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A Phenome-Wide Association Study Uncovers a Pathological Role of Coagulation Factor X during Infection.
Choby JE, Monteith AJ, Himmel LE, Margaritis P, Shirey-Rice JK, Pruijssers A, Jerome RN, Pulley J, Skaar EP
(2019) Infect Immun 87:
MeSH Terms: Acinetobacter Infections, Acinetobacter baumannii, Animals, Disease Models, Animal, Factor X, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Phenotype, Polymorphism, Genetic
Show Abstract · Added April 7, 2019
Coagulation and inflammation are interconnected, suggesting that coagulation plays a key role in the inflammatory response to pathogens. A phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) was used to identify clinical phenotypes of patients with a polymorphism in coagulation factor X. Patients with this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were more likely to be hospitalized with hemostatic and infection-related disorders, suggesting that factor X contributes to the immune response to infection. To investigate this, we modeled infections by human pathogens in a mouse model of factor X deficiency. Factor X-deficient mice were protected from systemic infection, suggesting that factor X plays a role in the immune response to Factor X deficiency was associated with reduced cytokine and chemokine production and alterations in immune cell population during infection: factor X-deficient mice demonstrated increased abundance of neutrophils, macrophages, and effector T cells. Together, these results suggest that factor X activity is associated with an inefficient immune response and contributes to the pathology of infection.
Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.
0 Communities
1 Members
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11 MeSH Terms
S100 Proteins in the Innate Immune Response to Pathogens.
Kozlyuk N, Monteith AJ, Garcia V, Damo SM, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ
(2019) Methods Mol Biol 1929: 275-290
MeSH Terms: Calcium, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Inflammation, Manganese, Models, Molecular, Protein Conformation, S100 Proteins, Toll-Like Receptor 4
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2019
S100 proteins are distinct dimeric EF-hand Ca-binding proteins that can bind Zn, Mn, and other transition metals with high affinity at two sites in the dimer interface. Certain S100 proteins, including S100A7, S100A12, S100A8, and S100A9, play key roles in the innate immune response to pathogens. These proteins function via a "nutritional immunity" mechanism by depleting essential transition metals in the infection that are required for the invading organism to grow and thrive. They also act as damage-associated molecular pattern ligands, which activate pattern recognition receptors (e.g., Toll-like receptor 4, RAGE) that mediate inflammation. Here we present protocols for these S100 proteins for high-level production of recombinant protein, measurement of binding affinities using isothermal titration calorimetry, and an assay of antimicrobial activity.
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2 Members
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10 MeSH Terms
Molecular Basis for the Evolution of Species-Specific Hemoglobin Capture by Staphylococcus aureus.
Choby JE, Buechi HB, Farrand AJ, Skaar EP, Barber MF
(2018) MBio 9:
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cation Transport Proteins, Evolution, Molecular, Hemoglobins, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Iron, Mutation, Primates, Protein Binding, Species Specificity, Staphylococcus aureus
Show Abstract · Added April 7, 2019
Metals are a limiting resource for pathogenic bacteria and must be scavenged from host proteins. Hemoglobin provides the most abundant source of iron in the human body and is required by several pathogens to cause invasive disease. However, the consequences of hemoglobin evolution for bacterial nutrient acquisition remain unclear. Here we show that the α- and β-globin genes exhibit strikingly parallel signatures of adaptive evolution across simian primates. Rapidly evolving sites in hemoglobin correspond to binding interfaces of IsdB, a bacterial hemoglobin receptor harbored by pathogenic Using an evolution-guided experimental approach, we demonstrate that the divergence between primates and staphylococcal isolates governs hemoglobin recognition and bacterial growth. The reintroduction of putative adaptive mutations in α- or β-globin proteins was sufficient to impair binding, providing a mechanism for the evolution of disease resistance. These findings suggest that bacterial hemoprotein capture has driven repeated evolutionary conflicts with hemoglobin during primate descent. During infection, bacteria must steal metals, including iron, from the host tissue. Therefore, pathogenic bacteria have evolved metal acquisition systems to overcome the elaborate processes mammals use to withhold metal from pathogens. uses IsdB, a hemoglobin receptor, to thieve iron-containing heme from hemoglobin within human blood. We find evidence that primate hemoglobin has undergone rapid evolution at protein surfaces contacted by IsdB. Additionally, variation in the hemoglobin sequences among primates, or variation in IsdB of related staphylococci, reduces bacterial hemoglobin capture. Together, these data suggest that has evolved to recognize human hemoglobin in the face of rapid evolution at the IsdB binding interface, consistent with repeated evolutionary conflicts in the battle for iron during host-pathogen interactions.
Copyright © 2018 Choby et al.
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11 MeSH Terms
Serologic Response to Helicobacter pylori Proteins Associated With Risk of Colorectal Cancer Among Diverse Populations in the United States.
Butt J, Varga MG, Blot WJ, Teras L, Visvanathan K, Le Marchand L, Haiman C, Chen Y, Bao Y, Sesso HD, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Ho GYF, Tinker LE, Peek RM, Potter JD, Cover TL, Hendrix LH, Huang LC, Hyslop T, Um C, Grodstein F, Song M, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Berndt S, Hildesheim A, Waterboer T, Pawlita M, Epplein M
(2019) Gastroenterology 156: 175-186.e2
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Antibodies, Bacterial, Bacterial Proteins, Biomarkers, Case-Control Studies, Colorectal Neoplasms, Female, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Incidence, Male, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Seroepidemiologic Studies, United States, Virulence, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added February 7, 2019
BACKGROUND & AIMS - Previous studies reported an association of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, the primary cause of gastric cancer, and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, these findings have been inconsistent, appear to vary with population characteristics, and may be specific for virulence factor VacA. To more thoroughly evaluate the potential association of H pylori antibodies with CRC risk, we assembled a large consortium of cohorts representing diverse populations in the United States.
METHODS - We used H pylori multiplex serologic assays to analyze serum samples from 4063 incident cases of CRC, collected before diagnosis, and 4063 matched individuals without CRC (controls) from 10 prospective cohorts for antibody responses to 13 H pylori proteins, including virulence factors VacA and CagA. The association of seropositivity to H pylori proteins, as well as protein-specific antibody level, with odds of CRC was determined by conditional logistic regression.
RESULTS - Overall, 40% of controls and 41% of cases were H pylori-seropositive (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% CI, 0.99-1.20). H pylori VacA-specific seropositivity was associated with an 11% increased odds of CRC (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.22), and this association was particularly strong among African Americans (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.08-1.95). Additionally, odds of CRC increased with level of VacA antibody in the overall cohort (P = .008) and specifically among African Americans (P = .007).
CONCLUSIONS - In an analysis of a large consortium of cohorts representing diverse populations, we found serologic responses to H pylori VacA to associate with increased risk of CRC risk, particularly for African Americans. Future studies should seek to understand whether this marker is related to virulent H pylori strains carried in these populations.
Copyright © 2019 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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1 Members
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MeSH Terms
Integrated molecular imaging reveals tissue heterogeneity driving host-pathogen interactions.
Cassat JE, Moore JL, Wilson KJ, Stark Z, Prentice BM, Van de Plas R, Perry WJ, Zhang Y, Virostko J, Colvin DC, Rose KL, Judd AM, Reyzer ML, Spraggins JM, Grunenwald CM, Gore JC, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP
(2018) Sci Transl Med 10:
MeSH Terms: Animals, Female, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mass Spectrometry, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Molecular Imaging, Staphylococcal Infections, Staphylococcus aureus
Show Abstract · Added March 22, 2018
Diseases are characterized by distinct changes in tissue molecular distribution. Molecular analysis of intact tissues traditionally requires preexisting knowledge of, and reagents for, the targets of interest. Conversely, label-free discovery of disease-associated tissue analytes requires destructive processing for downstream identification platforms. Tissue-based analyses therefore sacrifice discovery to gain spatial distribution of known targets or sacrifice tissue architecture for discovery of unknown targets. To overcome these obstacles, we developed a multimodality imaging platform for discovery-based molecular histology. We apply this platform to a model of disseminated infection triggered by the pathogen , leading to the discovery of infection-associated alterations in the distribution and abundance of proteins and elements in tissue in mice. These data provide an unbiased, three-dimensional analysis of how disease affects the molecular architecture of complex tissues, enable culture-free diagnosis of infection through imaging-based detection of bacterial and host analytes, and reveal molecular heterogeneity at the host-pathogen interface.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
0 Communities
4 Members
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10 MeSH Terms
Determinants of Raft Partitioning of the Helicobacter pylori Pore-Forming Toxin VacA.
Raghunathan K, Foegeding NJ, Campbell AM, Cover TL, Ohi MD, Kenworthy AK
(2018) Infect Immun 86:
MeSH Terms: Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins, Helicobacter pylori, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Membrane Microdomains, Stomach Neoplasms, Vacuoles
Show Abstract · Added July 29, 2018
, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a well-known risk factor for gastric cancer. vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is a secreted pore-forming toxin that induces a wide range of cellular responses. Like many other bacterial toxins, VacA has been hypothesized to utilize lipid rafts to gain entry into host cells. Here, we used giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) as a model system to understand the preferential partitioning of VacA into lipid rafts. We show that a wild-type (WT) toxin predominantly associates with the raft phase. Acid activation of VacA enhances binding of the toxin to GPMVs but is not required for raft partitioning. VacA mutant proteins with alterations at the amino terminus (resulting in impaired membrane channel formation) and a nonoligomerizing VacA mutant protein retain the ability to preferentially associate with lipid rafts. Consistent with these results, the isolated VacA p55 domain was capable of binding to lipid rafts. We conclude that the affinity of VacA for rafts is independent of its capacity to oligomerize or form membrane channels.
Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.
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1 Members
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7 MeSH Terms
Human and Helicobacter pylori Interactions Determine the Outcome of Gastric Diseases.
Gobert AP, Wilson KT
(2017) Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 400: 27-52
MeSH Terms: Animals, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Stomach Diseases
Show Abstract · Added January 27, 2017
The innate immune response is a critical hallmark of Helicobacter pylori infection. Epithelial and myeloid cells produce effectors, including the chemokine CXCL8, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO), in response to bacterial components. Mechanistic and epidemiologic studies have emphasized that dysregulated and persistent release of these products leads to the development of chronic inflammation and to the molecular and cellular events related to carcinogenesis. Moreover, investigations in H. pylori-infected patients about polymorphisms of the genes encoding CXCL8 and inducible NO synthase, and epigenetic control of the ROS-producing enzyme spermine oxidase, have further proven that overproduction of these molecules impacts the severity of gastric diseases. Lastly, the critical effect of the crosstalk between the human host and the infecting bacterium in determining the severity of H. pylori-related diseases has been supported by phylogenetic analysis of the human population and their H. pylori isolates in geographic areas with varying clinical and pathologic outcomes of the infection.
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1 Members
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6 MeSH Terms
Current concepts in maternal-fetal immunology: Recognition and response to microbial pathogens by decidual stromal cells.
Anders AP, Gaddy JA, Doster RS, Aronoff DM
(2017) Am J Reprod Immunol 77:
MeSH Terms: Chorioamnionitis, Decidua, Female, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Immunity, Maternally-Acquired, Infection, Maternal-Fetal Exchange, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein, Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein, Pregnancy, Receptors, Pattern Recognition, Stromal Cells
Show Abstract · Added April 26, 2017
Chorioamnionitis is an acute inflammation of the gestational (extraplacental) membranes, most commonly caused by ascending microbial infection. It is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes including preterm birth, neonatal sepsis, and cerebral palsy. The decidua is the outermost layer of the gestational membranes and is likely an important initial site of contact with microbes during ascending infection. However, little is known about how decidual stromal cells (DSCs) respond to microbial threat. Defining the contributions of individual cell types to the complex medley of inflammatory signals during chorioamnionitis could lead to improved interventions aimed at halting this disease. We review available published data supporting the role for DSCs in responding to microbial infection, with a special focus on their expression of pattern recognition receptors and evidence of their responsiveness to pathogen sensing. While DSCs likely play an important role in sensing and responding to infection during the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, important knowledge gaps and areas for future research are highlighted.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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2 Members
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15 MeSH Terms
Polyamine- and NADPH-dependent generation of ROS during Helicobacter pylori infection: A blessing in disguise.
Gobert AP, Wilson KT
(2017) Free Radic Biol Med 105: 16-27
MeSH Terms: Animals, DNA Damage, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, NADP, NADPH Oxidases, Oxidative Stress, Polyamines, Reactive Oxygen Species
Show Abstract · Added October 2, 2016
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that specifically colonizes the gastric ecological niche. During the infectious process, which results in diseases ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric cancer, the host response is characterized by the activation of the innate immunity of gastric epithelial cells and macrophages. These cells thus produce effector molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) to counteract the infection. The generation of ROS in response to H. pylori involves two canonical pathways: 1) the NADPH-dependent reduction of molecular oxygen to generate O, which can dismute to generate ROS; and 2) the back-conversion of the polyamine spermine into spermidine through the enzyme spermine oxidase, leading to HO production. Although these products have the potential to affect the survival of bacteria, H. pylori has acquired numerous strategies to counteract their deleterious effects. Nonetheless, ROS-mediated oxidative DNA damage and mutations may participate in the adaptation of H. pylori to its ecological niche. Lastly, ROS have been shown to play a major role in the development of the inflammation and carcinogenesis. It is the purpose of this review to summarize the literature about the production of ROS during H. pylori infection and their role in this infectious gastric disease.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
0 Communities
1 Members
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11 MeSH Terms
Tyrosine phosphorylation modulates mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp60 and delays rotavirus NSP4-mediated apoptotic signaling in host cells.
Chattopadhyay S, Mukherjee A, Patra U, Bhowmick R, Basak T, Sengupta S, Chawla-Sarkar M
(2017) Cell Microbiol 19:
MeSH Terms: Apoptosis, Cell Line, Chaperonin 60, Glycoproteins, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Phosphorylation, Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex, Protein Processing, Post-Translational, Proteolysis, Rotavirus, Signal Transduction, Time Factors, Toxins, Biological, Tyrosine, Viral Nonstructural Proteins
Show Abstract · Added November 3, 2017
Phosphoproteomics-based platforms have been widely used to identify post translational dynamics of cellular proteins in response to viral infection. The present study was undertaken to assess differential tyrosine phosphorylation during early hours of rotavirus (RV) SA11 infection. Heat shock proteins (Hsp60) were found to be enriched in the data set of RV-SA11 induced differentially tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins at 2 hr post infection (hpi). Hsp60 was further found to be phosphorylated by an activated form of Src kinase on 227th tyrosine residue, and tyrosine phosphorylation of mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp60 correlated with its proteasomal degradation at 2-2.5hpi. Interestingly, mitochondrial Hsp60 positively influenced translocation of the rotaviral nonstructural protein 4 to mitochondria during RV infections. Phosphorylation and subsequent transient degradation of mitochondrial Hsp60 during early hours of RV-SA11 infection resulted in inhibition of premature import of nonstructural protein 4 into mitochondria, thereby delaying early apoptosis. Overall, the study highlighted one of the many strategies rotavirus undertakes to prevent early apoptosis and subsequent reduced viral progeny yield.
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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1 Members
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16 MeSH Terms