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Purpose - The purpose of this study was to characterize the palmitoyl-proteome in lens fiber cells. S-palmitoylation is the most common form of protein S-acylation and the reversible nature of this modification functions as a molecular switch to regulate many biological processes. This modification could play important roles in regulating protein functions and protein-protein interactions in the lens.
Methods - The palmitoyl-proteome of bovine lens fiber cells was investigated by combining acyl-biotin exchange (ABE) chemistry and mass-spectrometry analysis. Due to the possibility of false-positive results from ABE experiment, a method was also developed for direct detection of palmitoylated peptides by mass spectrometry for validating palmitoylation of lens proteins MP20 and AQP5. Palmitoylation levels on AQP5 in different regions of the lens were quantified after iodoacetamide (IAA)-palmitate exchange.
Results - The ABE experiment identified 174 potential palmitoylated proteins. These proteins include 39 well-characterized palmitoylated proteins, 92 previously reported palmitoylated proteins in other tissues, and 43 newly identified potential palmitoylated proteins including two important transmembrane proteins in the lens, AQP5 and MP20. Further analysis by direct detection of palmitoylated peptides confirmed palmitoylation of AQP5 on C6 and palmitoylation of MP20 on C159. Palmitoylation of AQP5 was found to only occur in a narrow region of the inner lens cortex and does not occur in the lens epithelium, in the lens outer cortex, or in the lens nucleus.
Conclusions - AQP5 and MP20 are among 174 palmitoylated proteins found in bovine lens fiber cells. This modification to AQP5 and MP20 may play a role in their translocation from the cytoplasm to cell membranes during fiber cell differentiation.
β-Arrestins are key regulators and signal transducers of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The interaction between receptors and β-arrestins is generally believed to require both receptor activity and phosphorylation by GPCR kinases. In this study, we investigated whether β-arrestins are able to bind second messenger kinase-phosphorylated, but inactive receptors as well. Because heterologous phosphorylation is a common phenomenon among GPCRs, this mode of β-arrestin activation may represent a novel mechanism of signal transduction and receptor cross-talk. Here we demonstrate that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol myristate acetate, G-coupled GPCR, or epidermal growth factor receptor stimulation promotes β-arrestin2 recruitment to unliganded AT angiotensin receptor (ATR). We found that this interaction depends on the stability lock, a structure responsible for the sustained binding between GPCRs and β-arrestins, formed by phosphorylated serine-threonine clusters in the receptor's C terminus and two conserved phosphate-binding lysines in the β-arrestin2 N-domain. Using improved FlAsH-based serine-threonine clusters β-arrestin2 conformational biosensors, we also show that the stability lock not only stabilizes the receptor-β-arrestin interaction, but also governs the structural rearrangements within β-arrestins. Furthermore, we found that β-arrestin2 binds to PKC-phosphorylated ATR in a distinct active conformation, which triggers MAPK recruitment and receptor internalization. Our results provide new insights into the activation of β-arrestins and reveal their novel role in receptor cross-talk.
© 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) represent important modulators of plaque stability in advanced lesions. We previously reported that loss of small proline-rich repeat protein 3 (Sprr3), leads to VSMC apoptosis in a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner and accelerates lesion progression. Here, we investigated the role of Sprr3 in modulating plaque stability in hyperlipidemic ApoE-/- mice. We show that loss of Sprr3 increased necrotic core size and reduced cap collagen content of atheromas in brachiocephalic arteries with evidence of plaque rupture and development of intraluminal thrombi. Moreover, Sprr3-/-ApoE-/- mice developed advanced coronary artery lesions accompanied by intraplaque hemorrhage and left ventricle microinfarcts. SPRR3 is known to reduce VSMC survival in lesions by promoting their apoptosis. In addition, we demonstrated that Sprr3-/- VSMCs displayed reduced expression of procollagen in a PI3K/Akt dependent manner. SPRR3 loss also increased MMP gelatinase activity in lesions, and increased MMP2 expression, migration and contraction of VSMCs independently of PI3K/Akt. Consequently, Sprr3 represents the first described VSMC modulator of each of the critical features of cap stability, including VSMC numbers, collagen type I synthesis, and protease activity through Akt dependent and independent pathways.
The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) secretes higher volumes of fluid (cerebrospinal fluid, CSF) than any other epithelium and simultaneously functions as the blood-CSF barrier to gate immune cell entry into the central nervous system. Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), an expansion of the cerebral ventricles due to CSF accumulation following intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), is a common disease usually treated by suboptimal CSF shunting techniques. PHH is classically attributed to primary impairments in CSF reabsorption, but little experimental evidence supports this concept. In contrast, the potential contribution of CSF secretion to PHH has received little attention. In a rat model of PHH, we demonstrate that IVH causes a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and NF-κB-dependent inflammatory response in the CPE that is associated with a ∼3-fold increase in bumetanide-sensitive CSF secretion. IVH-induced hypersecretion of CSF is mediated by TLR4-dependent activation of the Ste20-type stress kinase SPAK, which binds, phosphorylates, and stimulates the NKCC1 co-transporter at the CPE apical membrane. Genetic depletion of TLR4 or SPAK normalizes hyperactive CSF secretion rates and reduces PHH symptoms, as does treatment with drugs that antagonize TLR4-NF-κB signaling or the SPAK-NKCC1 co-transporter complex. These data uncover a previously unrecognized contribution of CSF hypersecretion to the pathogenesis of PHH, demonstrate a new role for TLRs in regulation of the internal brain milieu, and identify a kinase-regulated mechanism of CSF secretion that could be targeted by repurposed US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs to treat hydrocephalus.
An interaction between the C-terminus of aquaporin-0 (AQP0) and lens beaded filament protein filensin has been reported previously; however, the region of filensin that is involved in the interaction has not been determined. This study is designed to identify the region of filensin that interacts with AQP0. Chemical crosslinking coupled with mass spectrometry was used to identify the site of interaction. The protein complex was crosslinked with zero-length crosslinker: 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide Hydrochloride (EDC). The crosslinked membrane fraction was digested by trypsin and crosslinked peptides were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A crosslinked peptide between bovine filensin 450-465 (VKGPKEPEPPADLYTK) and bovine AQP0 239-259 (GSRPSESNGQPEVTGEPVELK) was detected. AQP0/filensin crosslinking was not detected in superficial young fiber cells, but increased with fiber cell age in the lens cortex. AQP0/filensin crosslinking and filensin truncation were observed in the same regions of the lens. This crosslinked peptide can be detected in 75 kDa gel band confirming that AQP0/filensin crosslinking can occur between AQP0 and the filensin C-terminal fragment. These results suggest that the AQP0 C-terminus directly interacts with the region of filensin that is adjacent to the major truncation site and the polybasic cluster of residues in the filensin C-terminal tail. This interaction occurs in a specific region of the lens and could only occur between AQP0 and filensin C-terminal fragment in vivo. This interaction supports the dual roles of filensin in the lens; roles that could be important during lens development.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by increased macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory M1 macrophages contribute to development of DN. Previous studies by us and others have reported that macrophage cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a role in polarization and maintenance of a macrophage tissue-reparative M2 phenotype. We examined the effects of macrophage COX-2 on development of DN in type 1 diabetes. Cultured macrophages with COX-2 deletion exhibited an M1 phenotype, as demonstrated by higher inducible nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor-κB levels but lower interleukin-4 receptor-α levels. Compared with corresponding wild-type diabetic mice, mice with COX-2 deletion in hematopoietic cells (COX-2 knockout bone marrow transplantation) or macrophages (CD11b-Cre COX2) developed severe DN, as indicated by increased albuminuria, fibrosis, and renal infiltration of T cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. Although diabetic kidneys with macrophage COX-2 deletion had more macrophage infiltration, they had fewer renal M2 macrophages. Diabetic kidneys with macrophage COX-2 deletion also had increased endoplasmic reticulum stress and decreased number of podocytes. Similar results were found in diabetic mice with macrophage PGE receptor subtype 4 deletion. In summary, these studies have demonstrated an important but unexpected role for macrophage COX-2/prostaglandin E/PGE receptor subtype 4 signaling to lessen progression of diabetic kidney disease, unlike the pathogenic effects of increased COX-2 expression in intrinsic renal cells.
© 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and other molecularly heterogeneous malignancies present a significant clinical challenge due to a lack of high-frequency "driver" alterations amenable to therapeutic intervention. These cancers often exhibit genomic instability, resulting in chromosomal rearrangements that affect the structure and expression of protein-coding genes. However, identification of these rearrangements remains technically challenging. Using a newly developed approach that quantitatively predicts gene rearrangements in tumor-derived genetic material, we identified and characterized a novel oncogenic fusion involving the MER proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase (MERTK) and discovered a clinical occurrence and cell line model of the targetable FGFR3-TACC3 fusion in TNBC. Expanding our analysis to other malignancies, we identified a diverse array of novel and known hybrid transcripts, including rearrangements between noncoding regions and clinically relevant genes such as ALK, CSF1R, and CD274/PD-L1 The over 1,000 genetic alterations we identified highlight the importance of considering noncoding gene rearrangement partners, and the targetable gene fusions identified in TNBC demonstrate the need to advance gene fusion detection for molecularly heterogeneous cancers. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4850-60. ©2016 AACR.
©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.
CD148 is a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that is expressed in multiple cell types, including vascular endothelial cells and duct epithelial cells. Previous studies have shown a prominent role of CD148 to reduce growth factor signals and suppress cell proliferation and transformation. Further, we have recently shown that thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) serves as a functionally important ligand for CD148. TSP1 has multiple structural elements and interacts with various cell surface receptors that exhibit differing effects. In order to create the CD148-specific TSP1 fragment, here we investigated the CD148-interacting region in TSP1 using a series of TSP1 fragments and biochemical and biological assays. Our results demonstrate that: 1) CD148 binds to the 1st type 1 repeat in TSP1; 2) Trimeric TSP1 fragments that contain the 1st type repeat inhibit cell proliferation in A431D cells that stably express wild-type CD148 (A431D/CD148wt cells), while they show no effects in A431D cells that lack CD148 or express a catalytically inactive form of CD148. The anti-proliferative effect of the TSP1 fragment in A431D/CD148wt cells was largely abolished by CD148 knockdown and antagonized by the 1st, but not the 2nd and 3rd, type 1 repeat fragment. Furthermore, the trimeric TSP1 fragments containing the 1st type repeat increased the catalytic activity of CD148 and reduced phospho-tyrosine contents of EGFR and ERK1/2, defined CD148 substrates. These effects were not observed in the TSP1 fragments that lack the 1st type 1 repeat. Last, we demonstrate that the trimeric TSP1 fragment containing the 1st type 1 repeat inhibits endothelial cell proliferation in culture and angiogenesis in vivo. These effects were largely abolished by CD148 knockdown or deficiency. Collectively, these findings indicate that the 1st type 1 repeat interacts with CD148, reducing growth factor signals and inhibiting epithelial or endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis.
Angiotensin II-induced hypertension is associated with an increase in T-cell production of interleukin-17A (IL-17A). Recently, we reported that IL-17A(-/-) mice exhibit blunted hypertension, preserved natriuresis in response to a saline challenge, and decreased renal sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 expression after 2 weeks of angiotensin II infusion compared with wild-type mice. In the current study, we performed renal transporter profiling in mice deficient in IL-17A or the related isoform, IL-17F, after 4 weeks of Ang II infusion, the time when the blood pressure reduction in IL-17A(-/-) mice is most prominent. Deficiency of IL-17A abolished the activation of distal tubule transporters, specifically the sodium-chloride cotransporter and the epithelial sodium channel and protected mice from glomerular and tubular injury. In human proximal tubule (HK-2) cells, IL-17A increased sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 expression through a serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1-dependent pathway. In mouse distal convoluted tubule cells, IL-17A increased sodium-chloride cotransporter activity in a serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1/Nedd4-2-dependent pathway. In both cell types, acute treatment with IL-17A induced phosphorylation of serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 at serine 78, and treatment with a serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 inhibitor blocked the effects of IL-17A on sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 and sodium-chloride cotransporter. Interestingly, both HK-2 and mouse distal convoluted tubule 15 cells produce endogenous IL-17A. IL17F had little or no effect on blood pressure or renal sodium transporter abundance. These studies provide a mechanistic link by which IL-17A modulates renal sodium transport and suggest that IL-17A inhibition may improve renal function in hypertension and other autoimmune disorders.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
BACKGROUND & AIMS - Many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) fail to respond to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents such as infliximab and adalimumab, and etanercept is not effective for treatment of Crohn's disease. Activated matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) and MMP12, which are increased in inflamed mucosa of patients with IBD, have a wide range of substrates, including IgG1. TNF-neutralizing agents act in inflamed tissues; we investigated the effects of MMP3, MMP12, and mucosal proteins from IBD patients on these drugs.
METHODS - Biopsy specimens from inflamed colon of 8 patients with Crohn's disease and 8 patients with ulcerative colitis, and from normal colon of 8 healthy individuals (controls), were analyzed histologically, or homogenized and proteins were extracted. We also analyzed sera from 29 patients with active Crohn's disease and 33 patients with active ulcerative colitis who were candidates to receive infliximab treatment. Infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept were incubated with mucosal homogenates from patients with IBD or activated recombinant human MMP3 or MMP12 and analyzed on immunoblots or in luciferase reporter assays designed to measure TNF activity. IgG cleaved by MMP3 or MMP12 and antihinge autoantibodies against neo-epitopes on cleaved IgG were measured in sera from IBD patients who subsequently responded (clinical remission and complete mucosal healing) or did not respond to infliximab.
RESULTS - MMP3 and MMP12 cleaved infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, releasing a 32-kilodalton Fc monomer. After MMP degradation, infliximab and adalimumab functioned as F(ab')2 fragments, whereas cleaved etanercept lost its ability to neutralize TNF. Proteins from the mucosa of patients with IBD reduced the integrity and function of infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept. TNF-neutralizing function was restored after incubation of the drugs with MMP inhibitors. Serum levels of endogenous IgG cleaved by MMP3 and MMP12, and antihinge autoantibodies against neo-epitopes of cleaved IgG, were higher in patients who did not respond to treatment vs responders.
CONCLUSIONS - Proteolytic degradation may contribute to the nonresponsiveness of patients with IBD to anti-TNF agents.
Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.