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T cell help in humoral immunity includes interactions of B cells with activated extrafollicular CD4 and follicular T helper (Tfh) cells. Each can promote antibody responses but Tfh cells play critical roles during germinal center (GC) reactions. After restimulation of their antigen receptor (TCR) by B cells, helper T cells act on B cells via CD40 ligand and secreted cytokines that guide Ig class switching. Hypoxia is a normal feature of GC, raising questions about molecular mechanisms governing the relationship between hypoxia response mechanisms and T cell help to antibody responses. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) are prominent among mechanisms that mediate cellular responses to limited oxygen but also are induced by lymphocyte activation. We now show that loss of HIF-1α or of both HIF-1α and HIF-2α in CD4 T cells compromised essential functions in help during antibody responses. HIF-1α depletion from CD4 T cells reduced frequencies of antigen-specific GC B cells, Tfh cells, and overall antigen-specific Ab after immunization with sheep red blood cells. Compound deficiency of HIF-1α and HIF-2α led to humoral defects after hapten-carrier immunization. Further, HIF promoted CD40L expression while restraining the FoxP3-positive CD4 cells in the CXCR5 follicular regulatory population. Glycolysis increases T helper cytokine expression, and HIF promoted glycolysis in T helper cells via TCR or cytokine stimulation, as well as their production of cytokines that direct antibody class switching. Indeed, IFN-γ elaboration by HIF-deficient in vivo-generated Tfh cells was impaired. Collectively, the results indicate that HIF transcription factors are vital components of the mechanisms of help during humoral responses.
The oxygen-sensitive hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway plays a central role in the control of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. The discovery of prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins as key regulators of HIF activity has led to the development of inhibitory compounds that are now in phase 3 clinical development for the treatment of renal anemia, a condition that is commonly found in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. This review provides a concise overview of clinical effects associated with pharmacologic PHD inhibition and was written in memory of Professor Lorenz Poellinger.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fracture nonunion is a major complication of bone fracture regeneration and repair. The molecular mechanisms that result in fracture nonunion appearance are not fully determined. We hypothesized that fracture nonunion results from the failure of hypoxia and hematoma, the primary signals in response to bone injury, to trigger Bmp2 expression by mesenchymal progenitor cells (MSCs). Using a model of nonstabilized fracture healing in transgenic 5'Bmp2BAC mice we determined that Bmp2 expression appears in close association with hypoxic tissue and hematoma during the early phases of fracture healing. In addition, BMP2 expression is induced when human periosteum explants are exposed to hypoxia ex vivo. Transient interference of hypoxia signaling in vivo with PX-12, a thioredoxin inhibitor, results in reduced Bmp2 expression, impaired fracture callus formation and atrophic-like nonunion by a HIF-1α independent mechanism. In isolated human periosteum-derived MSCs, BMP2 expression could be induced with the addition of platelets concentrate lysate but not with hypoxia treatment, confirming HIF-1α-independent BMP2 expression. Interestingly, in isolated human periosteum-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells, inhibition of BMP2 expression by PX-12 is accomplished only under hypoxic conditions seemingly through dis-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In conclusion, we provide evidence of a molecular mechanism of hypoxia-dependent BMP2 expression in MSCs where interference with ROS homeostasis specifies fracture nonunion-like appearance in vivo through inhibition of Bmp2 expression. Stem Cells 2016;34:2342-2353.
© 2016 AlphaMed Press.
Hypoxia-inducible factors 1 and 2 (HIF-1 and -2) control oxygen supply to tissues by regulating erythropoiesis, angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis. HIFs are regulated in response to oxygen availability by prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins, with PHD2 being the main oxygen sensor that controls HIF activity under normoxia. In this study, we used a genetic approach to investigate the endothelial PHD2/HIF axis in the regulation of vascular function. We found that inactivation of Phd2 in endothelial cells specifically resulted in severe pulmonary hypertension (∼118% increase in right ventricular systolic pressure) but not polycythemia and was associated with abnormal muscularization of peripheral pulmonary arteries and right ventricular hypertrophy. Concurrent inactivation of either Hif1a or Hif2a in endothelial cell-specific Phd2 mutants demonstrated that the development of pulmonary hypertension was dependent on HIF-2α but not HIF-1α. Furthermore, endothelial HIF-2α was required for the development of increased pulmonary artery pressures in a model of pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia. We propose that these HIF-2-dependent effects are partially due to increased expression of vasoconstrictor molecule endothelin 1 and a concomitant decrease in vasodilatory apelin receptor signaling. Taken together, our data identify endothelial HIF-2 as a key transcription factor in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension.
Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Hypoxic injury is commonly associated with inflammatory-cell infiltration, and inflammation frequently leads to the activation of cellular hypoxia response pathways. The molecular mechanisms underlying this cross-talk during kidney injury are incompletely understood. Yamaguchi and colleagues identify CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ as a cytokine- and hypoxia-regulated transcription factor that fine-tunes hypoxia-inducible factor-1 signaling in renal epithelial cells and thus provide a novel molecular link between hypoxia and inflammation in kidney injury.
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) due to hypotension is a common cause of human acute kidney injury (AKI). Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) orchestrate a protective response in renal endothelial and epithelial cells in AKI models. As human mucin 1 (MUC1) is induced by hypoxia and enhances HIF-1 activity in cultured epithelial cells, we asked whether mouse mucin 1 (Muc1) regulates HIF-1 activity in kidney tissue during IRI. Whereas Muc1 was localized on the apical surface of the thick ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting duct in the kidneys of sham-treated mice, Muc1 appeared in the cytoplasm and nucleus of all tubular epithelia during IRI. Muc1 was induced during IRI, and Muc1 transcripts and protein were also present in recovering proximal tubule cells. Kidney damage was worse and recovery was blocked during IRI in Muc1 knockout mice compared with congenic control mice. Muc1 knockout mice had reduced levels of HIF-1α, reduced or aberrant induction of HIF-1 target genes involved in the shift of glucose metabolism to glycolysis, and prolonged activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, indicating metabolic stress. Muc1 clearly plays a significant role in enhancing the HIF protective pathway during ischemic insult and recovery in kidney epithelia, providing a new target for developing therapies to treat AKI. Moreover, our data support a role specifically for HIF-1 in epithelial protection of the kidney during IRI as Muc1 is present only in tubule epithelial cells.
Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Cysteine S-sulphenylation provides redox regulation of protein functions, but the global cellular impact of this transient post-translational modification remains unexplored. We describe a chemoproteomic workflow to map and quantify over 1,000 S-sulphenylation sites on more than 700 proteins in intact cells. Quantitative analysis of human cells stimulated with hydrogen peroxide or epidermal growth factor measured hundreds of site selective redox changes. Different cysteines in the same proteins displayed dramatic differences in susceptibility to S-sulphenylation. Newly discovered S-sulphenylations provided mechanistic support for proposed cysteine redox reactions and suggested novel redox mechanisms, including S-sulphenyl-mediated redox regulation of the transcription factor HIF1A by SIRT6. S-sulphenylation is favored at solvent-exposed protein surfaces and is associated with sequence motifs that are distinct from those for other thiol modifications. S-sulphenylations affect regulators of phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitylation, which suggest regulatory crosstalk between redox control and signalling pathways.
BACKGROUND - Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF1α and HIF2α) are commonly stabilized and play key roles related to cell growth and metabolic programming in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The relationship of these factors to discretely alter cell metabolic activities has largely been described in cancer cells, or in hypoxic conditions, where other confounding factors undoubtedly compete. These transcription factors and their specific roles in promoting cancer metabolic phenotypes from the earliest stages are poorly understood in pre-malignant cells.
METHODS - We undertook an analysis of SV40-transformed primary kidney epithelial cells derived from newborn mice genetically engineered to express a stabilized HIF1α or HIF2α transgene. We examined the metabolic profile in relation to each gene.
RESULTS - Although the cells proliferated similarly, the metabolic profile of each genotype of cell was markedly different and correlated with altered gene expression of factors influencing components of metabolic signaling. HIF1α promoted high levels of glycolysis as well as increased oxidative phosphorylation in complete media, but oxidative phosphorylation was suppressed when supplied with single carbon source media. HIF2α, in contrast, supported oxidative phosphorylation in complete media or single glucose carbon source, but these cells were not responsive to glutamine nutrient sources. This finding correlates to HIF2α-specific induction of Glul, effectively reducing glutamine utilization by limiting the glutamate pool, and knockdown of Glul allows these cells to perform oxidative phosphorylation in glutamine media.
CONCLUSION - HIF1α and HIF2α support highly divergent patterns of kidney epithelial cell metabolic phenotype. Expression of these factors ultimately alters the nutrient resource utilization and energy generation strategy in the setting of complete or limiting nutrients.
The hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF-1 and HIF-2 mediate key cellular adaptions to hypoxia and contribute to renal homeostasis and pathophysiology; however, little is known about the cell type-specific functions of HIF-1 and HIF-2 in response to ischemic kidney injury. Here, we used a genetic approach to specifically dissect the roles of endothelial HIF-1 and HIF-2 in murine models of hypoxic kidney injury induced by ischemia reperfusion or ureteral obstruction. In both models, inactivation of endothelial HIF increased injury-associated renal inflammation and fibrosis. Specifically, inactivation of endothelial HIF-2α, but not endothelial HIF-1α, resulted in increased expression of renal injury markers and inflammatory cell infiltration in the postischemic kidney, which was reversed by blockade of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM1) and very late antigen-4 (VLA4) using monoclonal antibodies. In contrast, pharmacologic or genetic activation of HIF via HIF prolyl-hydroxylase inhibition protected wild-type animals from ischemic kidney injury and inflammation; however, these same protective effects were not observed in HIF prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor-treated animals lacking endothelial HIF-2. Taken together, our data indicate that endothelial HIF-2 protects from hypoxia-induced renal damage and represents a potential therapeutic target for renoprotection and prevention of fibrosis following acute ischemic injury.
Ever since eukaryotes subsumed the bacterial ancestor of mitochondria, the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes have had to closely coordinate their activities, as each encode different subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of aging, but its causes are debated. We show that, during aging, there is a specific loss of mitochondrial, but not nuclear, encoded OXPHOS subunits. We trace the cause to an alternate PGC-1α/β-independent pathway of nuclear-mitochondrial communication that is induced by a decline in nuclear NAD(+) and the accumulation of HIF-1α under normoxic conditions, with parallels to Warburg reprogramming. Deleting SIRT1 accelerates this process, whereas raising NAD(+) levels in old mice restores mitochondrial function to that of a young mouse in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Thus, a pseudohypoxic state that disrupts PGC-1α/β-independent nuclear-mitochondrial communication contributes to the decline in mitochondrial function with age, a process that is apparently reversible.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.