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OBJECTIVE - To compare early routine pharmacologic treatment of moderate-to-large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) at the end of week 1 with a conservative approach that requires prespecified respiratory and hemodynamic criteria before treatment can be given.
STUDY DESIGN - A total of 202 neonates of <28 weeks of gestation age (mean, 25.8 ± 1.1 weeks) with moderate-to-large PDA shunts were enrolled between age 6 and 14 days (mean, 8.1 ± 2.2 days) into an exploratory randomized controlled trial.
RESULTS - At enrollment, 49% of the patients were intubated and 48% required nasal ventilation or continuous positive airway pressure. There were no differences between the groups in either our primary outcome of ligation or presence of a PDA at discharge (early routine treatment [ERT], 32%; conservative treatment [CT], 39%) or any of our prespecified secondary outcomes of necrotizing enterocolitis (ERT, 16%; CT, 19%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (ERT, 49%; CT, 53%), BPD/death (ERT, 58%; CT, 57%), death (ERT,19%; CT, 10%), and weekly need for respiratory support. Fewer infants in the ERT group met the rescue criteria (ERT, 31%; CT, 62%). In secondary exploratory analyses, infants receiving ERT had significantly less need for inotropic support (ERT, 13%; CT, 25%). However, among infants who were ≥26 weeks gestational age, those receiving ERT took significantly longer to achieve enteral feeding of 120 mL/kg/day (median: ERT, 14 days [range, 4.5-19 days]; CT, 6 days [range, 3-14 days]), and had significantly higher incidences of late-onset non-coagulase-negative Staphylococcus bacteremia (ERT, 24%; CT,6%) and death (ERT, 16%; CT, 2%).
CONCLUSIONS - In preterm infants age <28 weeks with moderate-to-large PDAs who were receiving respiratory support after the first week, ERT did not reduce PDA ligations or the presence of a PDA at discharge and did not improve any of the prespecified secondary outcomes, but delayed full feeding and was associated with higher rates of late-onset sepsis and death in infants born at ≥26 weeks of gestation.
TRIAL REGISTRATION - ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01958320.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a frequent, complex, and difficult to treat clinical syndrome among preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. In addition to known clinical risk factors, there are emerging data about genetic predisposition to PDA in both animal and human models. Clinical response and toxicity from drugs used to treat PDA are highly variable. Developmental and genetic aspects of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics influence exposure and response to pharmacologic therapies. Given the variable efficacy and toxicity of known drug therapies, novel therapeutic targets for PDA treatment offer the promise of precision medicine. This review addresses the known genetic contributions to prolonged ductal patency, variability in response to drug therapy for PDA, and potential novel drug targets for future PDA treatment discovery.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Regular aspirin use may decrease cancer risk by reducing chronic inflammation. However, associations between aspirin use and circulating markers of inflammation have not been well studied.
METHODS - Serum levels of 78 inflammatory markers were measured in 1,819 55- to 74-year-old men and women in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Data were combined from three completed case-control studies and reweighted to the PLCO screening arm. Self-reported aspirin and ibuprofen use (number of tablets taken per day/week/month) over the previous 12 months was collected at baseline. Associations between (i) nonregular (<4 tablets/month), (ii) low (1-4 tablets/week), (iii) moderate (1 tablet/day), or (iv) high (2+ tablets/day) regular aspirin or ibuprofen use and marker levels were assessed with weighted logistic regression.
RESULTS - Aspirin use was nominally associated with (Ptrend across categories ≤ 0.05) decreased levels of chemokine C-C motif ligand 15 [CCL15; OR, 0.5; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.3-0.8; moderate versus nonregular use]; soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (sVEGFR2; OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.4-1.0); soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1; OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and increased levels of CCL13 (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.8-2.1); CCL17 (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.7-1.9) and interleukin 4 (IL4; OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.9-2.8). Trends were not statistically significant following correction for multiple comparisons. Likewise, no statistically significant associations were observed between ibuprofen use and marker levels.
CONCLUSIONS - No significant associations were observed between regular aspirin use and the inflammatory markers assessed.
IMPACT - Additional studies are needed to better understand the relationship between aspirin use, chronic inflammation, and cancer risk.
©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
We examined superior mesenteric artery blood flow velocity in response to feeding in infants randomized to trophic feeds (n = 16) or nil per os (n = 18) during previous treatment for patent ductus arteriosus. Blood flow velocity increased earlier in the fed infants, but was similar in the 2 groups at 30 minutes after feeding.
Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - To test the hypothesis that infants who are just being introduced to enteral feedings will advance to full enteral nutrition at a faster rate if they receive "trophic" (15 mL/kg/d) enteral feedings while receiving indomethacin or ibuprofen treatment for patent ductus arteriosus.
STUDY DESIGN - Infants were eligible for the study if they were 23(1/7)-30(6/7) weeks' gestation, weighed 401-1250 g at birth, received maximum enteral volumes ≤60 mL/kg/d, and were about to be treated with indomethacin or ibuprofen. A standardized "feeding advance regimen" and guidelines for managing feeding intolerance were followed at each site (N = 13).
RESULTS - Infants (N = 177, 26.3 ± 1.9 weeks' mean ± SD gestation) were randomized at 6.5 ± 3.9 days to receive "trophic" feeds ("feeding" group, n = 81: indomethacin 80%, ibuprofen 20%) or no feeds ("fasting [nil per os]" group, n = 96: indomethacin 75%, ibuprofen 25%) during the drug administration period. Maximum daily enteral volumes before study entry were 14 ± 15 mL/kg/d. After drug treatment, infants randomized to the "feeding" arm required fewer days to reach the study's feeding volume end point (120 mL/kg/d). Although the enteral feeding end point was reached at an earlier postnatal age, the age at which central venous lines were removed did not differ between the 2 groups. There were no differences between the 2 groups in the incidence of infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, spontaneous intestinal perforation, or other neonatal morbidities.
CONCLUSION - Infants required less time to reach the feeding volume end point if they were given "trophic" enteral feedings when they received indomethacin or ibuprofen treatments.
Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Indomethacin and ibuprofen are potent inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis. Neonates have been exposed to these compounds for more than 3 decades. Indomethacin is commonly used to prevent intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and both drugs are prescribed for the treatment or prevention of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). This review examines the basis for indomethacin and ibuprofen use in the neonatal intensive care population. Despite the call for restrained use of each drug, the most immature infants are likely to need pharmacologic approaches to reduce high-grade IVH, avoid the need for PDA ligation, and preserve the opportunity for an optimal outcome.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - The cardiovascular safety of individual nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is highly controversial, particularly in persons with serious coronary heart disease.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We conducted a multisite retrospective cohort study of commonly used individual NSAIDs in Tennessee Medicaid, Saskatchewan Health, and United Kingdom General Practice Research databases. The cohort included 48566 patients recently hospitalized for myocardial infarction, revascularization, or unstable angina pectoris with more than 111000 person-years of follow-up. Naproxen users had the lowest adjusted rates of serious coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death) and serious cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke)/death from any cause, with respective incidence rate ratios (relative to NSAID nonusers) of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.66 to 1.17) and 0.91 (0.78 to 1.06). Risk did not increase with doses >or=1000 mg. Relative to NSAID nonusers, serious coronary heart disease risk increased with short term (<90 days) use for ibuprofen (1.67 [1.09 to 2.57]), diclofenac (1.86 [1.18 to 2.92]), celecoxib (1.37 [0.96 to 1.94]), and rofecoxib (1.46 [1.03 to 2.07]), but not for naproxen (0.88 [0.50 to 1.55]). Relative to naproxen, current users of diclofenac had increased risk of serious coronary heart disease (1.44 [0.96 to 2.15], P=0.076) and serious cardiovascular disease/death (1.52 [1.22 to 1.89], P=0.0002), and those of ibuprofen had increased risk of the latter end point (1.25 [1.02 to 1.53], P=0.032). Compared to naproxen in doses >or=1000 mg, serious coronary heart disease incidence rate ratios were increased for rofecoxib >25 mg (2.29 [1.24 to 4.22], P=0.008) and celecoxib >200 mg (1.61 [1.01 to 2.57], P=0.046).
CONCLUSIONS - In patients recently hospitalized for serious coronary heart disease, naproxen had better cardiovascular safety than did diclofenac, ibuprofen, and higher doses of celecoxib and rofecoxib.
Ibuprofen and mefenamic acid are weak, competitive inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) oxygenation of arachidonic acid (AA) but potent, noncompetitive inhibitors of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) oxygenation. The slow, tight-binding inhibitor, indomethacin, is a potent inhibitor of 2-AG and AA oxygenation whereas the rapidly reversible inhibitor, 2'-des-methylindomethacin, is a potent inhibitor of 2-AG oxygenation but a poor inhibitor of AA oxygenation. These observations are consistent with a model in which inhibitors bind in one subunit of COX-2 and inhibit 2-AG binding in the other subunit of the homodimeric protein. In contrast, ibuprofen and mefenamate must bind in both subunits to inhibit AA binding.
This study was designed to measure the magnitude and duration of inhibition of platelet aggregation following doses of aspirin or ibuprofen alone or taken in combination in a group of healthy volunteers. Ten normal volunteer subjects underwent 3 randomized treatment sessions: aspirin 325 mg alone, ibuprofen 400 mg alone, and ibuprofen 400 mg, followed by dosing with aspirin 325 mg 2 hours thereafter. In addition, a confirmatory study was performed in patients. Over 27 months, a cohort of patients treated with aspirin for secondary stroke prophylaxis while concomitantly taking a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was identified. A significant reduction was found in both the magnitude and duration of aspirin's inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation when ibuprofen was given prior to aspirin administration in normal volunteer subjects. During a 27-month period, a cohort of 28 patients took regular daily doses of ibuprofen or naproxen. Of these 28 patients, 18 returned for follow-up testing in the absence of this pharmacodynamic interaction. None of these 18 patients demonstrated inhibition of platelet aggregation while on both NSAID and aspirin; however, all showed inhibition of aggregation following discontinuation of the NSAID. Notably, 13 of these 18 patients (72%) had experienced a recurrent ischemic episode while taking aspirin and NSAIDs concomitantly. These data suggest that ibuprofen prevents the irreversible inhibition of platelet aggregation produced by aspirin needed for secondary stroke prophylaxis, and this interaction can have clinical consequences for patients taking aspirin.
PURPOSE - Oxidative stress was examined with use (N = 29) or nonuse (N = 25) of ibuprofen in ultramarathoners after the Western States Endurance Run.
METHODS - Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring plasma and urinary F2-isoprostanes, plasma nitrite, and plasma urate. A urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite (PGE-M) was used as an end point to assess ibuprofen use. Ibuprofen users consumed 600 and 1200 mg of ibuprofen the day before and on race day, respectively, and nonusers avoided all antiinflammatory medications. Blood and urine were collected in the morning before the race and immediately after the race.
RESULTS - Use compared with nonuse of ibuprofen significantly increased plasma (P
CONCLUSION - Ibuprofen use compared with nonuse by athletes competing in a 160-km race was associated with significantly increased oxidative stress.