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BACKGROUND - In early clinical studies, the live tuberculosis vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG exhibited 80% protective efficacy against pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Although BCG still exhibits reliable protection against TB meningitis and miliary TB in early childhood it has become less reliable in protecting against pulmonary TB. During decades of in vitro cultivation BCG not only lost some genes due to deletions of regions of the chromosome but also underwent gene duplication and other mutations resulting in increased antioxidant production.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS - To determine whether microbial antioxidants influence vaccine immunogenicity, we eliminated duplicated alleles encoding the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH in BCG Tice and reduced the activity and secretion of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase. We then used assays of gene expression and flow cytometry with intracellular cytokine staining to compare BCG-specific immune responses in mice after vaccination with BCG Tice or the modified BCG vaccine. Compared to BCG, the modified vaccine induced greater IL-12p40, RANTES, and IL-21 mRNA in the spleens of mice at three days post-immunization, more cytokine-producing CD8+ lymphocytes at the peak of the primary immune response, and more IL-2-producing CD4+ lymphocytes during the memory phase. The modified vaccine also induced stronger secondary CD4+ lymphocyte responses and greater clearance of challenge bacilli.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE - We conclude that antioxidants produced by BCG suppress host immune responses. These findings challenge the hypothesis that the failure of extensively cultivated BCG vaccines to prevent pulmonary tuberculosis is due to over-attenuation and suggest instead a new model in which BCG evolved to produce more immunity-suppressing antioxidants. By targeting these antioxidants it may be possible to restore BCG's ability to protect against pulmonary TB.
Leukotrienes (LTs) are potent lipid mediators involved in the control of host defense. LTB(4) induces leukocyte accumulation, enhances phagocytosis and bacterial clearance, and increases NO synthesis. LTB(4) is also important in early effector T cell recruitment that is mediated by LTB(4) receptor 1, the high-affinity receptor for LTB(4). The aims of this study were to evaluate whether LTs are involved in the secondary immune response to vaccination in a murine model of Histoplasma capsulatum infection. Our results demonstrate that protection of wild-type mice immunized with cell-free Ags from H. capsulatum against histoplasmosis was associated with increased LTB(4) and IFN-gamma production as well as recruitment of memory T cells into the lungs. In contrast, cell-free Ag-immunized mice lacking 5-lipoxygenase(-/-), a critical enzyme involved in LT synthesis, displayed a marked decrease on recruitment of memory T cells to the lungs associated with increased synthesis of TGF-beta as well as IL-10. Strikingly, these effects were associated with increased mortality to 5-lipoxygenase(-/-)-infected mice. These data establish an important immunomodulatory role of LTs, in both the primary and secondary immune responses to histoplasmosis.
OBJECTIVE - Our goal was to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of pertussis booster vaccination in children infected with HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
PATIENTS AND METHODS - HIV-infected children on stable HAART for > or = 3 months with plasma HIV-RNA concentrations of < 30,000 to 60,000 copies per mL who previously received > or = 4 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-containing vaccine were eligible. Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine was administered to subjects 2 to < 7 years old who had 4 previous DTP-containing vaccines, subjects 2 to < 7 years old who had > or = 5 previous DTP-containing vaccines and negative tetanus antibody, and subjects > or = 7 to < or = 13 years old who had negative tetanus antibody. Pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin antibodies were measured before and 8, 24, and 72 weeks after DTaP vaccine.
RESULTS - Ninety-two subjects received DTaP vaccine and met criteria for analysis. Antibody concentrations were low at entry: pertussis toxin geometric mean concentration at 4.8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU) per mL and filamentous hemagglutinin geometric mean concentration at 4.1 EU/mL. Pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin geometric mean concentrations rose to 22.3 and 77.0 EU/mL, respectively, 8 weeks after the study DTaP vaccine. Antibody concentrations fell by 24 weeks after vaccination but remained higher than before vaccination. Predictors of response 8 weeks after DTaP vaccine included the concentration of homologous antibody, lower HIV-RNA level, and higher CD4 percentage at entry. One vaccinated subject experienced erythema and induration of > or = 25 mm.
CONCLUSIONS - A DTaP vaccine booster was well tolerated by children on HAART and induced increases in antibodies. Antibody concentrations after vaccination were lower than those reported in populations uninfected by HIV. Although comparison among studies must be made with caution, these data suggest that children infected with HIV may be deficient in immunologic memory from previous DTP-containing vaccination and/or that immune reconstitution with HAART may be incomplete for pertussis antigens.
Two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains that express and export a truncated version of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite surface protein (tCSP) fused to Salmonella serovar Typhi cytolysin A (ClyA) were constructed as a first step in the development of a preerythrocytic malaria vaccine. Synthetic codon-optimized genes (t-csp1 and t-csp2), containing immunodominant B- and T-cell epitopes present in native P. falciparum circumsporozoite surface protein (PfCSP), were fused in frame to the carboxyl terminus of the ClyA gene (clyA::t-csp) in genetically stabilized expression plasmids. Expression and export of ClyA-tCSP1 and ClyA-tCSP2 by Salmonella serovar Typhi vaccine strain CVD 908-htrA were demonstrated by immunoblotting of whole-cell lysates and culture supernatants. The immunogenicity of these constructs was evaluated using a "heterologous prime-boost" approach consisting of mucosal priming with Salmonella serovar Typhi expressing ClyA-tCSP1 and ClyA-tCSP2, followed by parenteral boosting with PfCSP DNA vaccines pVR2510 and pVR2571. Mice primed intranasally on days 0 and 28 with CVD 908-htrA(pSEC10tcsp2) and boosted intradermally on day 56 with PfCSP DNA vaccine pVR2571 induced high titers of serum NANP immunoglobulin G (IgG) (predominantly IgG2a); no serological responses to DNA vaccination were observed in the absence of Salmonella serovar Typhi-PfCSP priming. Mice primed with Salmonella serovar Typhi expressing tCSP2 and boosted with PfCSP DNA also developed high frequencies of gamma interferon-secreting cells, which surpassed those produced by PfCSP DNA in the absence of priming. A prime-boost regimen consisting of mucosal delivery of PfCSP exported from a Salmonella-based live-vector vaccine followed by a parenteral PfCSP DNA boosting is a promising strategy for the development of a live-vector-based malaria vaccine.
OBJECTIVES - (1) To determine serotype-specific IgG antibody responses to reimmunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at age 5 years in children with sickle cell anemia and (2) to determine whether continued penicillin prophylaxis had any adverse effects on these responses.
STUDY DESIGN - Children with sickle cell anemia, who had been treated with prophylactic penicillin for at least 2 years before their fifth birthday, were randomly selected at age 5 years to continue penicillin prophylaxis or to receive placebo treatment. These children had been immunized once or twice in early childhood with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and were reimmunized at the time of randomization.
RESULTS - Serotype-specific IgG antibody responses to reimmunization varied according to pneumococcal serotype but in general were mediocre or poor; the poorest response was to serotype 6B. The antibody responses were similar in subjects with continued penicillin prophylaxis or placebo treatment, and in subjects who received one or two pneumococcal vaccinations before reimmunization. The occurrence of pneumococcal bacteremia was associated with low IgG antibody concentrations to the infecting serotype.
CONCLUSIONS - Reimmunization of children with sickle cell anemia who received pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at age 5 years induces limited production of serotype-specific IgG antibodies, regardless of previous pneumococcal vaccine history. Continued penicillin prophylaxis does not interfere with serotype-specific IgG antibody responses to reimmunization.
A double-blind, randomized controlled trial over 5 years compared the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of cold-adapted and inactivated influenza A vaccines in 5210 normal subjects. Both vaccines were well tolerated. Inactivated vaccine significantly increased hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers. Significant titer rises were also noted after cold-adapted vaccine but of lesser magnitude than with inactivated vaccine. The efficacy of inactivated vaccine in preventing culture-positive influenza was 76% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58%-87%) for H1N1 disease and 74% (95% CI, 52%-86%) for H3N2; for cold-adapted vaccine, 85% (95% CI, 70%-92%) and 58% (95% CI, 29%-75%), respectively. The efficacy of inactivated vaccine in preventing a four-fold rise in antibody titer over the influenza season was 69% (95% CI, 61%-76%) for H1N1 and 73% (95% CI, 65%-79%) for H3N2; for cold-adapted vaccine, 54% (95% CI, 44%-62%) and 32% (95% CI, 17%-44%), respectively. Cold-adapted and inactivated influenza vaccines are safe and effective for preventing influenza A disease.