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OBJECTIVE - We aimed to clarify the impact of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a platform to drive hemodialysis (HD) for ammonia clearance on outcomes of neonates with severe hyperammonemia.
STUDY DESIGN - All neonates treated for hyperammonemia at a single children's hospital between 1992 and 2016 were identified. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared between those receiving medical management or ECMO/HD.
RESULT - Twenty-five neonates were treated for hyperammonemia, of which 13 (52%) received ECMO/HD. Peak ammonia levels among neonates treated with ECMO/HD were significantly higher than those medically managed (1041 [IQR 902-1581] μmol/L versus 212 [IQR 110-410] μmol/L; p = 0.009). Serum ammonia levels in the ECMO/HD cohort declined to the median of medically managed within 4.5 (IQR 2.9-7.0) hours and normalized within 7.3 (IQR 3.6-13.5) hours. All neonates survived ECMO/HD, and nine (69.2%) survived to discharge.
CONCLUSION - ECMO/HD is an effective adjunct to rapidly clear severe hyperammonemia in newborns, reducing potential neurodevelopmental morbidity.
Objective - The Vanderbilt Children's Hospital launched an innovative Technology-Based Patient and Family Engagement Consult Service in 2014. This paper describes our initial experience with this service, characterizes health-related needs of families of hospitalized children, and details the technologies recommended to promote engagement and meet needs.
Materials and Methods - We retrospectively reviewed consult service documentation for patient characteristics, health-related needs, and consultation team recommendations. Needs were categorized using a consumer health needs taxonomy. Recommendations were classified by technology type.
Results - Twenty-two consultations were conducted with families of patients ranging in age from newborn to 15 years, most with new diagnoses or chronic illnesses. The consultation team identified 99 health-related needs (4.5 per consultation) and made 166 recommendations (7.5 per consultation, 1.7 per need). Need categories included 38 informational needs, 26 medical needs, 23 logistical needs, and 12 social needs. The most common recommendations were websites (50, 30%) and mobile applications (30, 18%). The most frequent recommendations by need category were websites for informational needs (39, 50%), mobile applications for medical needs (15, 40%), patient portals for logistical needs (12, 44%), and disease-specific support groups for social needs (19, 56%).
Discussion - Families of hospitalized pediatric patients have a variety of health-related needs, many of which could be addressed by technology recommendations from an engagement consult service.
Conclusion - This service is the first of its kind, offering a potentially generalizable and scalable approach to assessing health-related needs, meeting them with technologies, and promoting patient and family engagement in the inpatient setting.
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
BACKGROUND - We evaluated the impact of the 2011 Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America pneumonia guideline and hospital-level implementation efforts on antibiotic prescribing for children hospitalized with pneumonia.
METHODS - We assessed inpatient antibiotic prescribing for pneumonia at 28 children's hospitals between August 2009 and March 2015. Each hospital was also surveyed regarding local implementation efforts targeting antibiotic prescribing and organizational readiness to adopt guideline recommendations. To estimate guideline impact, we used segmented linear regression to compare the proportion of children receiving penicillins in March 2015 with the expected proportion at this same time point had the guideline not been published based on a projection of a preguideline trend. A similar approach was used to estimate the short-term (6-month) impact of local implementation efforts. The correlations between organizational readiness and the impact of the guideline were estimated by using Pearson's correlation coefficient.
RESULTS - Before guideline publication, penicillin prescribing was rare (<10%). After publication, an absolute increase in penicillin use was observed (27.6% [95% confidence interval: 23.7%-31.5%]) by March 2015. Among hospitals with local implementation efforts ( = 20, 71%), the median increase was 29.5% (interquartile range: 19.6%-39.1%) compared with 20.1% (interquartile rage: 9.5%-44.5%) among hospitals without such activities ( = .51). The independent, short-term impact of local implementation efforts was similar in magnitude to that of the national guideline. Organizational readiness was not correlated with prescribing changes.
CONCLUSIONS - The publication of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America guideline was associated with sustained increases in the use of penicillins for children hospitalized with pneumonia. Local implementation efforts may have enhanced guideline adoption and appeared more relevant than hospitals' organizational readiness to change.
Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
BACKGROUND - National guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children were published in 2011. These guidelines discourage most diagnostic testing for outpatients, as well as repeat testing for hospitalized patients who are improving. We sought to evaluate the temporal trends in diagnostic testing associated with guideline implementation among children with CAP.
METHODS - Children 1 to 18 years old who were discharged with pneumonia after emergency department (ED) evaluation or hospitalization from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2014 at any of 32 children's hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System were included. We excluded children with complex chronic conditions and those requiring intensive care or who underwent early pleural drainage. We compared use of diagnostic testing (blood culture, complete blood count [CBC], C-reactive protein [CRP], and chest radiography [CXR]) before and after release of the guidelines, and assessed for temporal trends using interrupted time series analysis. We also calculated the cost impact of these changes on diagnostic utilization and evaluated the variability of the guideline's impact across hospitals.
RESULTS - Overall, 220,539 patients were included; 53% were male and the median age was 4 years (interquartile range, 2-7). For patients discharged from the ED with CAP, diagnostic utilization rates for blood culture, CBC, CRP, and CXR were higher after guideline publication compared with expected utilization rates without guidelines. In contrast, initial testing and repeat testing among patients hospitalized with CAP was lower after guideline publication. There were modest reductions in estimated costs associated with these changes. However, wide variability was observed in the impact of the guidelines across hospitals.
CONCLUSIONS - Publication of national pneumonia guidelines in 2011 was associated with modest changes in diagnostic testing for children with CAP. However, the changes varied across hospitals, and the financial impact was modest. Local implementation efforts are warranted to ensure widespread guideline adherence. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:317-323. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.
© 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - Pediatric acute stroke teams are a new phenomenon. We sought to characterize the final diagnoses of children with brain attacks in the emergency department where the pediatric acute stroke protocol was activated and to describe the time to neurological evaluation and neuroimaging.
METHODS - Clinical and demographic information was obtained from a quality improvement database and medical records for consecutive patients (age, ≤20 years) presenting to a single institution's pediatric emergency department where the acute stroke protocol was activated between April 2011 and October 2014. Stroke protocol activation means that a neurology resident evaluates the child within 15 minutes, and urgent magnetic resonance imaging is available.
RESULTS - There were 124 stroke alerts (age, 11.2±5.2 years; 63 boys/61 girls); 30 were confirmed strokes and 2 children had a transient ischemic attack. Forty-six of 124 (37%) cases were healthy children without any significant medical history. Nonstroke neurological emergencies were found in 17 children (14%); the majority were meningitis/encephalitis (n=5) or intracranial neoplasm (n=4). Other common final diagnoses were complex migraine (17%) and seizure (15%). All children except 1 had urgent neuroimaging. Magnetic resonance imaging was the first study in 76%. The median time from emergency department arrival to magnetic resonance imaging was 94 minutes (interquartile range, 49-151 minutes); the median time to computed tomography was 59 minutes (interquartile range, 40-112 minutes).
CONCLUSIONS - Of pediatric brain attacks, 24% were stroke, 2% were transient ischemic attack, and 14% were other neurological emergencies. Together, 40% had a stroke or other neurological emergency, underscoring the need for prompt evaluation and management of children with brain attacks.
© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - In adult stroke, the advent of thrombolytic therapy led to the development of primary stroke centers capable to diagnose and treat patients with acute stroke rapidly. We describe the development of primary pediatric stroke centers through preparation of participating centers in the Thrombolysis in Pediatric Stroke (TIPS) trial.
METHODS - We collected data from the 17 enrolling TIPS centers regarding the process of becoming an acute pediatric stroke center with capability to diagnose, evaluate, and treat pediatric stroke rapidly, including use of thrombolytic therapy.
RESULTS - Before 2004, <25% of TIPS sites had continuous 24-hour availability of acute stroke teams, MRI capability, or stroke order sets, despite significant pediatric stroke expertise. After TIPS preparation, >80% of sites now have these systems in place, and all sites reported increased readiness to treat a child with acute stroke. Use of a 1- to 10-Likert scale on which 10 represented complete readiness, median center readiness increased from 6.2 before site preparation to 8.7 at the time of site activation (P≤0.001).
CONCLUSIONS - Before preparing for TIPS, centers interested in pediatric stroke had not developed systematic strategies to diagnose and treat acute pediatric stroke. TIPS trial preparation has resulted in establishment of pediatric acute stroke centers with clinical and system preparedness for evaluation and care of children with acute stroke, including use of a standardized protocol for evaluation and treatment of acute arterial stroke in children that includes use of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL - http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01591096.
© 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
OBJECTIVE - Minimally invasive image-guided cochlear implantation (CI) involves accessing the cochlea via a linear path from the lateral skull to the cochlea avoiding vital structures including the facial nerve. Herein, we describe and demonstrate the feasibility of the technique for pediatric patients.
STUDY DESIGN - Prospective.
SETTING - Children's Hospital.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS - Thirteen pediatric patients (1.5 to 8 years) undergoing traditional CI participated in this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Three fiducial markers were bone-implanted surrounding the ear, and a CT scan was acquired. The CT scan was processed to identify the marker locations and critical structures of the temporal bone. A safe linear path was determined to target the cochlea avoiding damage to vital structures. A custom microstereotactic frame was fabricated that would mount on the fiducial markers and constrain a tool to the desired trajectory. After traditional mastoidectomy and prior to cochleostomy, the custom microstereotactic frame was mounted on the bone-implanted markers to confirm that the achieved trajectory was safe and accurately accessed the cochlea.
RESULTS - For all the 13 patients, it was possible to determine a safe trajectory to the cochlea. Custom microstereotactic frames were validated successfully on 9 patients. Two of these patients had inner ear malformations, and this technique helped the surgeon confirm ideal location for cochleostomy. For patients with normal anatomy, the mean and standard deviation of the closest distance of the trajectory to facial nerve and chorda tympani were 1.1 ± 0.3 mm and 1.2 ± 0.5 mm, respectively.
CONCLUSION - Minimally invasive image-guided CI is feasible for pediatric patients.
OBJECT - Recent legislation and media coverage have heightened awareness of concussion in youth sports. Previous work by the authors' group defined significant variation of care in management of children with concussion. To address this variation, a multidisciplinary concussion program was established based on a uniform management protocol, with emphasis on community outreach via traditional media sources and the Internet. This retrospective study evaluates the impact of standardization of concussion care and resource utilization before and after standardization in a large regional pediatric hospital center.
METHODS - This retrospective study included all patients younger than 18 years of age evaluated for sports-related concussion between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2011. Emergency department, sports medicine, and neurosurgery records were reviewed. Data collected included demographics, injury details, clinical course, Sports Concussion Assessment Tool-2 (SCAT2) scores, imaging, discharge instructions, and referral for specialty care. The cohort was analyzed comparing patients evaluated before and after standardization of care.
RESULTS - Five hundred eighty-nine patients were identified, including 270 before standardization (2007-2011) and 319 after standardization (2011-2012). Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001) were observed between the 2 groups for multiple variables: there were more girls, more first-time concussions, fewer initial presentations to the emergency department, more consistent administration of the SCAT2, and more consistent supervision of return to play and return to think after adoption of the protocol.
CONCLUSIONS - A combination of increased public awareness and legislation has led to a 5-fold increase in the number of youth athletes presenting for concussion evaluation at the authors' center. Establishment of a multidisciplinary clinic with a standardized protocol resulted in significantly decreased institutional resource utilization and more consistent concussion care for this growing patient population.
BACKGROUND - Healthcare-associated transmission of respiratory viruses is a concerning patient safety issue.
DESIGN - Surveillance for influenza virus among a cohort of healthcare workers (HCWs) was conducted in a tertiary care children's hospital from November 2009 through April 2010 using biweekly nasal swab specimen collection. If a subject reported respiratory symptoms, an additional specimen was collected. Specimens from ill HCWs and a randomly selected sample from asymptomatic subjects were tested for additional respiratory viruses by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RESULTS - A total of 1,404 nasal swab specimens were collected from 170 enrolled subjects. Influenza circulated at very low levels during the surveillance period, and 74.2% of subjects received influenza vaccination. Influenza virus was not detected in any specimen. Multiplex respiratory virus PCR analysis of all 119 specimens from symptomatic subjects and 200 specimens from asymptomatic subjects yielded a total of 42 positive specimens, including 7 (16.7%) in asymptomatic subjects. Viral shedding was associated with report of any symptom (odds ratio [OR], 13.06 [95% confidence interval, 5.45-31.28]; [Formula: see text]) and younger age (OR, 0.96 [95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.99]; [Formula: see text]) when controlled for sex and occupation of physician or nurse. After the surveillance period, 46% of subjects reported working while ill with an influenza-like illness during the previous influenza season.
CONCLUSIONS - In this cohort, HCWs working while ill was common, as was viral shedding among those with symptoms. Asymptomatic viral shedding was infrequent but did occur. HCWs should refrain from patient care duties while ill, and staffing contingencies should accommodate them.
IMPORTANCE - Seizures are believed to be common presenting symptoms in neonates and children with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, few data are available on the epidemiology of acute symptomatic seizures or the risk for later epilepsy.
OBJECTIVE - To define the incidence of and explore risk factors for seizures and epilepsy in children with spontaneous ICH. Our a priori hypotheses were that younger age at presentation, cortical involvement of ICH, acute symptomatic seizures after presentation, ICH due to vascular malformation, and elevated intracranial pressure requiring urgent intervention would predict remote symptomatic seizures and epilepsy.
DESIGN - Prospective cohort study conducted between March 1, 2007, and January 1, 2012.
SETTING - Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals.
PARTICIPANTS - Seventy-three pediatric subjects with spontaneous ICH including 20 perinatal (≥37 weeks' gestation to 28 days) and 53 childhood subjects (>28 days to <18 years at presentation).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Acute symptomatic seizures (clinically evident and electrographic-only seizures within 7 days), remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy.
RESULTS - Acute symptomatic seizures occurred in 35 subjects (48%). Acute symptomatic seizures as a presenting symptom of ICH occurred in 12 perinatal (60%) and 19 childhood (36%) subjects (P = .07). Acute symptomatic seizures after presentation occurred in 7 children. Electrographic-only seizures were present in 9 of 32 subjects (28%) with continuous electroencephalogram monitoring. One-year and 2-year remote symptomatic seizure-free survival rates were 82% (95% CI, 68-90) and 67% (95% CI, 46-82), respectively. One-year and 2-year epilepsy-free survival rates were 96% (95% CI, 83-99) and 87% (95% CI, 65-95), respectively. Elevated intracranial pressure requiring acute intervention was a risk factor for seizures after presentation (P = .01; Fisher exact test), remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy (P = .03, and P = .04, respectively; log-rank test).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE - Presenting seizures are common in perinatal and childhood ICH. Continuous electroencephalography may detect electrographic seizures in some subjects. Single remote symptomatic seizures occur in many, and development of epilepsy is estimated to occur in 13% of patients at 2 years. Elevated intracranial pressure requiring acute intervention is a risk factor for acute seizures after presentation, remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy.