 2-week exposure to the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride in drinking water, followed by a 2-week washout period, and a subsequent 4% high-salt diet for 3 weeks. In wild-type mice, this protocol increased systolic pressure from 123±2 to 148±8 mm Hg (<0.05). This was associated with marked renal inflammation and a striking accumulation of isoLG adducts in splenic DCs. However, the increases in blood pressure, renal T-cell infiltration, and DC isoLG formation were completely prevented in EP3 mice. Similar protective effects were also observed in wild-type mice that received intracerebroventricular injection of a lentiviral vector encoding shRNA targeting the EP3 receptor. Further, in vitro experiments indicated that PGE also acts directly on DCs via its EP1 receptors to stimulate intracellular isoLG formation. Together, these findings provide new insight into how EP receptors in both the central nervous system and peripherally on DCs promote inflammation in salt-induced hypertension.
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20 MeSH Terms
Imaging mass spectrometry enables molecular profiling of mouse and human pancreatic tissue.
Prentice BM, Hart NJ, Phillips N, Haliyur R, Judd A, Armandala R, Spraggins JM, Lowe CL, Boyd KL, Stein RW, Wright CV, Norris JL, Powers AC, Brissova M, Caprioli RM
(2019) Diabetologia 62: 1036-1047
MeSH Terms: Animals, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Gangliosides, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Islets of Langerhans, Mice, Pancreas, Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
Show Abstract · Added May 7, 2019
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS - The molecular response and function of pancreatic islet cells during metabolic stress is a complex process. The anatomical location and small size of pancreatic islets coupled with current methodological limitations have prevented the achievement of a complete, coherent picture of the role that lipids and proteins play in cellular processes under normal conditions and in diseased states. Herein, we describe the development of untargeted tissue imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) technologies for the study of in situ protein and, more specifically, lipid distributions in murine and human pancreases.
METHODS - We developed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) IMS protocols to study metabolite, lipid and protein distributions in mouse (wild-type and ob/ob mouse models) and human pancreases. IMS allows for the facile discrimination of chemically similar lipid and metabolite isoforms that cannot be distinguished using standard immunohistochemical techniques. Co-registration of MS images with immunofluorescence images acquired from serial tissue sections allowed accurate cross-registration of cell types. By acquiring immunofluorescence images first, this serial section approach guides targeted high spatial resolution IMS analyses (down to 15 μm) of regions of interest and leads to reduced time requirements for data acquisition.
RESULTS - MALDI IMS enabled the molecular identification of specific phospholipid and glycolipid isoforms in pancreatic islets with intra-islet spatial resolution. This technology shows that subtle differences in the chemical structure of phospholipids can dramatically affect their distribution patterns and, presumably, cellular function within the islet and exocrine compartments of the pancreas (e.g. 18:1 vs 18:2 fatty acyl groups in phosphatidylcholine lipids). We also observed the localisation of specific GM3 ganglioside lipids [GM3(d34:1), GM3(d36:1), GM3(d38:1) and GM3(d40:1)] within murine islet cells that were correlated with a higher level of GM3 synthase as verified by immunostaining. However, in human pancreas, GM3 gangliosides were equally distributed in both the endocrine and exocrine tissue, with only one GM3 isoform showing islet-specific localisation.
CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION - The development of more complete molecular profiles of pancreatic tissue will provide important insight into the molecular state of the pancreas during islet development, normal function, and diseased states. For example, this study demonstrates that these results can provide novel insight into the potential signalling mechanisms involving phospholipids and glycolipids that would be difficult to detect by targeted methods, and can help raise new hypotheses about the types of physiological control exerted on endocrine hormone-producing cells in islets. Importantly, the in situ measurements afforded by IMS do not require a priori knowledge of molecules of interest and are not susceptible to the limitations of immunohistochemistry, providing the opportunity for novel biomarker discovery. Notably, the presence of multiple GM3 isoforms in mouse islets and the differential localisation of lipids in human tissue underscore the important role these molecules play in regulating insulin modulation and suggest species, organ, and cell specificity. This approach demonstrates the importance of both high spatial resolution and high molecular specificity to accurately survey the molecular composition of complex, multi-functional tissues such as the pancreas.
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9 MeSH Terms
Assessing Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence and Persistence in a Murine Model of Lung Infection.
Palmer LD, Green ER, Sheldon JR, Skaar EP
(2019) Methods Mol Biol 1946: 289-305
MeSH Terms: Acinetobacter Infections, Acinetobacter baumannii, Acute Disease, Animals, Bacterial Load, Biopsy, Disease Models, Animal, Flow Cytometry, Immunity, Immunohistochemistry, Mice, Pneumonia, Bacterial, Virulence
Show Abstract · Added April 2, 2019
Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Murine models of A. baumannii lung infection allow researchers to experimentally assess A. baumannii virulence and host response. Intranasal administration of A. baumannii models acute lung infection. This chapter describes the methods to test A. baumannii virulence in a murine model of lung infection, including assessing the competitive index of a bacterial mutant and the associated inflammatory responses.
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13 MeSH Terms
Beyond the H&E: Advanced Technologies for in situ Tissue Biomarker Imaging.
Himmel LE, Hackett TA, Moore JL, Adams WR, Thomas G, Novitskaya T, Caprioli RM, Zijlstra A, Mahadevan-Jansen A, Boyd KL
(2018) ILAR J 59: 51-65
MeSH Terms: Animals, Biomarkers, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, In Situ Hybridization, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Quality Control, Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2019
For decades, histopathology with routine hematoxylin and eosin staining has been and remains the gold standard for reaching a morphologic diagnosis in tissue samples from humans and veterinary species. However, within the past decade, there has been exponential growth in advanced techniques for in situ tissue biomarker imaging that bridge the divide between anatomic and molecular pathology. It is now possible to simultaneously observe localization and expression magnitude of multiple protein, nucleic acid, and molecular targets in tissue sections and apply machine learning to synthesize vast, image-derived datasets. As these technologies become more sophisticated and widely available, a team-science approach involving subspecialists with medical, engineering, and physics backgrounds is critical to upholding quality and validity in studies generating these data. The purpose of this manuscript is to detail the scientific premise, tools and training, quality control, and data collection and analysis considerations needed for the most prominent advanced imaging technologies currently applied in tissue sections: immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization, laser capture microdissection, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry, and spectroscopic/optical methods. We conclude with a brief overview of future directions for ex vivo and in vivo imaging techniques.
© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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8 MeSH Terms
MEK Inhibitor Reverses Metaplasia and Allows Re-Emergence of Normal Lineages in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gerbils.
Yang Q, Yasuda T, Choi E, Toyoda T, Roland JT, Uchida E, Yoshida H, Seto Y, Goldenring JR, Nomura S
(2019) Gastroenterology 156: 577-581.e4
MeSH Terms: Acrylonitrile, Aniline Compounds, Animals, Benzimidazoles, Biopsy, Needle, Disease Models, Animal, Gastric Mucosa, Gerbillinae, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Immunohistochemistry, Male, Metaplasia, Random Allocation, Reference Values, Treatment Outcome
Added November 14, 2018
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16 MeSH Terms
Should Ki67 immunohistochemistry be performed on all lesions in multifocal small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours?
Numbere N, Huber AR, Shi C, Cates JMM, Gonzalez RS
(2019) Histopathology 74: 424-429
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Biomarkers, Tumor, Disease-Free Survival, Female, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Intestinal Neoplasms, Intestine, Small, Ki-67 Antigen, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Grading, Neuroendocrine Tumors, Proportional Hazards Models
Show Abstract · Added November 1, 2018
AIMS - Well-differentiated small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs) are often multifocal, and this has been suggested to impart worse disease-free survival. Practice guidelines have not been established for World Health Organisation (WHO) grading of multiple primary lesions.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We identified 68 patients with ileal/jejunal SI-NET for a combined total of 207 primary lesions. Each case was evaluated for patient age and sex; size of all tumours; presence of lymph node metastases, mesenteric tumour deposits or distant metastases; and disease-specific outcome. Ki67 staining was performed on all 207 primary lesions. The relationship between multifocality and clinicopathological factors was compared using Fisher's exact test. Outcome was tested using Cox proportional hazard regression. Forty-two patients had unifocal disease, and 26 had multifocal disease (median five lesions, range = 2-32). Most tumours were WHO grade 1 (201 of 207, 97%). Of the five patients with grades 2/3 tumours, three patients had unifocal disease, one patient had two subcentimetre grade 2 lesions (including the largest) and eight subcentimetre grade 1 lesions, and one patient had one 1.6-cm grade 3 lesion and one subcentimetre grade 1 lesion. There was a positive correlation between tumour size and Ki67 index (coefficient 0.28; 95% confidence interval 0.05-0.52, P = 0.017). There was no significant association between multifocality and nodal metastases, mesenteric tumour deposits, distant metastases or disease-specific survival.
CONCLUSIONS - In patients with multifocal SI-NET, unless a particular lesion has a high mitotic rate, only staining the largest lesion for Ki67 should serve to grade almost all cases accurately. Multifocality does not appear to significantly impact patient survival.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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16 MeSH Terms
Pathologic Fibroblasts in Idiopathic Subglottic Stenosis Amplify Local Inflammatory Signals.
Morrison RJ, Katsantonis NG, Motz KM, Hillel AT, Garrett CG, Netterville JL, Wootten CT, Majka SM, Blackwell TS, Drake WP, Gelbard A
(2019) Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 160: 107-115
MeSH Terms: Biopsy, Needle, Case-Control Studies, Cell Proliferation, Cells, Cultured, Cicatrix, Cytokines, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Female, Fibroblasts, Fibrosis, Flow Cytometry, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Interleukin-17, Laryngostenosis, Male, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Reference Values, Sensitivity and Specificity, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added July 30, 2020
OBJECTIVE - To characterize the phenotype and function of fibroblasts derived from airway scar in idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS) and to explore scar fibroblast response to interleukin 17A (IL-17A).
STUDY DESIGN - Basic science.
SETTING - Laboratory.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS - Primary fibroblast cell lines from iSGS subjects, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis subjects, and normal control airways were utilized for analysis. Protein, molecular, and flow cytometric techniques were applied in vitro to assess the phenotype and functional response of disease fibroblasts to IL-17A.
RESULTS - Mechanistically, IL-17A drives iSGS scar fibroblast proliferation ( P < .01), synergizes with transforming growth factor ß1 to promote extracellular matrix production (collagen and fibronectin; P = .04), and directly stimulates scar fibroblasts to produce chemokines (chemokine ligand 2) and cytokines (IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) critical to the recruitment and differentiation of myeloid cells ( P < .01). Glucocorticoids abrogated IL-17A-dependent iSGS scar fibroblast production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ( P = .02).
CONCLUSION - IL-17A directly drives iSGS scar fibroblast proliferation, synergizes with transforming growth factor ß1 to promote extracellular matrix production, and amplifies local inflammatory signaling. Glucocorticoids appear to partially abrogate fibroblast-dependent inflammatory signaling. These results offer mechanistic support for future translational study of clinical reagents for manipulation of the IL-17A pathway in iSGS patients.
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MeSH Terms
Molecular and epidemiologic characterization of Wilms tumor from Baghdad, Iraq.
Phelps HM, Al-Jadiry MF, Corbitt NM, Pierce JM, Li B, Wei Q, Flores RR, Correa H, Uccini S, Frangoul H, Alsaadawi AR, Al-Badri SAF, Al-Darraji AF, Al-Saeed RM, Al-Hadad SA, Lovvorn Iii HN
(2018) World J Pediatr 14: 585-593
MeSH Terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing, Child, Preschool, DNA Topoisomerases, Type II, Female, Homeodomain Proteins, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Infant, Insulin-Like Growth Factor II, Iraq, Kidney Neoplasms, Male, Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction, Mutation, N-Myc Proto-Oncogene Protein, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules, Nuclear Proteins, Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins, Receptors, Retinoic Acid, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Transcription Factors, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53, Tumor Suppressor Proteins, WT1 Proteins, Wilms Tumor, beta Catenin
Show Abstract · Added January 28, 2019
BACKGROUND - Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common childhood kidney cancer worldwide, yet its incidence and clinical behavior vary according to race and access to adequate healthcare resources. To guide and streamline therapy in the war-torn and resource-constrained city of Baghdad, Iraq, we conducted a first-ever molecular analysis of 20 WT specimens to characterize the biological features of this lethal disease within this challenged population.
METHODS - Next-generation sequencing of ten target genes associated with WT development and treatment resistance (WT1, CTNNB1, WTX, IGF2, CITED1, SIX2, p53, N-MYC, CRABP2, and TOP2A) was completed. Immunohistochemistry was performed for 6 marker proteins of WT (WT1, CTNNB1, NCAM, CITED1, SIX2, and p53). Patient outcomes were compiled.
RESULTS - Mutations were detected in previously described WT "hot spots" (e.g., WT1 and CTNNB1) as well as novel loci that may be unique to the Iraqi population. Immunohistochemistry showed expression domains most typical of blastemal-predominant WT. Remarkably, despite the challenges facing families and care providers, only one child, with combined WT1 and CTNNB1 mutations, was confirmed dead from disease. Median clinical follow-up was 40.5 months (range 6-78 months).
CONCLUSIONS - These data suggest that WT biology within a population of Iraqi children manifests features both similar to and unique from disease variants in other regions of the world. These observations will help to risk stratify WT patients living in this difficult environment to more or less intensive therapies and to focus treatment on cell-specific targets.
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27 MeSH Terms
Evaluation of Lineage Changes in the Gastric Mucosa Following Infection With and Specified Intestinal Flora in INS-GAS Mice.
Pinzon-Guzman C, Meyer AR, Wise R, Choi E, Muthupalani S, Wang TC, Fox JG, Goldenring JR
(2019) J Histochem Cytochem 67: 53-63
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Animals, Gastric Mucosa, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Hyaluronan Receptors, Immunohistochemistry, Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Male, Mice, Mucin-4, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Stomach Neoplasms
Show Abstract · Added November 14, 2018
Gastric adenocarcinoma develops in metaplastic mucosa associated with infection in the stomach. We have sought to evaluate the precise lineage changes in the stomachs of insulin-gastrin (INS-GAS) mice infected with and/or intestinal flora (Altered Schaedler's Flora; ASF). Stomachs from groups infected with contained progressive spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) compared with germ-free and mice infected with ASF alone. The overall phenotype of the -infected mice was dominated by Ulex europaeus lectin (UEAI)-positive foveolar hyperplasia that was distinct from GSII/CD44v9-positive SPEM. However, in the mice with co-infected with ASF, we identified a subpopulation of UEAI-positive foveolar cells that co-expressed intestinal mucin 4 (MUC4). These regions of foveolar cells were variably positive for CD44v9 as well as TFF3. Interestingly, an intravascular lesion identified in a dual /ASF-infected mouse expressed both UEAI and . Finally, we identified an increase in the number of tuft cells within the mucosa of -infected groups. Our findings suggest that infection promotes foveolar hyperplasia as well as metaplasia, while co-infection may promote progressive foveolar and metaplastic lesions as well as dysplasia. Grading of gastric lesions in mice as preneoplastic requires multiple immunostaining markers to assign lineage derivation and behavior.
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14 MeSH Terms
Settable polymer/ceramic composite bone grafts stabilize weight-bearing tibial plateau slot defects and integrate with host bone in an ovine model.
Lu S, McGough MAP, Shiels SM, Zienkiewicz KJ, Merkel AR, Vanderburgh JP, Nyman JS, Sterling JA, Tennent DJ, Wenke JC, Guelcher SA
(2018) Biomaterials 179: 29-45
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bone Cements, Bone Transplantation, Ceramics, Compressive Strength, Female, Glass, Immunohistochemistry, Polymers, Polymethyl Methacrylate, Sheep, Tibia, Weight-Bearing, X-Ray Microtomography
Show Abstract · Added November 13, 2018
Bone fractures at weight-bearing sites are challenging to treat due to the difficulty in maintaining articular congruency. An ideal biomaterial for fracture repair near articulating joints sets rapidly after implantation, stabilizes the fracture with minimal rigid implants, stimulates new bone formation, and remodels at a rate that maintains osseous integrity. Consequently, the design of biomaterials that mechanically stabilize fractures while remodeling to form new bone is an unmet challenge in bone tissue engineering. In this study, we investigated remodeling of resorbable bone cements in a stringent model of mechanically loaded tibial plateau defects in sheep. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite-poly(ester urethane) (nHA-PEUR) hybrid polymers were augmented with either ceramic granules (85% β-tricalcium phosphate/15% hydroxyapatite, CG) or a blend of CG and bioactive glass (BG) particles to form a settable bone cement. The initial compressive strength and fatigue properties of the cements were comparable to those of non-resorbable poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement. In animals that tolerated the initial few weeks of early weight-bearing, CG/nHA-PEUR cements mechanically stabilized the tibial plateau defects and remodeled to form new bone at 16 weeks. In contrast, cements incorporating BG particles resorbed with fibrous tissue filling the defect. Furthermore, CG/nHA-PEUR cements remodeled significantly faster at the full weight-bearing tibial plateau site compared to the mechanically protected femoral condyle site in the same animal. These findings are the first to report a settable bone cement that remodels to form new bone while providing mechanical stability in a stringent large animal model of weight-bearing bone defects near an articulating joint.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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14 MeSH Terms