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Validation of an algorithm to identify heart failure hospitalisations in patients with diabetes within the veterans health administration.
Presley CA, Min JY, Chipman J, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Griffin MR, Roumie CL
(2018) BMJ Open 8: e020455
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Algorithms, Diabetes Complications, Diabetes Mellitus, Diagnosis-Related Groups, Female, Heart Failure, Hospitalization, Humans, International Classification of Diseases, Male, Middle Aged, Predictive Value of Tests, Sensitivity and Specificity, Veterans
Show Abstract · Added July 27, 2018
OBJECTIVES - We aimed to validate an algorithm using both primary discharge diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision (ICD-9)) and diagnosis-related group (DRG) codes to identify hospitalisations due to decompensated heart failure (HF) in a population of patients with diabetes within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system.
DESIGN - Validation study.
SETTING - Veterans Health Administration-Tennessee Valley Healthcare System PARTICIPANTS: We identified and reviewed a stratified, random sample of hospitalisations between 2001 and 2012 within a single VHA healthcare system of adults who received regular VHA care and were initiated on an antidiabetic medication between 2001 and 2008. We sampled 500 hospitalisations; 400 hospitalisations that fulfilled algorithm criteria, 100 that did not. Of these, 497 had adequate information for inclusion. The mean patient age was 66.1 years (SD 11.4). Majority of patients were male (98.8%); 75% were white and 20% were black.
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES - To determine if a hospitalisation was due to HF, we performed chart abstraction using Framingham criteria as the referent standard. We calculated the positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity and specificity for the overall algorithm and each component (primary diagnosis code (ICD-9), DRG code or both).
RESULTS - The algorithm had a PPV of 89.7% (95% CI 86.8 to 92.7), NPV of 93.9% (89.1 to 98.6), sensitivity of 45.1% (25.1 to 65.1) and specificity of 99.4% (99.2 to 99.6). The PPV was highest for hospitalisations that fulfilled both the ICD-9 and DRG algorithm criteria (92.1% (89.1 to 95.1)) and lowest for hospitalisations that fulfilled only DRG algorithm criteria (62.5% (28.4 to 96.6)).
CONCLUSIONS - Our algorithm, which included primary discharge diagnosis and DRG codes, demonstrated excellent PPV for identification of hospitalisations due to decompensated HF among patients with diabetes in the VHA system.
© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
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16 MeSH Terms
Randomised controlled pragmatic clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of a discharge follow-up phone call on 30-day hospital readmissions: balancing pragmatic and explanatory design considerations.
Yiadom MYAB, Domenico H, Byrne D, Hasselblad MM, Gatto CL, Kripalani S, Choma N, Tucker S, Wang L, Bhatia MC, Morrison J, Harrell FE, Hartert T, Bernard G
(2018) BMJ Open 8: e019600
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aftercare, Communication, Emergency Service, Hospital, Female, Hospitalization, Humans, Male, Mortality, Patient Discharge, Patient Readmission, Patient Satisfaction, Research Design, Telemedicine, Telephone, Transitional Care
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
INTRODUCTION - Hospital readmissions within 30 days are a healthcare quality problem associated with increased costs and poor health outcomes. Identifying interventions to improve patients' successful transition from inpatient to outpatient care is a continued challenge.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS - This is a single-centre pragmatic randomised and controlled clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a discharge follow-up phone call to reduce 30-day inpatient readmissions. Our primary endpoint is inpatient readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge censored for death analysed with an intention-to-treat approach. Secondary endpoints included observation status readmission within 30 days, time to readmission, all-cause emergency department revisits within 30 days, patient satisfaction (measured as mean Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems scores) and 30-day mortality. Exploratory endpoints include the need for assistance with discharge plan implementation among those randomised to the intervention arm and reached by the study nurse, and the number of call attempts to achieve successful intervention delivery. Consistent with the Learning Healthcare System model for clinical research, timeliness is a critical quality for studies to most effectively inform hospital clinical practice. We are challenged to apply pragmatic design elements in order to maintain a high-quality practicable study providing timely results. This type of prospective pragmatic trial empowers the advancement of hospital-wide evidence-based practice directly affecting patients.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION - Study results will inform the structure, objective and function of future iterations of the hospital's discharge follow-up phone call programme and be submitted for publication in the literature.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER - NCT03050918; Pre-results.
© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
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Predicting Length of Stay for Obstetric Patients via Electronic Medical Records.
Gao C, Kho AN, Ivory C, Osmundson S, Malin BA, Chen Y
(2017) Stud Health Technol Inform 245: 1019-1023
MeSH Terms: Clinical Coding, Electronic Health Records, Female, Health Resources, Hospitalization, Humans, Length of Stay, Obstetrics, Quality of Health Care
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2018
Obstetric care refers to the care provided to patients during ante-, intra-, and postpartum periods. Predicting length of stay (LOS) for these patients during their hospitalizations can assist healthcare organizations in allocating hospital resources more effectively and efficiently, ultimately improving maternal care quality and reducing costs to patients. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which LOS can be forecast from a patient's medical history. We introduce a machine learning framework to incorporate a patient's prior conditions (e.g., diagnostic codes) as features in a predictive model for LOS. We evaluate the framework with three years of historical billing data from the electronic medical records of 9188 obstetric patients in a large academic medical center. The results indicate that our framework achieved an average accuracy of 49.3%, which is higher than the baseline accuracy 37.7% (that relies solely on a patient's age). The most predictive features were found to have statistically significant discriminative ability. These features included billing codes for normal delivery (indicative of shorter stay) and antepartum hypertension (indicative of longer stay).
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Acute Kidney Injury and Risk of Incident Heart Failure Among US Veterans.
Bansal N, Matheny ME, Greevy RA, Eden SK, Perkins AM, Parr SK, Fly J, Abdel-Kader K, Himmelfarb J, Hung AM, Speroff T, Ikizler TA, Siew ED
(2018) Am J Kidney Dis 71: 236-245
MeSH Terms: Acute Kidney Injury, Aged, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cohort Studies, Creatinine, Disease Progression, Female, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Heart Failure, Hospitalization, Humans, Incidence, Kidney, Male, Middle Aged, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, Retrospective Studies, Risk Factors, United States, Veterans
Show Abstract · Added November 29, 2018
BACKGROUND - Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and associated with poor outcomes. Heart failure is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease among patients with chronic kidney disease. The relationship between AKI and heart failure remains unknown and may identify a novel mechanistic link between kidney and cardiovascular disease.
STUDY DESIGN - Observational study.
SETTING & PARTICIPANTS - We studied a national cohort of 300,868 hospitalized US veterans (2004-2011) without a history of heart failure.
PREDICTOR - AKI was the predictor and was defined as a 0.3-mg/dL or 50% increase in serum creatinine concentration from baseline to the peak hospital value. Patients with and without AKI were matched (1:1) on 28 in- and outpatient covariates using optimal Mahalanobis distance matching.
OUTCOMES - Incident heart failure was defined as 1 or more hospitalization or 2 or more outpatient visits with a diagnosis of heart failure within 2 years through 2013.
RESULTS - There were 150,434 matched pairs in the study. Patients with and without AKI during the index hospitalization were well matched, with a median preadmission estimated glomerular filtration rate of 69mL/min/1.73m. The overall incidence rate of heart failure was 27.8 (95% CI, 19.3-39.9) per 1,000 person-years. The incidence rate was higher in those with compared with those without AKI: 30.8 (95% CI, 21.8-43.5) and 24.9 (95% CI, 16.9-36.5) per 1,000 person-years, respectively. In multivariable models, AKI was associated with 23% increased risk for incident heart failure (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.19-1.27).
LIMITATIONS - Study population was primarily men, reflecting patients seen at Veterans Affairs hospitals.
CONCLUSIONS - AKI is an independent risk factor for incident heart failure. Future studies to identify underlying mechanisms and modifiable risk factors are needed.
Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Effectiveness of β-Lactam Monotherapy vs Macrolide Combination Therapy for Children Hospitalized With Pneumonia.
Williams DJ, Edwards KM, Self WH, Zhu Y, Arnold SR, McCullers JA, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Anderson EJ, Hicks LA, Bramley AM, Jain S, Grijalva CG
(2017) JAMA Pediatr 171: 1184-1191
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Child, Child, Preschool, Community-Acquired Infections, Drug Therapy, Combination, Hospitalization, Humans, Infant, Intensive Care Units, Pediatric, Length of Stay, Macrolides, Patient Readmission, Pneumonia, Bacterial, Propensity Score, Radiography, Treatment Outcome, beta-Lactams
Show Abstract · Added July 27, 2018
Importance - β-Lactam monotherapy and β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy are both common empirical treatment strategies for children hospitalized with pneumonia, but few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of these 2 treatment approaches.
Objective - To compare the effectiveness of β-lactam monotherapy vs β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy among a cohort of children hospitalized with pneumonia.
Design, Setting, and Participants - We analyzed data from the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community Study, a multicenter, prospective, population-based study of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations conducted from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012, in 3 children's hospitals in Nashville, Tennessee; Memphis, Tennessee; and Salt Lake City, Utah. The study included all children (up to 18 years of age) who were hospitalized with radiographically confirmed pneumonia and who received β-lactam monotherapy or β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy. Data analysis was completed in April 2017.
Main Outcomes and Measures - We defined the referent as β-lactam monotherapy, including exclusive use of an oral or parenteral second- or third-generation cephalosporin, penicillin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin, or amoxicillin-clavulanate. Use of a β-lactam plus an oral or parenteral macrolide (azithromycin or clarithromycin) served as the comparison group. We modeled the association between these groups and patients' length of stay using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Covariates included demographic, clinical, and radiographic variables. We further evaluated length of stay in a cohort matched by propensity to receive combination therapy. Logistic regression was used to evaluate secondary outcomes in the unmatched cohort, including intensive care admission, rehospitalizations, and self-reported recovery at follow-up.
Results - Our study included 1418 children (693 girls and 725 boys) with a median age of 27 months (interquartile range, 12-69 months). This cohort was 60.1% of the 2358 children enrolled in the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community Study with radiographically confirmed pneumonia in the study period; 1019 (71.9%) received β-lactam monotherapy and 399 (28.1%) received β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy. In the unmatched cohort, there was no statistically significant difference in length of hospital stay between children receiving β-lactam monotherapy and combination therapy (median, 55 vs 59 hours; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.74-1.01). The propensity-matched cohort (n = 560, 39.5%) showed similar results. There were also no significant differences between treatment groups for the secondary outcomes.
Conclusions and Relevance - Empirical macrolide combination therapy conferred no benefit over β-lactam monotherapy for children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. The results of this study elicit questions about the routine empirical use of macrolide combination therapy in this population.
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Fludrocortisone Is Associated With a Higher Risk of All-Cause Hospitalizations Compared With Midodrine in Patients With Orthostatic Hypotension.
Grijalva CG, Biaggioni I, Griffin MR, Shibao CA
(2017) J Am Heart Assoc 6:
MeSH Terms: Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists, Aged, Blood Pressure, Databases, Factual, Female, Fludrocortisone, Heart Failure, Hospitalization, Humans, Hypotension, Orthostatic, Incidence, Logistic Models, Male, Medicaid, Middle Aged, Midodrine, Multivariate Analysis, Prevalence, Propensity Score, Retrospective Studies, Risk Factors, Tennessee, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome, United States, Vasoconstrictor Agents
Show Abstract · Added July 27, 2018
BACKGROUND - Orthostatic hypotension causes ≈80 000 hospitalizations per year in the United States. Treatments for orthostatic hypotension include fludrocortisone, a mineralocorticoid analog that promotes sodium reabsorption; and midodrine, an α-1 adrenergic agonist that is a direct vasoconstrictor. Although both medications are used to treat orthostatic hypotension, few studies have compared their relative safety.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We compared incidence rates of hospitalizations for all causes, and for congestive heart failure between users of fludrocortisone and users of midodrine in a retrospective cohort study of Tennessee Medicaid adult enrollees (1995-2009). Adjusted incidence rate ratios were calculated using negative binomial regression models. Subgroup analyses based on history of congestive heart failure were conducted. We studied 1324 patients initiating fludrocortisone and 797 patients initiating midodrine. Compared with fludrocortisone users, midodrine users had higher prevalence of cardiovascular conditions. Incidence rates of all-cause hospitalizations for fludrocortisone and midodrine users were 1489 and 1330 per 1000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence-rate ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.40). The respective rates of heart failure-related hospitalization were 76 and 84 per 1000 person-years (adjusted incidence-rate ratio: 1.33, 95% confidence interval, 0.79-2.56). Among patients with a history of congestive heart failure, the rates of all-cause hospitalization for fludrocortisone and midodrine were 2448 and 1820 per 1000 person-years (adjusted incidence-rate ratio: 1.42, 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.90), and the respective rates of heart failure exacerbation-related hospitalizations were 297 and 263 per 1000 person-years (adjusted incidence-rate ratio: 1.48, 95% confidence interval, 0.69-3.16).
CONCLUSIONS - Compared with users of midodrine, users of fludrocortisone had higher rates of all-cause hospitalizations, especially among patients with congestive heart failure.
© 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
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Acute kidney injury is a risk factor for subsequent proteinuria.
Parr SK, Matheny ME, Abdel-Kader K, Greevy RA, Bian A, Fly J, Chen G, Speroff T, Hung AM, Ikizler TA, Siew ED
(2018) Kidney Int 93: 460-469
MeSH Terms: Acute Kidney Injury, Aged, Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Antihypertensive Agents, Blood Pressure, Comorbidity, Databases, Factual, Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Nephropathies, Disease Progression, Female, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Hospitalization, Hospitals, Veterans, Humans, Hypertension, Kidney, Male, Middle Aged, Prevalence, Prognosis, Proteinuria, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, Retrospective Studies, Risk Factors, Severity of Illness Index, Time Factors, United States
Show Abstract · Added November 29, 2018
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with subsequent chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the mechanism is unclear. To clarify this, we examined the association of AKI and new-onset or worsening proteinuria during the 12 months following hospitalization in a national retrospective cohort of United States Veterans hospitalized between 2004-2012. Patients with and without AKI were matched using baseline demographics, comorbidities, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB) use, and inpatient exposures linked to AKI. The distribution of proteinuria over one year post-discharge in the matched cohort was compared using inverse probability sampling weights. Subgroup analyses were based on diabetes, pre-admission ACEI/ARB use, and AKI severity. Among the 90,614 matched AKI and non-AKI pairs, the median estimated glomerular filtration rate was 62 mL/min/1.73m. The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension were 48% and 78%, respectively. The odds of having one plus or greater dipstick proteinuria was significantly higher during each month of follow-up in patients with AKI than in patients without AKI (odds ratio range 1.20-1.39). Odds were higher in patients with Stage II or III AKI (odds ratios 1.32-1.81) than in Stage I AKI (odds ratios 1.18-1.32), using non-AKI as the reference group. Results were consistent regardless of diabetes status or baseline ACEI/ARB use. Thus, AKI is a risk factor for incident or worsening proteinuria, suggesting a possible mechanism linking AKI and future CKD. The type of proteinuria, physiology, and clinical significance warrant further study as a potentially modifiable risk factor in the pathway from AKI to CKD.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
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Nephrology Provider Prognostic Perceptions and Care Delivered to Older Adults with Advanced Kidney Disease.
Salat H, Javier A, Siew ED, Figueroa R, Lipworth L, Kabagambe E, Bian A, Stewart TG, El-Sourady MH, Karlekar M, Cardona CY, Ikizler TA, Abdel-Kader K
(2017) Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 12: 1762-1770
MeSH Terms: Advance Care Planning, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Conservative Treatment, Decision Making, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Hospice Care, Hospitalization, Humans, Kidney Failure, Chronic, Male, Nephrology, Patient Participation, Patient Preference, Perception, Prognosis, Prospective Studies, Renal Dialysis, Terminal Care
Show Abstract · Added September 20, 2017
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - Prognostic uncertainty is one barrier that impedes providers in engaging patients with CKD in shared decision making and advance care planning. The surprise question has been shown to identify patients at increased risk of dying.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS - In our prospective observational study, 488 patients ≥60 years of age with CKD stage 4 or 5 were enrolled. Binary surprise question (, "Would you be surprised if this patient died in the next 12 months?") responses were recorded, and dialysis planning preferences, presence of advance care planning documentation, and care preceding death were abstracted.
RESULTS - The median patient age was 71 (65-77) years old. Providers responded no and yes to the surprise question for 171 (35%) and 317 (65%) patients, respectively. Median follow-up was 1.9 (1.5-2.1) years, during which 18% of patients died (33% of surprise question no, 10% of surprise question yes; <0.001). In patients with a known RRT preference (58%), 13% of surprise question no participants had a preference for conservative management (versus 2% of yes counterparts; <0.001). A medical order (, physician order for life-sustaining treatment) was documented in 13% of surprise question no patients versus 5% of yes patients (=0.004). Among surprise question no decedents, 41% died at home or hospice, 38% used hospice services, and 54% were hospitalized in the month before death. In surprise question yes decedents, 39% died at home or hospice (=0.90 versus no), 26% used hospice services (=0.50 versus no), and 67% were hospitalized in the month before death (=0.40 versus surprise question no).
CONCLUSIONS - Nephrologists' prognostic perceptions were associated with modest changes in care, highlighting a critical gap in conservative management discussions, advance care planning, and end of life care among older adults with CKD stages 4 and 5 and high-risk clinical characteristics.
PODCAST - This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2017_09_18_CJASNPodcast_17_11.mp3.
Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
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Utility of Blood Culture Among Children Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.
Neuman MI, Hall M, Lipsett SC, Hersh AL, Williams DJ, Gerber JS, Brogan TV, Blaschke AJ, Grijalva CG, Parikh K, Ambroggio L, Shah SS, Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network
(2017) Pediatrics 140:
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Bacteremia, Bacteria, Blood Culture, Child, Child, Preschool, Community-Acquired Infections, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Hospitalization, Humans, Infant, Male, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Penicillins, Pneumonia, Bacterial, Retrospective Studies
Show Abstract · Added July 27, 2018
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - National guidelines recommend blood cultures for children hospitalized with presumed bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that is moderate or severe. We sought to determine the prevalence of bacteremia and characterize the microbiology and penicillin-susceptibility patterns of positive blood culture results among children hospitalized with CAP.
METHODS - We conducted a cross-sectional study of children hospitalized with CAP in 6 children's hospitals from 2007 to 2011. We included children 3 months to 18 years of age with discharge diagnosis codes for CAP using a previously validated algorithm. We excluded children with complex chronic conditions. We reviewed microbiologic data and classified positive blood culture detections as pathogens or contaminants. Antibiotic-susceptibility patterns were assessed for all pathogens.
RESULTS - A total of 7509 children hospitalized with CAP were included over the 5-year study period. Overall, 34% of the children hospitalized with CAP had a blood culture performed; 65 (2.5% of patients with blood cultures; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0%-3.2%) grew a pathogen. accounted for 78% of all detected pathogens. Among detected pathogens, 50 (82%) were susceptible to penicillin. Eleven children demonstrated growth of an organism nonsusceptible to penicillin, representing 0.43% (95% CI: 0.23%-0.77%) of children with blood cultures obtained and 0.15% (95% CI: 0.08%-0.26%) of all children hospitalized with CAP.
CONCLUSIONS - Among children without comorbidities hospitalized with CAP in a non-ICU setting, the rate of bacteremia was low, and isolated pathogens were usually susceptible to penicillin. Blood cultures may not be needed for most children hospitalized with CAP.
Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
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Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Outcomes Among Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.
Bramley AM, Reed C, Finelli L, Self WH, Ampofo K, Arnold SR, Williams DJ, Grijalva CG, Anderson EJ, Stockmann C, Trabue C, Fakhran S, Balk R, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Edwards KM, Wunderink RG, Jain S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) Study Team
(2017) J Infect Dis 215: 1873-1882
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Asthma, Body Mass Index, Child, Child, Preschool, Community-Acquired Infections, Comorbidity, Female, Hospitalization, Humans, Intensive Care Units, Length of Stay, Male, Middle Aged, Obesity, Odds Ratio, Pneumonia, Prospective Studies, Respiration, Artificial, Treatment Outcome, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added July 27, 2018
Background - The effect of body mass index (BMI) on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity is unclear.
Methods - We investigated the relationship between BMI and CAP outcomes (hospital length of stay [LOS], intensive care unit [ICU] admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation) in hospitalized CAP patients from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, adjusting for age, demographics, underlying conditions, and smoking status (adults only).
Results - Compared with normal-weight children, odds of ICU admission were higher in children who were overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.8) or obese (aOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.2), and odds of mechanical ventilation were higher in children with obesity (aOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.6). When stratified by asthma (presence/absence), these findings remained significant only in children with asthma. Compared with normal-weight adults, odds of LOS >3 days were higher in adults who were underweight (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4), and odds of mechanical ventilation were lowest in adults who were overweight (aOR, 0.5; 95% CI, .3-.9).
Conclusions - Children who were overweight or obese, particularly those with asthma, had higher odds of ICU admission or mechanical ventilation. In contrast, adults who were underweight had longer LOS. These results underscore the complex relationship between BMI and CAP outcomes.
Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
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