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Although insulin resistance consistently occurs with type 1 diabetes, its predominant driver is uncertain. We therefore determined the relative contributions of hyperglycemia and iatrogenic hyperinsulinemia to insulin resistance using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in three participant groups ( = 10/group) with differing insulinemia and glycemia: healthy control subjects (euinsulinemia and euglycemia), glucokinase-maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY; euinsulinemia and hyperglycemia), and type 1 diabetes (hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia matching GCK-MODY). We assessed the contribution of hyperglycemia by comparing insulin sensitivity in control and GCK-MODY and the contribution of hyperinsulinemia by comparing GCK-MODY and type 1 diabetes. Hemoglobin A was normal in control subjects and similarly elevated for type 1 diabetes and GCK-MODY. Basal insulin levels in control subjects and GCK-MODY were nearly equal but were 2.5-fold higher in type 1 diabetes. Low-dose insulin infusion suppressed endogenous glucose production similarly in all groups and suppressed nonesterified fatty acids similarly between control subjects and GCK-MODY, but to a lesser extent for type 1 diabetes. High-dose insulin infusion stimulated glucose disposal similarly in control subjects and GCK-MODY but was 29% and 22% less effective in type 1 diabetes, respectively. Multivariable linear regression showed that insulinemia-but not glycemia-was significantly associated with muscle insulin sensitivity. These data suggest that iatrogenic hyperinsulinemia predominates in driving insulin resistance in type 1 diabetes.
© 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.
Androgen excess predisposes women to type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the mechanism of this is poorly understood. We report that female mice fed a Western diet and exposed to chronic androgen excess using dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exhibit hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance associated with secondary pancreatic β cell failure, leading to hyperglycemia. These abnormalities are not observed in mice lacking the androgen receptor (AR) in β cells and partially in neurons of the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) as well as in mice lacking AR selectively in neurons. Accordingly, i.c.v. infusion of DHT produces hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in female WT mice. We observe that acute DHT produces insulin hypersecretion in response to glucose in cultured female mouse and human pancreatic islets in an AR-dependent manner via a cAMP- and mTOR-dependent pathway. Acute DHT exposure increases mitochondrial respiration and oxygen consumption in female cultured islets. As a result, chronic DHT exposure in vivo promotes islet oxidative damage and susceptibility to additional stress induced by streptozotocin via AR in β cells. This study suggests that excess androgen predisposes female mice to T2D following AR activation in neurons, producing peripheral insulin resistance, and in pancreatic β cells, promoting insulin hypersecretion, oxidative injury, and secondary β cell failure.
Before insulin can stimulate myocytes to take up glucose, it must first move from the circulation to the interstitial space. The continuous endothelium of skeletal muscle (SkM) capillaries restricts insulin's access to myocytes. The mechanism by which insulin crosses this continuous endothelium is critical to understand insulin action and insulin resistance; however, methodological obstacles have limited understanding of endothelial insulin transport in vivo. Here, we present an intravital microscopy technique to measure the rate of insulin efflux across the endothelium of SkM capillaries. This method involves development of a fully bioactive, fluorescent insulin probe, a gastrocnemius preparation for intravital microscopy, an automated vascular segmentation algorithm, and the use of mathematical models to estimate endothelial transport parameters. We combined direct visualization of insulin efflux from SkM capillaries with modeling of insulin efflux kinetics to identify fluid-phase transport as the major mode of transendothelial insulin efflux in mice. Model-independent experiments demonstrating that insulin movement is neither saturable nor affected by insulin receptor antagonism supported this result. Our finding that insulin enters the SkM interstitium by fluid-phase transport may have implications in the pathophysiology of SkM insulin resistance as well as in the treatment of diabetes with various insulin analogs.
Context - Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder characterized by failure to convert dopamine to norepinephrine. DBH-deficient patients lack sympathetic adrenergic function and are therefore predisposed to orthostatic hypotension. DBH-deficient mice exhibit hyperinsulinemia, lower plasma glucose levels, and insulin resistance due to loss of tonic sympathetic inhibition of insulin secretion. The impact of DBH deficiency on glucose homeostasis in humans is unknown.
Case Description - We describe the metabolic profile of an adolescent female DBH-deficient patient. The patient underwent genetic testing, cardiovascular autonomic function testing, and evaluation of insulin secretion and sensitivity with hyperglycemic clamp under treatment-naive conditions. All procedures were repeated after 1 year of treatment with the norepinephrine prodrug droxidopa (300 mg, 3 times a day). Genetic testing showed a homozygous mutation in the DBH gene (rs74853476). Under treatment-naive conditions, she had undetectable plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels, resulting in sympathetic noradrenergic failure and orthostatic hypotension (-32 mm Hg supine to seated). She had high adiposity (41%) and fasting plasma insulin levels (25 μU/mL), with normal glucose (91 mg/dL). Hyperglycemic clamp revealed increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Droxidopa restored plasma norepinephrine and improved orthostatic tolerance, with modest effects on glucose homeostasis.
Conclusions - We provide evidence for impairment in cardiovascular autonomic regulation, hyperinsulinemia, enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and insulin resistance in a DBH-deficient patient. These metabolic derangements were not corrected by chronic droxidopa treatment. These findings provide insight into the pathophysiology and treatment of DBH deficiency and into the importance of catecholaminergic mechanisms to resting metabolism.
Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society
We investigated the separate and combined effects of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on markers of endothelial function, proinflammatory and proatherothrombotic responses in overweight/obese nondiabetic humans. Twenty-two individuals (13 F/9 M, BMI 30.1 ± 4.1 kg/m(2)) were studied during four randomized, single-blind protocols. The pancreatic clamp technique was combined with 4-h glucose clamps consisting of either 1) euinsulinemia-euglycemia, 2) euinsulinemia-hyperglycemia, 3) hyperinsulinemia-hyperglycemia, or 4) hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia. Insulin levels were higher (998 ± 66 vs. 194 ± 22 pmol/l) during hyperinsulinemia compared with euinsulinemia. Glucose levels were 11.1 mmol/l during hyperinsulinemia compared with 5.1 ± 0.1 mmol/l during euglycemia. VCAM, ICAM, P-selectin, E-selectin, IL-6, adiponectin, and PAI-1 responses were all increased (P < 0.01-0.0001), and endothelial function was decreased (P < 0.0005) during euinsulinemia-hyperglycemia compared with other protocols. Hyperinsulinemia in the presence of hyperglycemia prevented the increase in proinflammatory and proatherothrombotic markers while also normalizing vascular endothelial function. We conclude that 4 h of moderate hyperglycemia can result in increases of proinflammatory markers (ICAM, VCAM, IL-6, E-selectin), platelet activation (P-selectin), reduced fibrinolytic balance (increased PAI-1), and disordered endothelial function in a group of obese and overweight individuals. Hyperinsulinemia prevents the actions of moderate hyperglycemia to reduce endothelial function and increase proinflammatory and proatherothrombotic markers.
Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
A loss of glucose effectiveness to suppress hepatic glucose production as well as increase hepatic glucose uptake and storage as glycogen is associated with a defective increase in glucose phosphorylation catalyzed by glucokinase (GK) in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. We extended these observations by investigating the role of persistent hyperglycemia (glucotoxicity) in the development of impaired hepatic GK activity in ZDF rats. We measured expression and localization of GK and GK regulatory protein (GKRP), translocation of GK, and hepatic glucose flux in response to a gastric mixed meal load (MMT) and hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp after 1 or 6 wk of treatment with the sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor (canaglifrozin) that was used to correct the persistent hyperglycemia of ZDF rats. Defective augmentation of glucose phosphorylation in response to a rise in plasma glucose in ZDF rats was associated with the coresidency of GKRP with GK in the cytoplasm in the midstage of diabetes, which was followed by a decrease in GK protein levels due to impaired posttranscriptional processing in the late stage of diabetes. Correcting hyperglycemia from the middle diabetic stage normalized the rate of glucose phosphorylation by maintaining GK protein levels, restoring normal nuclear residency of GK and GKRP under basal conditions and normalizing translocation of GK from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, with GKRP remaining in the nucleus in response to a rise in plasma glucose. This improved the liver's metabolic ability to respond to hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Glucotoxicity is responsible for loss of glucose effectiveness and is associated with altered GK regulation in the ZDF rat.
Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
β cell failure in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with hyperglycemia, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Congenital hyperinsulinism caused by glucokinase mutations (GCK-CHI) is associated with β cell replication and apoptosis. Here, we show that genetic activation of β cell glucokinase, initially triggering replication, causes apoptosis associated with DNA double-strand breaks and activation of the tumor suppressor p53. ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP channels) and calcineurin mediate this toxic effect. Toxicity of long-term glucokinase overactivity was confirmed by finding late-onset diabetes in older members of a GCK-CHI family. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic treatment or p53 deletion rescues β cells from glucokinase-induced death, but only GLP-1 analog rescues β cell function. DNA damage and p53 activity in T2D suggest shared mechanisms of β cell failure in hyperglycemia and CHI. Our results reveal membrane depolarization via KATP channels, calcineurin signaling, DNA breaks, and p53 as determinants of β cell glucotoxicity and suggest pharmacological approaches to enhance β cell survival in diabetes.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy and glucose homeostasis are regulated by central serotonin 2C receptors. These receptors are attractive pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity; however, the identity of the serotonin 2C receptor-expressing neurons that mediate the effects of serotonin and serotonin 2C receptor agonists on energy and glucose homeostasis are unknown. Here, we show that mice lacking serotonin 2C receptors (Htr2c) specifically in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons had normal body weight but developed glucoregulatory defects including hyperinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. Moreover, these mice did not show anorectic responses to serotonergic agents that suppress appetite and developed hyperphagia and obesity when they were fed a high-fat/high-sugar diet. A requirement of serotonin 2C receptors in POMC neurons for the maintenance of normal energy and glucose homeostasis was further demonstrated when Htr2c loss was induced in POMC neurons in adult mice using a tamoxifen-inducible POMC-cre system. These data demonstrate that serotonin 2C receptor-expressing POMC neurons are required to control energy and glucose homeostasis and implicate POMC neurons as the target for the effect of serotonin 2C receptor agonists on weight-loss induction and improved glycemic control.
OBJECTIVE - Loss of lean body mass (sarcopenia) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis (CHD). Insulin resistance (IR), which is highly prevalent in patients receiving CHD, has been proposed to play a critical role in the development of sarcopenia. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of IR on amino acid metabolism in patients receiving CHD.
DESIGN - This was a cross-sectional study.
SUBJECTS - The study included 12 prevalent (i.e., patients that have been on dialysis for more than 90 days) African American patients receiving CHD.
METHODS - IR was measured as glucose disposal rate (GDR) determined from hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HGEC) studies performed 3 consecutive times. Plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations were measured by real-time high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) throughout the clamp study. The primary outcome was percentage change in leucine concentrations during the clamp study. The main predictor was the GDR measured simultaneously during the HGEC studies. Mixed model analysis was used to account for repeated measures.
RESULTS - All individual AA concentrations declined significantly in response to high-dose insulin administration (P < .001). There was a significant direct association between GDR by HECG studies and the percentage change in leucine concentration (P = .02). Although positive correlations were observed between GDR values and concentration changes from baseline for other AAs, these associations did not reach statistical significance.
CONCLUSIONS - Our results suggest that the severity of IR of carbohydrate metabolism is associated with a lesser decline in plasma leucine concentrations, suggesting a similar resistance to protein anabolism. Insulin resistance represents a potential mechanism for sarcopenia commonly observed in patients receiving CHD.
Published by Elsevier Inc.