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Mechanism of differential Zika and dengue virus neutralization by a public antibody lineage targeting the DIII lateral ridge.
Zhao H, Xu L, Bombardi R, Nargi R, Deng Z, Errico JM, Nelson CA, Dowd KA, Pierson TC, Crowe JE, Diamond MS, Fremont DH
(2020) J Exp Med 217:
MeSH Terms: Aedes, Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, Cell Line, Tumor, Chlorocebus aethiops, Cross Reactions, Crystallography, X-Ray, Dengue, Dengue Virus, Epitopes, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Hydrogen Bonding, Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation, Protein Domains, Vero Cells, Viral Envelope Proteins, Zika Virus, Zika Virus Infection
Show Abstract · Added March 31, 2020
We previously generated a panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Zika virus (ZIKV) and identified one, ZIKV-116, that shares germline usage with mAbs identified in multiple donors. Here we show that ZIKV-116 interferes with ZIKV infection at a post-cellular attachment step by blocking viral fusion with host membranes. ZIKV-116 recognizes the lateral ridge of envelope protein domain III, with one critical residue varying between the Asian and African strains responsible for differential binding affinity and neutralization potency (E393D). ZIKV-116 also binds to and cross-neutralizes some dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV1) strains, with genotype-dependent inhibition explained by variation in a domain II residue (R204K) that potentially modulates exposure of the distally located, partially cryptic epitope. The V-J reverted germline configuration of ZIKV-116 preferentially binds to and neutralizes an Asian ZIKV strain, suggesting that this epitope may optimally induce related B cell clonotypes. Overall, these studies provide a structural and molecular mechanism for a cross-reactive mAb that uniquely neutralizes ZIKV and DENV1.
© 2019 Zhao et al.
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23 MeSH Terms
Upgraded molecular models of the human KCNQ1 potassium channel.
Kuenze G, Duran AM, Woods H, Brewer KR, McDonald EF, Vanoye CG, George AL, Sanders CR, Meiler J
(2019) PLoS One 14: e0220415
MeSH Terms: Humans, Hydrogen Bonding, KCNQ1 Potassium Channel, Lipids, Loss of Function Mutation, Models, Molecular, Molecular Docking Simulation, Molecular Dynamics Simulation, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation, Structure-Activity Relationship
Show Abstract · Added March 21, 2020
The voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1 (KV7.1) assembles with the KCNE1 accessory protein to generate the slow delayed rectifier current, IKS, which is critical for membrane repolarization as part of the cardiac action potential. Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in KCNQ1 are the most common cause of congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS), type 1 LQTS, an inherited genetic predisposition to cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. A detailed structural understanding of KCNQ1 is needed to elucidate the molecular basis for KCNQ1 LOF in disease and to enable structure-guided design of new anti-arrhythmic drugs. In this work, advanced structural models of human KCNQ1 in the resting/closed and activated/open states were developed by Rosetta homology modeling guided by newly available experimentally-based templates: X. leavis KCNQ1 and various resting voltage sensor structures. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the capacity of the models to describe experimentally established channel properties including state-dependent voltage sensor gating charge interactions and pore conformations, PIP2 binding sites, and voltage sensor-pore domain interactions were validated. Rosetta energy calculations were applied to assess the utility of each model in interpreting mutation-evoked KCNQ1 dysfunction by predicting the change in protein thermodynamic stability for 50 experimentally characterized KCNQ1 variants with mutations located in the voltage-sensing domain. Energetic destabilization was successfully predicted for folding-defective KCNQ1 LOF mutants whereas wild type-like mutants exhibited no significant energetic frustrations, which supports growing evidence that mutation-induced protein destabilization is an especially common cause of KCNQ1 dysfunction. The new KCNQ1 Rosetta models provide helpful tools in the study of the structural basis for KCNQ1 function and can be used to generate hypotheses to explain KCNQ1 dysfunction.
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Potent anti-influenza H7 human monoclonal antibody induces separation of hemagglutinin receptor-binding head domains.
Turner HL, Pallesen J, Lang S, Bangaru S, Urata S, Li S, Cottrell CA, Bowman CA, Crowe JE, Wilson IA, Ward AB
(2019) PLoS Biol 17: e3000139
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibody Specificity, Baculoviridae, Binding Sites, Cloning, Molecular, Cryoelectron Microscopy, Gene Expression, Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus, Hydrogen Bonding, Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments, Influenza A virus, Molecular Docking Simulation, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical, Protein Conformation, beta-Strand, Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs, Recombinant Proteins, Sequence Alignment, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Sf9 Cells, Spodoptera
Show Abstract · Added March 31, 2019
Seasonal influenza virus infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality, but the threat from the emergence of a new pandemic influenza strain might have potentially even more devastating consequences. As such, there is intense interest in isolating and characterizing potent neutralizing antibodies that target the hemagglutinin (HA) viral surface glycoprotein. Here, we use cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) to decipher the mechanism of action of a potent HA head-directed monoclonal antibody (mAb) bound to an influenza H7 HA. The epitope of the antibody is not solvent accessible in the compact, prefusion conformation that typifies all HA structures to date. Instead, the antibody binds between HA head protomers to an epitope that must be partly or transiently exposed in the prefusion conformation. The "breathing" of the HA protomers is implied by the exposure of this epitope, which is consistent with metastability of class I fusion proteins. This structure likely therefore represents an early structural intermediate in the viral fusion process. Understanding the extent of transient exposure of conserved neutralizing epitopes also may lead to new opportunities to combat influenza that have not been appreciated previously.
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23 MeSH Terms
Novel M positive allosteric modulators derived from questioning the role and impact of a presumed intramolecular hydrogen-bonding motif in β-amino carboxamide-harboring ligands.
Poslusney MS, Salovich JM, Wood MR, Melancon BJ, Bollinger KA, Luscombe VB, Rodriguez AL, Engers DW, Bridges TM, Niswender CM, Conn PJ, Lindsley CW
(2019) Bioorg Med Chem Lett 29: 362-366
MeSH Terms: Allosteric Regulation, Amides, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Humans, Hydrogen Bonding, Ligands, Molecular Structure, Receptor, Muscarinic M4, Structure-Activity Relationship
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
This letter describes a focused exercise to explore the role of the β-amino carboxamide moiety found in all of the first generation M PAMs and question if the NH group served solely to stabilize an intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) and enforce planarity. To address this issue (and to potentially find a substitute for the β-amino carboxamide that engendered P-gp and contributed to solubility liabilities), we removed the NH, generating des-amino congeners and surveyed other functional groups in the β-position. These modifications led to weak M PAMs with poor DMPK properties. Cyclization of the β-amino carboxamide moiety by virtue of a pyrazole ring re-enforced the IMHB, led to potent (and patented) M PAMs, many as potent as the classical bicyclic β-amino carboxamide analogs, but with significant CYP1A2 inhibition. Overall, this exercise indicated that the β-amino carboxamide moiety most likely facilitates an IMHB, and is essential for M PAM activity within classical bicyclic M PAM scaffolds.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Holistic Approach to Partial Covalent Interactions in Protein Structure Prediction and Design with Rosetta.
Combs SA, Mueller BK, Meiler J
(2018) J Chem Inf Model 58: 1021-1036
MeSH Terms: Crystallography, X-Ray, Databases, Protein, Electrons, Hydrogen Bonding, Models, Molecular, Protein Conformation, Proteins, Rotation
Show Abstract · Added March 21, 2020
Partial covalent interactions (PCIs) in proteins, which include hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, cation-π, and π-π interactions, contribute to thermodynamic stability and facilitate interactions with other biomolecules. Several score functions have been developed within the Rosetta protein modeling framework that identify and evaluate these PCIs through analyzing the geometry between participating atoms. However, we hypothesize that PCIs can be unified through a simplified electron orbital representation. To test this hypothesis, we have introduced orbital based chemical descriptors for PCIs into Rosetta, called the PCI score function. Optimal geometries for the PCIs are derived from a statistical analysis of high-quality protein structures obtained from the Protein Data Bank (PDB), and the relative orientation of electron deficient hydrogen atoms and electron-rich lone pair or π orbitals are evaluated. We demonstrate that nativelike geometries of hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, cation-π, and π-π interactions are recapitulated during minimization of protein conformation. The packing density of tested protein structures increased from the standard score function from 0.62 to 0.64, closer to the native value of 0.70. Overall, rotamer recovery improved when using the PCI score function (75%) as compared to the standard Rosetta score function (74%). The PCI score function represents an improvement over the standard Rosetta score function for protein model scoring; in addition, it provides a platform for future directions in the analysis of small molecule to protein interactions, which depend on partial covalent interactions.
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Salt-bridge modulates differential calcium-mediated ligand binding to integrin α1- and α2-I domains.
Brown KL, Banerjee S, Feigley A, Abe H, Blackwell TS, Pozzi A, Hudson BG, Zent R
(2018) Sci Rep 8: 2916
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Sequence, Calcium, Hydrogen Bonding, Integrin alpha1, Integrin alpha2, Ligands, Models, Molecular, Protein Binding, Protein Domains, Thermodynamics
Show Abstract · Added March 21, 2018
Integrins are transmembrane cell-extracellular matrix adhesion receptors that impact many cellular functions. A subgroup of integrins contain an inserted (I) domain within the α-subunits (αI) that mediate ligand recognition where function is contingent on binding a divalent cation at the metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS). Ca is reported to promote α1I but inhibit α2I ligand binding. We co-crystallized individual I-domains with MIDAS-bound Ca and report structures at 1.4 and 2.15 Å resolution, respectively. Both structures are in the "closed" ligand binding conformation where Ca induces minimal global structural changes. Comparisons with Mg-bound structures reveal Mg and Ca bind α1I in a manner sufficient to promote ligand binding. In contrast, Ca is displaced in the α2I domain MIDAS by 1.4 Å relative to Mg and unable to directly coordinate all MIDAS residues. We identified an E152-R192 salt bridge hypothesized to limit the flexibility of the α2I MIDAS, thus, reducing Ca binding. A α2I E152A construct resulted in a 10,000-fold increase in Mg and Ca binding affinity while increasing binding to collagen ligands 20%. These data indicate the E152-R192 salt bridge is a key distinction in the molecular mechanism of differential ion binding of these two I domains.
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10 MeSH Terms
Kinetic Deuterium Isotope Effects in Cytochrome P450 Reactions.
Guengerich FP
(2017) Methods Enzymol 596: 217-238
MeSH Terms: Biocatalysis, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System, Deuterium, Enzyme Assays, Humans, Hydrogen Bonding, Kinetics, Models, Chemical, Oxidation-Reduction, Substrate Specificity
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) research provides many opportunities for the application of kinetic isotope effect (KIE) strategies. P450s collectively catalyze oxidations of more substrates than any other group of enzymes, and CH bond cleavage is a major feature in a large fraction of these reactions. The presence of a significant primary deuterium KIE is evidence that hydrogen abstraction is at least partially rate-limiting in the reactions, and this appears to be the case in many P450 reactions. The first report of a KIE in (P450-linked) drug metabolism appeared in 1961 (for morphine N-demethylation), and in a number of cases, it has been possible to modulate the in vivo metabolism or toxicity of chemicals by deuterium substitution. A number of efforts are in progress to utilize deuterium substitution to alter the metabolism of drugs in an advantageous manner.
© 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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10 MeSH Terms
Optimization of M positive allosteric modulators (PAMs): The discovery of VU0476406, a non-human primate in vivo tool compound for translational pharmacology.
Melancon BJ, Wood MR, Noetzel MJ, Nance KD, Engelberg EM, Han C, Lamsal A, Chang S, Cho HP, Byers FW, Bubser M, Jones CK, Niswender CM, Wood MW, Engers DW, Wu D, Brandon NJ, Duggan ME, Conn PJ, Bridges TM, Lindsley CW
(2017) Bioorg Med Chem Lett 27: 2296-2301
MeSH Terms: Allosteric Regulation, Animals, Crystallography, X-Ray, Drug Discovery, Hydrogen Bonding, Pyridazines, Rats, Structure-Activity Relationship, Thiophenes, Translational Medical Research
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
This letter describes the further chemical optimization of the 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine series (VU0467154/VU0467485) of M positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), developed via iterative parallel synthesis, culminating in the discovery of the non-human primate (NHP) in vivo tool compound, VU0476406 (8p). VU0476406 is an important in vivo tool compound to enable translation of pharmacodynamics from rodent to NHP, and while data related to a Parkinson's disease model has been reported with 8p, this is the first disclosure of the optimization and discovery of VU0476406, as well as detailed pharmacology and DMPK properties.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Molecular Basis for Subtype Specificity and High-Affinity Zinc Inhibition in the GluN1-GluN2A NMDA Receptor Amino-Terminal Domain.
Romero-Hernandez A, Simorowski N, Karakas E, Furukawa H
(2016) Neuron 92: 1324-1336
MeSH Terms: 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine, Animals, Binding Sites, Blotting, Western, Crystallography, Hydrogen Bonding, Piperidines, Protein Structure, Quaternary, Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate, Sf9 Cells, Spodoptera, Xenopus laevis, Zinc
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
Zinc is vastly present in the mammalian brain and controls functions of various cell surface receptors to regulate neurotransmission. A distinctive characteristic of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors containing a GluN2A subunit is that their ion channel activity is allosterically inhibited by a nano-molar concentration of zinc that binds to an extracellular domain called an amino-terminal domain (ATD). Despite physiological importance, the molecular mechanism underlying the high-affinity zinc inhibition has been incomplete because of the lack of a GluN2A ATD structure. Here we show the first crystal structures of the heterodimeric GluN1-GluN2A ATD, which provide the complete map of the high-affinity zinc-binding site and reveal distinctive features from the ATD of the GluN1-GluN2B subtype. Perturbation of hydrogen bond networks at the hinge of the GluN2A bi-lobe structure affects both zinc inhibition and open probability, supporting the general model in which the bi-lobe motion in ATD regulates the channel activity in NMDA receptors.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Investigating the Structure of Multicomponent Gel-Phase Lipid Bilayers.
Hartkamp R, Moore TC, Iacovella CR, Thompson MA, Bulsara PA, Moore DJ, McCabe C
(2016) Biophys J 111: 813-823
MeSH Terms: Gels, Hydrogen Bonding, Lipid Bilayers, Models, Molecular, Molecular Conformation, Water
Show Abstract · Added May 3, 2017
Single- and multicomponent lipid bilayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), isostearyl isostearate, and heptadecanoyl heptadecanoate in the gel phase are studied via molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that the structural properties of multicomponent bilayers can deviate strongly from the structures of their single-component counterparts. Specifically, the lipid mixtures are shown to adopt a compact packing by offsetting the positioning depths at which different lipid species are located in the bilayer. This packing mechanism affects the area per lipid, the bilayer height, and the chain tilt angles and has important consequences for other bilayer properties, such as interfacial hydrogen bonding and bilayer permeability. In particular, the simulations suggest that bilayers containing isostearyl isostearate or heptadecanoyl heptadecanoate are less permeable than pure 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine or DSPC bilayers. Furthermore, hydrogen-bond analysis shows that the residence times of lipid-water hydrogen bonds depend strongly on the bilayer composition, with longer residence times for bilayers that have a higher DSPC content. The findings illustrate and explain the fundamental differences between the properties of single- and multicomponent bilayers.
Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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6 MeSH Terms