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OBJECTIVE - Hyperphosphatemia is common in end-stage renal disease and associates with mortality. Phosphate binders reduce serum phosphorus levels; however, adherence is often poor. This pilot study aims to assess patients' self-motivation to adhere to phosphate binders, its association with phosphorus control, and potential differences by race.
DESIGN AND METHODS - Cross sectional design. Subjects were enrolled from one academic medical center dialysis practice from July to November 2012. Self-motivation to adhere to phosphate binders was assessed with the autonomous regulation (AR) scale (range: 1-7) and self-reported medication adherence with the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, health literacy, and medication adherence were applied to determine associations with serum phosphorus level, including any evidence of interaction by race.
RESULTS - Among 100 participants, mean age was 51 years (±15 years), 53% were male, 72% were non-white, 89% received hemodialysis, and mean serum phosphorus level was 5.7 ± 1.6 mg/dL. More than half (57%) reported the maximum AR score (7). Higher AR scores were noted in those reporting better health overall (P = .001) and those with higher health literacy (P = .01). AR score correlated with better medication adherence (r = 0.22; P = .02), and medication adherence was negatively associated with serum phosphorus (r = -0.40; P < .001). In subgroup analysis among non-whites, higher AR scores correlated with lower serum phosphorus (high vs lower AR score: 5.55 [1.5] vs 6.96 [2.2]; P = .01). Associations between AR score (β 95% confidence interval: -0.37 [-0.73 to -0.01]; P = .04), medication adherence (β 95% confidence interval: -0.25 [-0.42 to -0.07]; P = .01), and serum phosphorus persisted in adjusted analyses.
CONCLUSIONS - Self-motivation was associated with phosphate binder adherence and phosphorus control, and this differed by race. Additional research is needed to determine if personalized, culturally sensitive strategies to understand and overcome motivational barriers may optimize mineral bone health in end-stage renal disease.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ferric citrate (Zerenex™, Keryx Biopharmaceuticals, Inc.), a phosphate binder drug candidate, recently completed a Phase III program confirming efficacy and demonstrating safety when used to treat hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease. Results of these trials demonstrate that ferric citrate effectively controls serum phosphorus and is well tolerated. Additionally, these studies demonstrate that ferric citrate improves iron parameters and reduces IV iron and erythropoietin stimulating agent utilization while maintaining hemoglobin levels. These unique features may further benefit the management of end-stage renal disease-related anemia.
Patients on dialysis require phosphorus binders to prevent hyperphosphatemia and are iron deficient. We studied ferric citrate as a phosphorus binder and iron source. In this sequential, randomized trial, 441 subjects on dialysis were randomized to ferric citrate or active control in a 52-week active control period followed by a 4-week placebo control period, in which subjects on ferric citrate who completed the active control period were rerandomized to ferric citrate or placebo. The primary analysis compared the mean change in phosphorus between ferric citrate and placebo during the placebo control period. A sequential gatekeeping strategy controlled study-wise type 1 error for serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent usage as prespecified secondary outcomes in the active control period. Ferric citrate controlled phosphorus compared with placebo, with a mean treatment difference of -2.2±0.2 mg/dl (mean±SEM) (P<0.001). Active control period phosphorus was similar between ferric citrate and active control, with comparable safety profiles. Subjects on ferric citrate achieved higher mean iron parameters (ferritin=899±488 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=39%±17%) versus subjects on active control (ferritin=628±367 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=30%±12%; P<0.001 for both). Subjects on ferric citrate received less intravenous elemental iron (median=12.95 mg/wk ferric citrate; 26.88 mg/wk active control; P<0.001) and less erythropoietin-stimulating agent (median epoetin-equivalent units per week: 5306 units/wk ferric citrate; 6951 units/wk active control; P=0.04). Hemoglobin levels were statistically higher on ferric citrate. Thus, ferric citrate is an efficacious and safe phosphate binder that increases iron stores and reduces intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent use while maintaining hemoglobin.
Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.
BACKGROUND - The management of hyperphosphatemia in patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes dietary phosphate restriction and/or prescription of phosphate binders. Measuring phosphate intake in CKD is important for monitoring dietary adherence and for the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. The 24-hour urine collection is the gold standard method for determining phosphate intake; however, timed urine collections are cumbersome and prone to error. We investigated the precision and accuracy of spot urine phosphate measurements, compared to 24-hour urine phosphate (24hUrP) collection.
STUDY DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS - We evaluated simultaneous spot and 24hUrP measurements, collected on multiple occasions, from 143 participants in the Phosphate Normalization Trial, a randomized trial of phosphate binders versus placebo among persons with an estimated glomerular filtration rate between 20-45 mL/minute per 1.73 m2. We used residual analyses and graphical methods to model the functional relationship of spot urine phosphate and creatinine measurements with 24hUrP. We used multiple linear regression to test whether additional covariates improved model prediction, including treatment assignment, age, sex, height, weight, urine collection time, and last meal time. We internally validated results using leave-one-out cross-validation, and externally validated in an independent replication cohort.
RESULTS - A log-log relation between the spot urine phosphate-to-creatinine ratio and 24hUrP excretion yielded the best model fit. In addition to spot urine phosphate and creatinine concentrations, inclusion of age, sex, and weight significantly improved prediction of 24hUrP. Compared with a spot urine phosphate-to-creatinine ratio alone (r2 = 0.12, P < .001), the new equation more accurately predicted 24hUrP (leave-one-out validation r2 = 0.43, P < .001, independent validation r2 = 0.39, P < .001).
CONCLUSION - We describe a novel equation to predict 24hUrP excretion using spot urine phosphate and creatinine, age, sex, and weight. The equation is more accurate and precise than the urine phosphate-to-creatinine ratio alone, and it provides a simple method for estimating 24hUrP excretion in patients with nondialysis-requiring CKD.
Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Most dialysis patients require phosphate binders to control hyperphosphatemia. Ferric citrate has been tested in phase 2 trials as a phosphate binder. This trial was designed as a dose-response and efficacy trial.
STUDY DESIGN - Prospective, phase 3, multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial.
SETTING & PARTICIPANTS - 151 participants with hyperphosphatemia on maintenance hemodialysis therapy.
INTERVENTION - Fixed dose of ferric citrate taken orally as a phosphate binder for up to 28 days (1, 6, or 8 g/d in 51, 52, and 48 participants, respectively).
OUTCOMES - Primary outcome is dose-response of ferric citrate on serum phosphorus level; secondary outcomes are safety and tolerability.
MEASUREMENTS - Serum chemistry tests including phosphorus, safety data.
RESULTS - 151 participants received at least one dose of ferric citrate. Mean baseline phosphorus levels were 7.3 ± 1.7 (SD) mg/dL in the 1-g/d group, 7.6 ± 1.7 mg/dL in the 6-g/d group, and 7.5 ± 1.6 mg/dL in the 8-g/d group. Phosphorus levels decreased in a dose-dependent manner (mean change at end of treatment, -0.1 ± 1.3 mg/dL in the 1-g/d group, -1.9 ± 1.7 mg/dL in the 6-g/d group, and -2.1 ± 2.0 mg/dL in the 8-g/d group). The mean difference in reduction in phosphorus levels between the 6- and 1-g/d groups was 1.3 mg/dL (95% CI, 0.69 to 1.9; P < 0.001), between the 8- and 1-g/d groups was 1.5 mg/dL (95% CI, 0.86 to 2.1; P < 0.001), and between the 8- and 6-g/d groups was 0.21 mg/dL (95% CI, -0.39 to 0.81; P = 0.5). The most common adverse event was stool discoloration.
LIMITATIONS - Sample size and duration confirm efficacy, but limit our ability to confirm safety.
CONCLUSIONS - Ferric citrate is efficacious as a phosphate binder in a dose-dependent manner. A phase 3 trial is ongoing to confirm safety and efficacy.
Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.