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Deacetylase activity of histone deacetylase 3 is required for productive recombination and B-cell development.
Stengel KR, Barnett KR, Wang J, Liu Q, Hodges E, Hiebert SW, Bhaskara S
(2017) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114: 8608-8613
MeSH Terms: Animals, B-Lymphocytes, Histone Deacetylases, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains, Immunoglobulin Variable Region, Mice, Mice, Transgenic, Point Mutation, V(D)J Recombination
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2019
Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is the catalytic component of NCoR/SMRT corepressor complexes that mediate the actions of transcription factors implicated in the regulation of B-cell development and function. We crossed conditional knockout mice with knockin animals to delete in early progenitor B cells. The spleens of mice were virtually devoid of mature B cells, and B220CD43 B-cell progenitors accumulated within the bone marrow. Quantitative deep sequencing of the Ig heavy chain locus from B220CD43 populations identified a defect in recombination with a severe reduction in productive rearrangements, which directly corresponded to the loss of pre-B cells from bone marrow. For B cells that did show productive rearrangement, there was significant skewing toward the incorporation of proximal gene segments and a corresponding reduction in distal gene segment use. Although transcriptional effects within these loci were modest, progenitor cells displayed global changes in chromatin structure that likely hindered effective distal recombination. Reintroduction of wild-type Hdac3 restored normal B-cell development, whereas an Hdac3 point mutant lacking deacetylase activity failed to complement this defect. Thus, the deacetylase activity of Hdac3 is required for the generation of mature B cells.
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MeSH Terms
Improving Loop Modeling of the Antibody Complementarity-Determining Region 3 Using Knowledge-Based Restraints.
Finn JA, Koehler Leman J, Willis JR, Cisneros A, Crowe JE, Meiler J
(2016) PLoS One 11: e0154811
MeSH Terms: Algorithms, Cluster Analysis, Complementarity Determining Regions, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains, Immunoglobulin Variable Region, Models, Molecular, Protein Conformation, Structure-Activity Relationship
Show Abstract · Added April 8, 2017
Structural restrictions are present even in the most sequence diverse portions of antibodies, the complementary determining region (CDR) loops. Previous studies identified robust rules that define canonical structures for five of the six CDR loops, however the heavy chain CDR 3 (HCDR3) defies standard classification attempts. The HCDR3 loop can be subdivided into two domains referred to as the "torso" and the "head" domains and two major families of canonical torso structures have been identified; the more prevalent "bulged" and less frequent "non-bulged" torsos. In the present study, we found that Rosetta loop modeling of 28 benchmark bulged HCDR3 loops is improved with knowledge-based structural restraints developed from available antibody crystal structures in the PDB. These restraints restrict the sampling space Rosetta searches in the torso domain, limiting the φ and ψ angles of these residues to conformations that have been experimentally observed. The application of these restraints in Rosetta result in more native-like structure sampling and improved score-based differentiation of native-like HCDR3 models, significantly improving our ability to model antibody HCDR3 loops.
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8 MeSH Terms
Low frequency of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies during chronic infection even in quaternary epitope targeting antibodies containing large numbers of somatic mutations.
Hicar MD, Chen X, Kalams SA, Sojar H, Landucci G, Forthal DN, Spearman P, Crowe JE
(2016) Mol Immunol 70: 94-103
MeSH Terms: Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, B-Lymphocytes, Cell Separation, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Epitopes, Flow Cytometry, Genes, Immunoglobulin, HIV Antibodies, HIV Infections, Humans, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains, Immunoglobulin Variable Region, Mutation, env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Show Abstract · Added January 26, 2016
Neutralizing antibodies (Abs) are thought to be a critical component of an appropriate HIV vaccine response. It has been proposed that Abs recognizing conformationally dependent quaternary epitopes on the HIV envelope (Env) trimer may be necessary to neutralize diverse HIV strains. A number of recently described broadly neutralizing monoclonal Abs (mAbs) recognize complex and quaternary epitopes. Generally, many such Abs exhibit extensive numbers of somatic mutations and unique structural characteristics. We sought to characterize the native antibody (Ab) response against circulating HIV focusing on such conformational responses, without a prior selection based on neutralization. Using a capture system based on VLPs incorporating cleaved envelope protein, we identified a selection of B cells that produce quaternary epitope targeting Abs (QtAbs). Similar to a number of broadly neutralizing Abs, the Ab genes encoding these QtAbs showed extensive numbers of somatic mutations. However, when expressed as recombinant molecules, these Abs failed to neutralize virus or mediate ADCVI activity. Molecular analysis showed unusually high numbers of mutations in the Ab heavy chain framework 3 region of the variable genes. The analysis suggests that large numbers of somatic mutations occur in Ab genes encoding HIV Abs in chronically infected individuals in a non-directed, stochastic, manner.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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15 MeSH Terms
Tissue-specific expressed antibody variable gene repertoires.
Briney BS, Willis JR, Finn JA, McKinney BA, Crowe JE
(2014) PLoS One 9: e100839
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Antibodies, Bone Marrow, Cluster Analysis, Complementarity Determining Regions, DNA, Demography, Gene Expression Regulation, Germ Cells, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Humans, Immunoglobulin Variable Region, Lymphoid Tissue, Middle Aged, Mucous Membrane, Mutation, Mutation Rate, Organ Specificity, RNA, Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin, V(D)J Recombination, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added February 2, 2015
Recent developments in genetic technologies allow deep analysis of the sequence diversity of immune repertoires, but little work has been reported on the architecture of immune repertoires in mucosal tissues. Antibodies are the key to prevention of infections at the mucosal surface, but it is currently unclear whether the B cell repertoire at mucosal surfaces reflects the dominant antibodies found in the systemic compartment or whether mucosal tissues harbor unique repertoires. We examined the expressed antibody variable gene repertoires from 10 different human tissues using RNA samples derived from a large number of individuals. The results revealed that mucosal tissues such as stomach, intestine and lung possess unique antibody gene repertoires that differed substantially from those found in lymphoid tissues or peripheral blood. Mutation frequency analysis of mucosal tissue repertoires revealed that they were highly mutated, with little evidence for the presence of naïve B cells, in contrast to blood. Mucosal tissue repertoires possessed longer heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 loops than lymphoid tissue repertoires. We also noted a large increase in frequency of both insertions and deletions in the small intestine antibody repertoire. These data suggest that mucosal immune repertoires are distinct in many ways from the systemic compartment.
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23 MeSH Terms
B lymphocyte "original sin" in the bone marrow enhances islet autoreactivity in type 1 diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic mice.
Henry-Bonami RA, Williams JM, Rachakonda AB, Karamali M, Kendall PL, Thomas JW
(2013) J Immunol 190: 5992-6003
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Autoantigens, Autoimmunity, B-Lymphocytes, Bone Marrow Cells, Cell Separation, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Flow Cytometry, Immunoglobulin Variable Region, Insulin, Islets of Langerhans, Lymphocyte Activation, Mice, Mice, Inbred NOD, Molecular Sequence Data, Self Tolerance
Show Abstract · Added January 23, 2014
Effective central tolerance is required to control the large extent of autoreactivity normally present in the developing B cell repertoire. Insulin-reactive B cells are required for type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse, because engineered mice lacking this population are protected from disease. The Cg-Tg(Igh-6/Igh-V125)2Jwt/JwtJ (VH125Tg) model is used to define this population, which is found with increased frequency in the periphery of NOD mice versus nonautoimmune C57BL/6 VH125Tg mice; however, the ontogeny of this disparity is unknown. To better understand the origins of these pernicious B cells, anti-insulin B cells were tracked during development in the polyclonal repertoire of VH125Tg mice. An increased proportion of insulin-binding B cells is apparent in NOD mice at the earliest point of Ag commitment in the bone marrow. Two predominant L chains were identified in B cells that bind heterologous insulin. Interestingly, Vκ4-57-1 polymorphisms that confer a CDR3 Pro-Pro motif enhance self-reactivity in VH125Tg/NOD mice. Despite binding circulating autoantigen in vivo, anti-insulin B cells transition from the parenchyma to the sinusoids in the bone marrow of NOD mice and enter the periphery unimpeded. Anti-insulin B cells expand at the site of autoimmune attack in the pancreas and correlate with increased numbers of IFN-γ-producing cells in the repertoire. These data identify the failure to cull autoreactive B cells in the bone marrow as the primary source of anti-insulin B cells in NOD mice and suggest that dysregulation of central tolerance permits their escape into the periphery to promote disease.
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18 MeSH Terms
Reversion of somatic mutations of the respiratory syncytial virus-specific human monoclonal antibody Fab19 reveal a direct relationship between association rate and neutralizing potency.
Bates JT, Keefer CJ, Utley TJ, Correia BE, Schief WR, Crowe JE
(2013) J Immunol 190: 3732-9
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Sequence, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, Antibody Affinity, Antibody Specificity, Humans, Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments, Immunoglobulin Variable Region, Kinetics, Models, Molecular, Molecular Docking Simulation, Mutation, Neutralization Tests, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation, Recombinant Proteins, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human, Viral Fusion Proteins
Show Abstract · Added March 7, 2014
The role of affinity in determining neutralizing potency of mAbs directed against viruses is not well understood. We investigated the kinetic, structural, and functional advantage conferred by individual naturally occurring somatic mutations in the Ab H chain V region of Fab19, a well-described neutralizing human mAb directed to respiratory syncytial virus. Comparison of the affinity-matured Ab Fab19 with recombinant Fab19 Abs that were variants containing reverted amino acids from the inferred unmutated ancestor sequence revealed the molecular basis for affinity maturation of this Ab. Enhanced binding was achieved through mutations in the third H chain CDR (HCDR3) that conferred a markedly faster on-rate and a desirable increase in antiviral neutralizing activity. In contrast, most somatic mutations in the HCDR1 and HCDR2 regions did not significantly enhance Ag binding or antiviral activity. We observed a direct relationship between the measured association rate (Kon) for F protein and antiviral activity. Modeling studies of the structure of the Ag-Ab complex suggested the HCDR3 loop interacts with the antigenic site A surface loop of the respiratory syncytial virus F protein, previously shown to contain the epitope for this Ab by experimentation. These studies define a direct relationship of affinity and neutralizing activity for a viral glycoprotein-specific human mAb.
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19 MeSH Terms
Frequency and genetic characterization of V(DD)J recombinants in the human peripheral blood antibody repertoire.
Briney BS, Willis JR, Hicar MD, Thomas JW, Crowe JE
(2012) Immunology 137: 56-64
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Sequence, Antibodies, Antibody Formation, B-Lymphocytes, Base Sequence, Complementarity Determining Regions, Gene Frequency, Genetic Variation, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Humans, Immunoglobulin Variable Region, Sequence Alignment, Sequence Analysis, DNA, V(D)J Recombination
Show Abstract · Added November 6, 2013
Antibody heavy-chain recombination that results in the incorporation of multiple diversity (D) genes, although uncommon, contributes substantially to the diversity of the human antibody repertoire. Such recombination allows the generation of heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) regions of extreme length and enables junctional regions that, because of the nucleotide bias of N-addition regions, are difficult to produce through normal V(D)J recombination. Although this non-classical recombination process has been observed infrequently, comprehensive analysis of the frequency and genetic characteristics of such events in the human peripheral blood antibody repertoire has not been possible because of the rarity of such recombinants and the limitations of traditional sequencing technologies. Here, through the use of high-throughput sequencing of the normal human peripheral blood antibody repertoire, we analysed the frequency and genetic characteristics of V(DD)J recombinants. We found that these recombinations were present in approximately 1 in 800 circulating B cells, and that the frequency was severely reduced in memory cell subsets. We also found that V(DD)J recombination can occur across the spectrum of diversity genes, indicating that virtually all recombination signal sequences that flank diversity genes are amenable to V(DD)J recombination. Finally, we observed a repertoire bias in the diversity gene repertoire at the upstream (5') position, and discovered that this bias was primarily attributable to the order of diversity genes in the genomic locus.
© 2012 The Authors. Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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14 MeSH Terms
An insertion mutation that distorts antibody binding site architecture enhances function of a human antibody.
Krause JC, Ekiert DC, Tumpey TM, Smith PB, Wilson IA, Crowe JE
(2011) MBio 2: e00345-10
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Viral, Base Sequence, Binding Sites, Antibody, Cell Line, Female, Humans, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains, Immunoglobulin Variable Region, Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype, Influenza, Human, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, Insertional, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation
Show Abstract · Added August 6, 2012
The structural and functional significance of somatic insertions and deletions in antibody chains is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a naturally occurring three-amino-acid insertion within the influenza virus-specific human monoclonal antibody 2D1 heavy-chain variable region reconfigures the antibody-combining site and contributes to its high potency against the 1918 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses. The insertion arose through a series of events, including a somatic point mutation in a predicted hot-spot motif, introduction of a new hot-spot motif, a molecular duplication due to polymerase slippage, a deletion due to misalignment, and additional somatic point mutations. Atomic resolution structures of the wild-type antibody and a variant in which the insertion was removed revealed that the three-amino-acid insertion near the base of heavy-chain complementarity-determining region (CDR) H2 resulted in a bulge in that loop. This enlarged CDR H2 loop impinges on adjacent regions, causing distortion of the CDR H1 architecture and its displacement away from the antigen-combining site. Removal of the insertion restores the canonical structure of CDR H1 and CDR H2, but binding, neutralization activity, and in vivo activity were reduced markedly because of steric conflict of CDR H1 with the hemagglutinin antigen.
Copyright © 2011 Krause et al.
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18 MeSH Terms
Vkappa polymorphisms in NOD mice are spread throughout the entire immunoglobulin kappa locus and are shared by other autoimmune strains.
Henry RA, Kendall PL, Woodward EJ, Hulbert C, Thomas JW
(2010) Immunogenetics 62: 507-20
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Substitution, Animals, Autoimmunity, B-Lymphocytes, Base Sequence, DNA Primers, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain, Genes, Immunoglobulin Light Chain, Immunoglobulin Variable Region, Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains, Insulin, Mice, Mice, Inbred NOD, Mice, Transgenic, Molecular Sequence Data, Polymorphism, Genetic, Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid, Species Specificity, T-Lymphocytes
Show Abstract · Added December 10, 2013
The diversity of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) genes available to form the lymphocyte repertoire has the capacity to produce a broad array of both protective and harmful specificities. In type 1 diabetes (T1D), the presence of antibodies to insulin and other islet antigens predicts disease development in both mice and humans, and demonstrate that immune tolerance is lost early in the disease process. Anti-insulin T cells isolated from T1D-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice use polymorphic TCRalpha chains, suggesting that the available T cell repertoire is altered in these autoimmune mice. To probe whether insulin-binding B cells also possess polymorphic V genes, Ig light chains were isolated and sequenced from NOD mice that harbor an Ig heavy chain transgene. Three insulin-binding Vkappa genes were identified, all of which were polymorphic to the closest germline sequence matches present in the GenBank database. Additional analysis of over 300 light chain sequences from multiple sources, including germline DNA, shows that polymorphisms are spread throughout the entire NOD Igkappa locus, as these polymorphic sequences represent 43 distinct Vkappa genes which belong to 14 Vkappa families. Database searches reveal that a majority of polymorphic Vkappa genes identified in NOD are identical to Vkappa genes isolated from SLE-prone NZBxNZW F1 or MRL strains of mice, suggesting that a shared Igkappa haplotype may be present. Predicted amino acid changes preferentially occur in CDR, and thus could alter antigen recognition by the germline B cell repertoire of autoimmune versus non-autoimmune mouse strains.
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20 MeSH Terms
The human neonatal B cell response to respiratory syncytial virus uses a biased antibody variable gene repertoire that lacks somatic mutations.
Williams JV, Weitkamp JH, Blum DL, LaFleur BJ, Crowe JE
(2009) Mol Immunol 47: 407-14
MeSH Terms: Adult, Antibodies, Antibody Specificity, B-Lymphocytes, Cell Separation, Child, Complementarity Determining Regions, Flow Cytometry, Humans, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains, Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Immunoglobulin Variable Region, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Lymphocyte Count, Mutagenesis, Insertional, Mutation, Respiratory Syncytial Viruses, Species Specificity
Show Abstract · Added February 27, 2014
The human Ab repertoire exhibits restrictions during fetal life characterized by biases of variable gene segment usage and lack of junctional diversity. We tested the hypotheses that Ab repertoire restriction persists in the early postnatal period and contributes to the observed poor quality of specific Ab responses made by neonates to viruses and vaccines. We analyzed the molecular determinants of B cell responses in humans to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Analysis of the variable gene segment usage of adult RSV-specific B cells revealed a repertoire profile in these cells similar to that seen in randomly selected B cells, which was V(H)3-dominant. Four gene segments (V(H)3-23, V(H)3-30, V(H)3-33 and V(H)4-04) accounted for almost half of the V(H) genes used. In contrast, very young infant RSV-specific antibodies exhibited a biased repertoire characterized by comparable use of the V(H)1, V(H)3, and V(H)4 families, and less common use of the four immunodominant gene segments. Infants and children older than three months used an antibody repertoire similar to that of adults. Mutational analysis revealed that the antibody variable genes of infants under three months of age also possessed significantly fewer somatic mutations in both framework and complementarity-determining region (CDR) regions than those of adults, even in a child with recurrent RSV infection. These data suggest that neonates use a biased antibody gene repertoire that is less V(H)3-focused and that possesses a dramatically lower frequency of somatic mutations. These biased features of the RSV-specific repertoire likely contribute to the poor functional Ab response in very young infants.
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19 MeSH Terms