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Hyperkalemia in association with metabolic acidosis that are out of proportion to changes in glomerular filtration rate defines type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA), the most common RTA observed, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the associated metabolic acidosis are incompletely understood. We sought to determine whether hyperkalemia directly causes metabolic acidosis and, if so, the mechanisms through which this occurs. We studied a genetic model of hyperkalemia that results from early distal convoluted tubule (DCT)-specific overexpression of constitutively active Ste20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (DCT-CA-SPAK). DCT-CA-SPAK mice developed hyperkalemia in association with metabolic acidosis and suppressed ammonia excretion; however, titratable acid excretion and urine pH were unchanged compared with those in wild-type mice. Abnormal ammonia excretion in DCT-CA-SPAK mice associated with decreased proximal tubule expression of the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and overexpression of the ammonia-recycling enzyme glutamine synthetase. These mice also had decreased expression of the ammonia transporter family member Rhcg and decreased apical polarization of H-ATPase in the inner stripe of the outer medullary collecting duct. Correcting the hyperkalemia by treatment with hydrochlorothiazide corrected the metabolic acidosis, increased ammonia excretion, and normalized ammoniagenic enzyme and Rhcg expression in DCT-CA-SPAK mice. In wild-type mice, induction of hyperkalemia by administration of the epithelial sodium channel blocker benzamil caused hyperkalemia and suppressed ammonia excretion. Hyperkalemia decreases proximal tubule ammonia generation and collecting duct ammonia transport, leading to impaired ammonia excretion that causes metabolic acidosis.
Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Aberrant activation of with no lysine (WNK) kinases causes familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt). Thiazide diuretics treat the disease, fostering the view that hyperactivation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is solely responsible. However, aberrant signaling in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) and inhibition of the potassium-excretory renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel have also been implicated. To test these ideas, we introduced kinase-activating mutations after Lox-P sites in the mouse gene, which encodes the terminal kinase in the WNK signaling pathway, Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK). Renal expression of the constitutively active (CA)-SPAK mutant was specifically targeted to the early DCT using a DCT-driven Cre recombinase. CA-SPAK mice displayed thiazide-treatable hypertension and hyperkalemia, concurrent with NCC hyperphosphorylation. However, thiazide-mediated inhibition of NCC and consequent restoration of sodium excretion did not immediately restore urinary potassium excretion in CA-SPAK mice. Notably, CA-SPAK mice exhibited ASDN remodeling, involving a reduction in connecting tubule mass and attenuation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and ROMK expression and apical localization. Blocking hyperactive NCC in the DCT gradually restored ASDN structure and ENaC and ROMK expression, concurrent with the restoration of urinary potassium excretion. These findings verify that NCC hyperactivity underlies FHHt but also reveal that NCC-dependent changes in the driving force for potassium secretion are not sufficient to explain hyperkalemia. Instead, a DCT-ASDN coupling process controls potassium balance in health and becomes aberrantly activated in FHHt.
Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
In the kidney, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a primary cytochrome P450 4 (Cyp4)-derived eicosanoid that enhances vasoconstriction of renal vessels and induces hypertension, renal tubular cell hypertrophy, and podocyte apoptosis. Hypertension and podocyte injury contribute to diabetic nephropathy and are strong predictors of disease progression. In this study, we defined the mechanisms whereby 20-HETE affects the progression of diabetic nephropathy. We used Cyp4a14KO male mice that exhibit androgen-sensitive hypertension due to increased Cyp4a12-mediated 20-HETE production. We show that, upon induction of diabetes type 1 via streptozotocin injection, Cyp4a14KO male mice developed worse renal disease than streptozotocin-treated wild-type mice, characterized by increased albuminuria, mesangial expansion, glomerular matrix deposition, and thickness of the glomerular basement membranes. Castration blunted androgen-mediated Cyp4a12 synthesis and 20-HETE production, normalized BP, and ameliorated renal damage in diabetic Cyp4a14KO mice. Notably, treatment with a 20-HETE antagonist or agents that normalized BP without affecting Cyp4a12 expression and 20-HETE biosynthesis also ameliorated diabetes-mediated renal damage and albuminuria in Cyp4a14KO male mice. Taken together, these results suggest that hypertension is the major contributor to 20-HETE-driven diabetes-mediated kidney injury.
Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Randomized clinical trials have clearly shown that inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) will slow the rate of progression of diabetic nephropathy, but controversy remains about whether the observed beneficial effects result from more than control of blood pressure. Deletion of eNOS in a model of type II diabetes, db/db mice (eNOS(-/-) db/db), induces an accelerated nephropathy and provides an excellent model of human diabetic nephropathy. As is frequently seen in type II diabetes, blood pressure is moderately elevated in eNOS(-/-) db/db mice. To determine the role of elevated blood pressure per se vs. additional deleterious effects of the RAS in mediation of disease progression, 8-wk-old eNOS(-/-) db/db mice were randomly divided into three groups: vehicle, treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) captopril, or treatment with "triple therapy" (hydralazine, resperine, hydrocholorothiazide), and the animals were euthanized after treatment for 12 wk. Blood pressure was reduced to comparable levels with ACE inhibition or triple therapy. Although both treatment regimens decreased development of diabetic nephropathy, ACE inhibition led to more profound reductions in albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, markers of tubulointerstitial injury, macrophage infiltration, and markers of inflammation. Therefore, this animal model suggests that while there is an important role for blood pressure control, RAS blockade provides additional benefits in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of hydrochlorothiazide therapy. We describe three patients who developed this serious adverse reaction. A 64-year-old woman developed dypsnea and hypotension within 60 minutes of taking a single dose of hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg. She was admitted to the critical care unit with acute respiratory failure and subsequent multiple-organ dysfunction. The second patient was a 56-year-old woman who experienced sudden onset of shortness of breath that developed 10 minutes after taking a single dose of hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg. The third was a 59-year-old woman who developed sudden onset of shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea after her first dose of hydrochlorothiazide-triamterene. All three women had a history of a similar, albeit minor, reaction to a thiazide diuretic. Review of the literature identified 36 additional cases of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema after thiazide use. The patients developed symptoms 10-150 minutes after ingestion of hydrochlorothiazide or another thiazide. Symptoms can occur on first exposure to the drug or in patients taking the drug intermittently. Of interest, 90% of documented cases occurred in women. With the increasing use of thiazide diuretics in the treatment of hypertension, clinicians need to be aware of the possible association of these drugs with the development of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema.
This study tests the hypothesis that spironolactone influences plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations through mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism rather than through changes in potassium. Effects of spironolactone (50 mg per day) and triamterene (50 mg per day) on fibrinolytic balance were compared in 18 normotensive and 20 hypertensive subjects pretreated with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 12.5 mg per day). Blood pressure and serum potassium were similar in spironolactone and triamterene treatment groups. The effect of the 2 drugs on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was also similar. In contrast, spironolactone and triamterene exerted opposing effects on PAI-1 antigen (P=0.006 for drug effect). In normotensive subjects, triamterene (from 10.1+/-7.8 to 16.9+/-9.9 ng/mL at 9 am, P=0.019; from 7.6+/-5.4 to 11.5+/-7.3 ng/mL at 11 am, P=0.027; from 9.3+/-7.7 to 13.7+/-8.5 ng/mL for average of all time points, P=0.054) but not spironolactone significantly increased PAI-1 antigen. In hypertensive subjects, spironolactone significantly decreased PAI-1 antigen (from 22.0+/-23.4 to 16.7+/-19.0 ng/mL at 10 am, P=0.041; from 17.5+/-21.7 to 12.7+/-16.8 ng/mL at 11 am, P=0.043; from 20.3+/-22.6 to 16.6+/-19.7 ng/mL for average of all time points, P=0.014), whereas there was no effect of triamterene. Only spironolactone significantly decreased the molar ratio of PAI-1 to tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) in hypertensive subjects. By regression analysis, predictors of mean PAI-1 response were spironolactone versus triamterene (P=0.014), hypertension (P=0.002), and PAI-1 response to HCTZ (P=0.019), with a trend for aldosterone (P=0.061). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism prevents the effect of activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system on PAI-1 antigen in normotensive subjects and improves fibrinolytic balance in hypertensive subjects through a potassium-independent mechanism.
ACE inhibition reduces plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a risk factor for myocardial infarction, whereas the effect of angiotensin receptor antagonism on PAI-1 is uncertain. The present study compares the time course of effects of ACE inhibition and angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonism on morning plasma PAI-1 antigen. Blood pressure and endocrine, metabolic, and fibrinolytic variables were measured in 20 insulin-resistant (defined by fasting glucose >8.3 mmol/L, body mass index >28 kg/m2, or fasting serum triglyceride > or =2.8 mmol/L) hypertensive subjects (mean age, 47.9+/-2.1 years) (1) before and after 1 week of hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg/d, and (2) before and 1, 3, 4, and 6 weeks after addition of ramipril (escalated to 10 mg/d) or losartan (escalated to 100 mg/d). Hydrochlorothiazide decreased systolic (P=0.011) and diastolic (P=0.019) pressure. Ramipril (from 133.6+/-5.1/94.5+/-2.4 to 127.0+/-3.1/91.4+/-3.3 mm Hg) or losartan (from 137.0+/-3.9/93.1+/-2.9 to 123.7+/-2.6/86.4+/-2.1 mm Hg) further reduced systolic (P=0.009) and diastolic (P=0.037) pressure. The pressure effects of the 2 drugs were similar. Hydrochlorothiazide increased plasma PAI-1 (P=0.013) but not tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) (P=0.431) antigen. Addition of either ramipril or losartan significantly decreased plasma PAI-1 antigen (P=0.046). However, the effect of losartan on PAI-1 antigen was not sustained throughout the 6-week treatment period, such that there was a significant drugxtime interaction (P=0.043). tPA antigen decreased during either ramipril or losartan (P=0.032), but tPA activity decreased only during losartan (P=0.018). Short-term interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by either ACE inhibition or AT1 receptor antagonism decreases PAI-1 antigen, but the duration of this effect is greater for ACE inhibition than for AT1 receptor antagonism.
Recent studies have defined a link between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and fibrinolysis. The present study tests the hypothesis that endogenous aldosterone regulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production in humans. Hemodynamic parameters, PAI-1 and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen, potassium, PRA, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were measured in nine male hypertensive subjects after a 3-wk washout, after 2 wk of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 25 mg plus 20 mmol KCl/d), and after 2 wk of spironolactone (100 mg/d plus KCl placebo). Spironolactone (P = 0.04), but not HCTZ (P = 0.57 vs. baseline; P = 0.1 vs. spironolactone), significantly lowered systolic blood pressure. Angiotensin II increased from baseline during both HCTZ (P = 0.02) and spironolactone (P = 0.02 vs. baseline; P = 0.19 vs. HCTZ) treatments. Although both HCTZ (P = 0.004) and spironolactone (P < 0.001 vs. baseline) increased aldosterone, the effect was greater with spironolactone (P < 0.001 vs. HCTZ). HCTZ increased PAI-1 antigen (P = 0.02), but did not alter t-PA antigen. In contrast, there was no effect of spironolactone on PAI-1 antigen (P = 0.28), whereas t-PA antigen was increased (P = 0.01). There was a significant correlation between PAI-1 antigen and serum aldosterone during both baseline and HCTZ study days (r(2) = 0.57; P = 0.0003); however, treatment with spironolactone abolished this correlation (r(2) = 0.13; P = 0.33). This study provides evidence that endogenous aldosterone influences PAI-1 production in humans.
We quantitated the glomerular size and the degree of sclerosis simultaneously in individual glomeruli with the use of three-dimensional histological analysis on serial sections obtained from remnant kidneys with highly heterogeneous glomerular lesions after subtotal nephrectomy (sNPX). Four to six weeks after sNPX (Group I, N = 7), 90% of glomeruli had mild sclerosis (sclerosis index, SI; less than 1.5 on a 0 to 4 scale) with a strong positive correlation between the maximum planar area of glomerulus (PAmax) versus SI. Twelve weeks after sNPX (Group II, N = 6) more than 50% of glomeruli had advanced sclerosis (average SI:1.88), and a significant positive correlation was again found between PAmax and SI in glomeruli with mild to modest sclerosis (SI less than 1.5), whereas these two variables were correlated inversely in glomeruli with advanced sclerosis. Administration of enalapril (50 mg/liter drinking water) or hydralazine (200 mg/liter) + hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg/liter) for 12 weeks (Group III, N = 12) markedly attenuated the sclerosis to comparable degrees (average SI: 0.15 vs. 0.22). The former antihypertensive therapy decreased glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure (PGC) to normal range, whereas the latter triple drug therapy was largely without effect on PGC. Of note, the positive correlation between SI and PAmax remained unaffected by these anti-hypertensive drugs. SI of the glomeruli from both treated groups was expressed as a first-order function of PAmax. The correlation coefficient is identical to that found in non-treated Group II remnant glomeruli, so that the degree of sclerosis is mathematically uniquely correlated with the glomerular size, regardless of drug treatment. Thus, within a given remnant kidney, the magnitude of glomerular hypertrophy has a direct correlation with the degree of sclerosis, while the altered glomerular hemodynamic pattern has little modulatory role in determining the magnitude of this hypertrophy. Enalapril and triple drug therapy, at equi-depressor doses in regard to systemic blood pressure, had identical potency in sparing glomerular structure. The primary determinant for this antisclerotic potency appears to be related to the drugs' potency to inhibit glomerular growth rather than an effect on the abnormal hemodynamics which develop in the glomerulus.