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OBJECTIVE - To determine if exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) during gestation increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes, specifically term small for gestational age (SGA) birth, preterm birth (PTB), and very PTB (<32 weeks' gestation).
METHODS - We used weekly measurements total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), five haloacetic acids (HAA5), and total organic halides (TOX) collected from two distribution systems to evaluate the associations between DBP concentrations and term SGA, PTB, and very PTB using logistic regression.
RESULTS - We found no associations between DBPs and term-SGA. In the site with higher concentrations of bromine-containing DBPs, we found an association between TOX and PTB; this association was larger, though less precise, for very PTB.
CONCLUSIONS - Our results do not support an association between TTHMs or HAA5 and the birth outcomes investigated, but an association was found between increased TOX and PTB.
1-Bromopropane (1-BP) was introduced as an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents. However, it was found to exhibit neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and hepatotoxicity in rodents and neurotoxicity in human. However, the mechanisms underlying the toxicities of 1-BP remain elusive. The present study investigated the role of oxidative stress in 1-BP-induced hepatotoxicity using nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-null mice. Groups of 24 male Nrf2-null mice and 24 male wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were each divided into three groups of eight and exposed to 1-BP at 0, 100, or 300 ppm for 8 h/day for 28 days by inhalation. Liver histopathology showed significantly larger area of necrosis in Nrf2-null mice relative to WT mice at the same exposure level. Nrf2-null mice also had greater malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, higher ratio of oxidized glutathione/reduced form of glutathione, and lower total glutathione content. The constitutive level and the increase in ratio per exposure level of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity were lower in the liver of Nrf2-null mice than WT mice. Exposure to 1-BP at 300 ppm increased the messenger RNA levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GcLm), glutamate-cysteine synthetase (GcLc), glutathione reductase, and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in WT mice but not in Nrf2-null mice except for GST Yc2. Nrf2-null mice were more susceptible to 1-BP-induced hepatotoxicity. That oxidative stress plays a role in 1-BP hepatotoxicity is deduced from the low expression levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes and high MDA levels in Nrf2-null mice.
The first total synthesis of dispyrin, a recently reported bromopyrrole alkaloid from Agelas dispar with an unprecedented bromopyrrole tyramine motif, was achieved in three steps on a gram scale (68.4% overall). No biological activity was reported for dispyrin, so we evaluated synthetic dispyrin against>200 discrete molecular targets in radioligand binding and functional assays. Unlike most marine natural products, dispyrin (1) possesses no antibacterial or anticancer activity, but was found to be a potent ligand and antagonist of several therapeutically relevant GPCRs, the alpha1D and alpha2A adrenergic receptors and the H2 and H3 histamine receptors.
Dihaloalkanes are of toxicological interest because of their high-volume use in industry and their abilities to cause tumors in rodents, particularly dichloromethane and 1,2-dichloroethane. The brominated analogues are not used as extensively but are known to produce more toxicity in some systems. Rats and mice were treated i.p. with (14)C-dichloromethane, -dibromomethane, -1,2-dichloroethane, or -1,2-dibromoethane [5 mg (kg body weight)(-1)], and livers and kidneys were collected to rapidly isolate DNA. The DNA was digested using a procedure designed to minimize processing time, because some of the potential dihalomethane-derived DNA-glutathione (GSH) adducts are known to be unstable, and the HPLC fractions corresponding to major adduct standards were separated and analyzed for (14)C using accelerator mass spectrometry. The level of liver or kidney S-[2-(N(7)-guanyl)ethyl]GSH in rats treated with 1,2-dibromoethane was approximately 1 adduct/10(5) DNA bases; in male or female mice, the level was approximately one-half of this. The levels of 1,2-dichloroethane adducts were 10-50-fold lower. None of four known (in vitro) GSH-DNA adducts was detected at a level of >2/10(8) DNA bases from dibromomethane or dichloromethane. These results provide parameters for risk assessment of these compounds: DNA binding occurs with 1,2-dichloroethane but is considerably less than from 1,2-dibromoethane in vivo, and low exposure to dihalomethanes does not produce appreciable DNA adduct levels in rat or mouse liver and kidney of the doses used. The results may be used to address issues in human risk assessment.
1-Bromopropane (1-BP), an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents, is a neuro and reproductive toxicant in animals and humans. In this study, the dose responses for urinary AcPrCys and S-propylcysteine (PrCys) adducts on globin and neurofilaments were determined as a function of 1-BP exposure level and duration in the rat; and globin PrCys adducts and urinary AcPrCys were quantified in samples obtained from workers in a 1-BP production facility. Rats were exposed to 1-BP by inhalation for 2 weeks at 0, 50, 200, or 800 ppm and to 1-BP at 0 or 50 ppm for 4 weeks. After the 4-week exposures ended, half of the animals were euthanized immediately and half euthanized 8 days later. Urinary AcPrCys was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC/MS); and PrCys adducts were determined on globin and neurofilaments using LC/MS/MS. In rats, PrCys adduct and urinary AcPrCys levels demonstrated a linear dose response relative to exposure level. PrCys globin adducts demonstrated a linear cumulative dose response over the 4-week exposure period. Elimination of AcPrCys appeared biphasic with detectable levels still present in urine up to 8 days postexposure. A significant increase in globin PrCys adducts was observed in the 1-BP workers relative to control workers; and urinary AcPrCys increased with increasing 1-BP ambient exposure levels. The results of these studies demonstrate the ability of 1-BP to covalently modify proteins in vivo and support the potential of urinary AcPrCys and globin PrCys adducts to serve as biomarkers of 1-BP exposure in humans.
We reported recently that 1-bromopropane (1-BP; n-propylbromide, CAS Registry no. 106-94-5), an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents, is neurotoxic and exhibits reproductive toxicity in rats. The four most recent case reports suggested possible neurotoxicity of 1-BP in workers. The aim of the present study was to establish the neurologic effects of 1-BP in workers and examine the relationship with exposure levels. We surveyed 27 female workers in a 1-BP production factory and compared 23 of them with 23 age-matched workers in a beer factory as controls. The workers were interviewed and examined by neurologic, electrophysiologic, hematologic, biochemical, neurobehavioral, and postural sway tests. 1-BP exposure levels were estimated with passive samplers. Tests with a tuning fork showed diminished vibration sensation of the foot in 15 workers exposed to 1-BP but in none of the controls. 1-BP factory workers showed significantly longer distal latency in the tibial nerve than did the controls but no significant changes in motor nerve conduction velocity. Workers also displayed lower values in sensory nerve conduction velocity in the sural nerve, backward recalled digits, Benton visual memory test scores, pursuit aiming test scores, and five items of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test (tension, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and confusion) compared with controls matched for age and education. Workers hired after May 1999, who were exposed to 1-BP only (workers hired before 1999 could have also been exposed to 2-BP), showed similar changes in vibration sense, distal latency, Benton test scores, and depression and fatigue in the POMS test. Time-weighted average exposure levels in the workers were 0.34-49.19 ppm. Exposure to 1-BP could adversely affect peripheral nerves or/and the central nervous system.
O(6)-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) is a DNA repair protein that removes O(6)-alkylguanine adducts. The interaction of dibromomethane (CH(2)Br(2)) and bromomethyl acetate (BrCH(2)OAc) with AGT was studied in vitro, and the effect of AGT on their toxicity and mutagenicity was investigated using Escherichia coli strain TRG8 (lacking endogenous AGT) that expressed human AGT or its inactive C145A mutant. Both CH(2)Br(2) and BrCH(2)OAc reacted with AGT at its cysteine acceptor site, abolishing its DNA repair activity with the latter agent being much more potent. The formation of AGT-Cys(145)S-CH(2)OAc by BrCH(2)OAc was confirmed by mass spectral analysis, but the presumed AGT-Cys(145)S-CH(2)Br adduct from CH(2)Br(2) was too unstable for such characterization. In the presence of CH(2)Br(2), AGT was covalently cross-linked to an oligodeoxyribonucleotide, 5'-d(AG)(8)-3', but no cross-link was formed by BrCH(2)OAc. Survival of cells exposed to CH(2)Br(2) was reduced, and the number of mutants was greatly increased when wild-type AGT was present. The cytotoxicity of CH(2)Br(2) was similar to that of BrCH(2)CH(2)Br(2), but the mutagenicity was about four times less. Virtually all of the AGT-mediated mutants induced by CH(2)Br(2) in the rpoB gene were at G:C sites with equal numbers of transitions to A:T and transversions to T:A. In contrast, BrCH(2)OAc was more than 10-fold less genotoxic than CH(2)Br(2) and the survival of cells exposed to BrCH(2)OAc was not affected by AGT. The number of mutations (almost all G:C to A:T transitions) induced by BrCH(2)OAc was slightly reduced by the presence of wild-type AGT and substantially increased by the inactive C145A mutant. These results with CH(2)Br(2) are consistent with a mechanism in which reaction at the active site Cys145 residue followed by attack of AGT-Cys(145)S-CH(2)Br at guanine in DNA forms a covalent adduct, which leads to cytotoxicity and to mutagenicity. The results with BrCH(2)OAc suggest that it reacts directly with DNA to form O(6)-(CH(2)OAc)guanine, which, if unrepaired, causes G:C to A:T transitions. Our experiments reveal two novel pathways (direct inactivation of AGT and formation of AGT-Cys(145)S-CH(2)-DNA adducts) by which CH(2)Br(2) may cause damage to the genome in addition to the well-recognized pathway involving activation by GSTs.
The dihalomethane CH(2)Cl(2) is an industrial solvent of potential concern to humans because of its potential genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. To characterize DNA damage by dihalomethanes, a rapid DNA digestion under acidic conditions was developed to identify alkali labile DNA-dihalomethane nucleoside adducts using HPLC-electrospray mass spectrometry. DNA digestion worked best using pH 5.0 sodium acetate buffer, a 30 min incubation with DNase II and phosphodiesterase II, and a 2 h acid phosphatase digest. DNA was modified with S-(1-acetoxymethyl)glutathione (GSCH(2)OAc), a reagent modeling activated dihalomethanes. Adducts to G, A, and T were detected at high ratios of GSCH(2)OAc/DNA following digestion of the DNA with the procedure used here. The relative efficacy of adduct formation was G > T > A > C. The four DNA nucleosides were also reacted with the dihalomethanes CH(2)Cl(2) and CH(2)Br(2) in the presence of glutathione (GSH) and GSH S-transferases from bacteria (DM11), rat (GST 5-5), and human (GST T1-1) under conditions that produce mutations in bacteria. All enzymes formed adducts to all four nucleosides, with dGuo being the most readily modified nucleoside. Thus, the pattern paralleled the results obtained with the model compounds GSCH(2)OAc and DNA. CH(2)Cl(2) and CH(2)Br(2) yielded similar amounts of adducts under these conditions. The relative efficiency of adduct formation by GSH transferases was rat 5-5 > human T1-1 > bacterial DM11, showing that human GSH transferase T1-1 can form dihalomethane adducts under the conditions used. Although the lability of DNA adducts has precluded more sophisticated experiments and in vivo studies have not yet been possible, the work collectively demonstrates the ability of several GSH transferases to generate DNA adducts from dihalomethanes, with G being the preferred site of adduction in both this and the GSCH(2)OAc model system.
Glutathione (GSH) transferases (GSTs) catalyze the conjugation of small haloalkanes with GSH. In the case of dihalomethanes and vic-1,2-dihaloalkanes, the reaction leads to the formation of genotoxic GSH conjugates. A generally established feature of the reaction of the mammalian theta-class GSTs, which preferentially catalyze these reactions, is the lack of saturability of the rate with regard to the substrate concentration. However, the bacterial GST DM11 catalyzes the same reactions with a relatively low K(m). Recently, DM11 has been shown to exhibit burst kinetics, with a rate-determining k(off) rate for product (Stourman et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 11048-11056). We examined rat GST 5-5 and human GST T1-1 and did not detect any burst kinetics in the conjugation of C(2)H(5)Cl, CH(2)Br(2), or CH(2)Cl(2), distinguishing these enzymes from GST DM11. The kinetic results were fit to a minimal mechanism in which the rate-limiting step is halide displacement. The differences in the steady state kinetics of conjugations catalyzed by bacterial GST DM11 and the mammalian GSTs 5-5 and T1-1 are concluded to be the result of differences in the rate-limiting steps and not to inherent enzyme affinity for the haloalkanes. The results may be interpreted in the context of a model in which the halide order affects the rate of carbon-halogen bond cleavage of all such reactions catalyzed by the GSTs. With GST DM11, the halide order is manifested in the K(m) parameter but not k(cat). With mammalian GSTs, the high K(m) is difficult to estimate. With all of the GSTs, the halide order is seen in the enzyme efficiency, k(cat)/K(m), with C-Br cleavage approximately 10-fold faster than C-Cl cleavage. The ratio k(cat)/K(m) is the most relevant parameter for issues of risk assessment.
Halogenated olefins are of interest because of their widespread use in industry and their potential toxicity to humans. Epoxides are among the enzymatic oxidation products and have been studied in regard to their toxicity. Most of the attention has been given to chlorinated epoxides, and we have previously studied the reactions of the mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrachloroethylene oxides. To further test some hypotheses concerning the reactivity of these compounds, we prepared tribromoethylene (TBE) oxide and compared it to trichloroethylene (TCE) oxide and other chlorinated epoxides. TBE oxide reacted with H(2)O about 3 times faster than did TCE oxide. Several hydrolysis products of TBE oxide were the same as formed from TCE oxide, i.e., glyoxylic acid, CO, and HCO(2)H. Br(2)CHCO(2)H was formed from TBE oxide; the yield was higher than for Cl(2)CHCO(2)H formed in the hydrolysis of TCE oxide. The yield of tribromoacetaldehyde was < 0.4% in aqueous buffer (pH 7.4). In rat liver microsomal incubations containing TBE and NADPH, Br(2)CHCO(2)H was a major product, and tribromoacetaldehyde was a minor product. These results are consistent with schemes previously developed for halogenated epoxides, with migration of bromine being more favorable than for chlorine. Reaction of TBE oxide with lysine yielded relatively more N-dihaloacetyllysine and less N-formyllysine than in the case of TCE oxide. This same pattern was observed in the products of the reaction of TBE oxide with the lysine residues in bovine serum albumin. We conclude that the proposed scheme of hydrolysis of halogenated epoxides follows the expected halide order and that this can be used to rationalize patterns of hydrolysis and reactivity of other halogenated epoxides.