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STUDY OBJECTIVE - Induction doses of etomidate during rapid sequence intubation cause transient adrenal dysfunction, but its clinical significance on trauma patients is uncertain. Ketamine has emerged as an alternative for rapid sequence intubation induction. Among adult trauma patients intubated in the emergency department, we compare clinical outcomes among those induced with etomidate and ketamine.
METHODS - The study entailed a retrospective evaluation of a 4-year (January 2011 to December 2014) period spanning an institutional protocol switch from etomidate to ketamine as the standard induction agent for adult trauma patients undergoing rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department of an academic Level I trauma center. The primary outcome was hospital mortality evaluated with multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for age, vital signs, and injury severity and mechanism. Secondary outcomes included ICU-free days and ventilator-free days evaluated with multivariable ordered logistic regression using the same covariates.
RESULTS - The analysis included 968 patients, including 526 with etomidate and 442 with ketamine. Hospital mortality was 20.4% among patients induced with ketamine compared with 17.3% among those induced with etomidate (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92 to 2.16). Patients induced with ketamine had ICU-free days (adjusted OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.00) and ventilator-free days (adjusted OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.20) similar to those of patients induced with etomidate.
CONCLUSION - In this analysis spanning an institutional protocol switch from etomidate to ketamine as the standard rapid sequence intubation induction agent for adult trauma patients, patient-centered outcomes were similar for patients who received etomidate and ketamine.
Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pain, agitation, and delirium (PAD) are common in critically ill patients. Consequently, analgesic and sedative medications are frequently administered to critically ill patients to treat PAD, to improve synchrony with mechanical ventilation, and to decrease the physiological stress response. However, prolonged, continuous deep sedation of intensive care unit (ICU) patients is associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including longer durations of mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stays, acute brain dysfunction, and an increased risk of death. The 2013 ICU PAD Guidelines were developed to provide a clear, evidence-based road map for clinicians to better manage PAD in critically ill patients. Significant knowledge gaps in these areas still remain, but if widely adopted, the PAD Guidelines can help bridge these gaps and will be transformative in terms of their impact on ICU care. Strong evidence indicates that linking PAD management strategies with ventilator weaning, early mobility, and sleep hygiene in ICU patients will result in significant synergistic benefits to patient care and reductions in costs. An interdisciplinary team-based approach, using proven process improvement strategies, and ICU patient and family activation and engagement, will help ensure successful implementation of the ICU PAD Care Bundle in ICUs. This paper highlights the major recommendations of the 2013 ICU PAD Guidelines. We hope this review will help ICU physicians and other health care providers advance the management of PAD in critically ill patients, and improve patients' clinical outcomes.
OBJECTIVES - To test the hypothesis that low bispectral index scores and low sedative requirements during therapeutic hypothermia predict poor neurologic outcome.
DESIGN - Observational study of a prospectively collected cohort.
SETTING - Cardiovascular ICU.
PATIENTS - One hundred sixty consecutive cardiac arrest patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia.
INTERVENTIONS - None.
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS - Eighty-four of the 141 subjects (60%) who survived hypothermia induction were discharged from the ICU with poor neurologic outcome, defined as a cerebral performance category score of 3, 4, or 5. These subjects had lower bispectral index (p < 0.001) and sedative requirements (p < 0.001) during hypothermia compared with the 57 subjects discharged with good outcome. Early prediction of neurologic recovery was best 7 hours after ICU admission, and median bispectral index scores at that time were 31 points lower in subjects discharged with poor outcome (11 [interquartile range, 4-29] vs 42 [37-49], p < 0.001). Median sedation requirements decreased by 17% (interquartile range, -50 to 0%) 7 hours after ICU admission in subjects with poor outcome but increased by 50% (interquartile range, 0-142%) in subjects with good outcome (p < 0.001). Each 10-point decrease in bispectral index was independently associated with a 59% increase in the odds of poor outcome (95% CI, 32-76%; p < 0.001). The model including bispectral index and sedative requirement correctly reclassified 15% of subjects from good to poor outcome and 1% of subjects from poor to good outcome. The model incorrectly reclassified 1% of subjects from poor to good outcome but did not incorrectly reclassify any from good to poor outcome.
CONCLUSIONS - Bispectral index scores and sedative requirements early in the course of therapeutic hypothermia improve the identification of patients who will not recover from brain anoxia. The ability to accurately predict nonrecovery after cardiac arrest could facilitate discussions with families, reduce patient suffering, and limit use of ICU resources in futile cases.
OBJECTIVE - The updated clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium recommend either daily sedation interruption or maintaining light levels of sedation as methods to improve outcomes for patients who are sedated in the ICU. We review the evidence supporting both methods and discuss whether one method is preferable or if they should be used concurrently.
DATA SOURCE - Original research articles identified using the electronic PubMed database.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION - Randomized controlled trials and large prospective cohort studies of mechanically ventilated ICU patients requiring sedation were selected.
DATA SYNTHESIS - The methods of daily sedation interruption and targeting light sedation levels (including avoidance of deep sedation) are safe in critically ill patients with no increase, and a potential decrease, in long-term psychiatric disturbances. Randomized trials comparing these methods with standard care, which has traditionally involved moderate to heavy sedation, found that both methods reduced duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay. Additionally, one trial noted that daily sedation interruption paired with spontaneous breathing trials improved 1-year survival, whereas a large observational study found that deep sedation was associated with decreased 180-day survival. Two common characteristics of these interventions in trials showing benefits were avoidance of deep levels of sedation and significant reductions in sedative doses, especially benzodiazepines. Thus, combining targeted light sedation with daily sedation interruption may be more beneficial than either method alone if sedative doses are reduced and arousal and mobility are facilitated during the ICU stay.
CONCLUSION - Daily sedation interruption and targeting light sedation levels are safe and proven to improve outcomes for sedated ICU patients when these approaches result in reduced sedative exposure and facilitate arousal. It remains unclear as to whether one approach is superior, and further studies are needed to evaluate which patients benefit most from either or both techniques.
Delirious mania is a severe but under-recognized neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by the rapid onset of delirium, mania, and psychosis, not associated with a prior toxicity, physical illness, or mental disorder. Catatonia is often a prominent feature of the syndrome. While initially believed to be rare, recent reports suggest that delirious mania may constitute up to 15% of all acute mania cases. When delirious mania is unrecognized or improperly treated, it can progress rapidly in severity and can become life-threatening. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of delirious mania and includes a detailed case report. Delirious mania is robustly responsive to high-dose lorazepam or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT); thus, early recognition and definitive treatment can be life-saving.
Delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU) is exceedingly common, and risk factors for delirium among the critically ill are nearly ubiquitous. Addressing modifiable risk factors including sedation management, deliriogenic medications, immobility, and sleep disruption can help to prevent and reduce the duration of this deadly syndrome. The ABCDE approach to critical care is a bundled approach that clinicians can implement for many patients treated in their ICUs to prevent the adverse outcomes associated with delirium and critical illness.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - To determine whether benzodiazepine and propofol doses are increased at night and whether daytime and nighttime sedative doses are associated with delirium, coma, and delayed liberation from mechanical ventilation.
DESIGN - Single-center, prospective cohort study nested within the Awakening and Breathing Controlled randomized trial.
SETTING - Saint Thomas Hospital in Nashville, TN, from 2004 to 2006.
PATIENTS - Adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation for >12 hrs with continuous recording of hourly sedation dosing.
INTERVENTIONS - We measured hourly doses of benzodiazepine and propofol exposure during the daytime (7 AM to 11 PM) and nighttime (11 PM to 7 AM) for 5 days. We quantified nighttime dose increases by subtracting the average hourly daytime dose on the preceding day from subsequent average hourly nighttime dose. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine whether daytime and nighttime dose increases were independently associated with delirium, coma, and delayed liberation from mechanical ventilation.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - Among 140 patients, the median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 27 (interquartile range 22-33). Among those receiving the sedatives, benzodiazepine and propofol doses were increased at night on 40% and 41% of patient-days, respectively. Of 485 patient-days, delirium was present on 160 (33%) and coma on 206 (42%). In adjusted models, greater daytime benzodiazepine dose was independently associated with failed spontaneous breathing trial and extubation, and subsequent delirium (p<.02 for all). Nighttime increase in benzodiazepine dose was associated with failed spontaneous breathing trial (p<.01) and delirium (p=.05). Daytime propofol dose was marginally associated with subsequent delirium (p=.06).
CONCLUSIONS - Nearly half of mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients received greater doses of sedation at night, a practice associated with failed spontaneous breathing trials, coma, and delirium. Over the first 5 days in our study, patients spent 75% of their time in coma or delirium, outcomes that may be reduced by efforts to decrease sedative exposure during both daytime and nighttime hours in the intensive care unit.
Critically ill patients frequently experience acute brain dysfunction in the form of coma or delirium, both of which are common during acute and chronic critical illness (CCI). These manifestations of brain dysfunction are associated with numerous adverse outcomes during acute critical illness, including prolonged hospitalization, increased healthcare costs, and increased mortality. The prognosis of CCI patients with coma or delirium has not yet been thoroughly studied, but preliminary studies suggest this population is at high risk for detrimental outcomes associated with acute brain dysfunction. Additionally, a high percentage of patients who survive acute or CCI suffer from long-term brain dysfunction, which manifests primarily as memory deficits and executive dysfunction and is predicted by brain dysfunction in the ICU. Interventions directed at reducing the burden of brain dysfunction during critical illness have shown promise in studies of patients with acute critical illness, but these therapies have yet to be studied during CCI. Thus, multicenter randomized trials are needed to determine which interventions are most effective for such patients. Until these data are available, management strategies that have been proven beneficial during acute critical illness-such as reduction of sedative exposure, especially to benzodiazepines, and early use of physical and occupational therapy-should be employed during the treatment of patients with CCI.
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