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Targeted investigation of the Neandertal genome by array-based sequence capture.
Burbano HA, Hodges E, Green RE, Briggs AW, Krause J, Meyer M, Good JM, Maricic T, Johnson PL, Xuan Z, Rooks M, Bhattacharjee A, Brizuela L, Albert FW, de la Rasilla M, Fortea J, Rosas A, Lachmann M, Hannon GJ, Pääbo S
(2010) Science 328: 723-5
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Substitution, Animals, Fossils, Genes, Genome, Genome, Human, Hominidae, Humans, Nucleic Acid Hybridization, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis, Pan troglodytes, Proteins, Sequence Alignment, Sequence Analysis, DNA
Show Abstract · Added February 15, 2016
It is now possible to perform whole-genome shotgun sequencing as well as capture of specific genomic regions for extinct organisms. However, targeted resequencing of large parts of nuclear genomes has yet to be demonstrated for ancient DNA. Here we show that hybridization capture on microarrays can successfully recover more than a megabase of target regions from Neandertal DNA even in the presence of approximately 99.8% microbial DNA. Using this approach, we have sequenced approximately 14,000 protein-coding positions inferred to have changed on the human lineage since the last common ancestor shared with chimpanzees. By generating the sequence of one Neandertal and 50 present-day humans at these positions, we have identified 88 amino acid substitutions that have become fixed in humans since our divergence from the Neandertals.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
14 MeSH Terms
Renin angiotensin system in development of mice and men.
Fogo A, Ichikawa I
(1996) Am J Pathol 149: 1797-801
MeSH Terms: Animals, Hominidae, Humans, Mice, Renin-Angiotensin System
Added January 20, 2012
1 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
5 MeSH Terms
Assignment of the gene (GLCLC) that encodes the heavy subunit of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase to human chromosome 6.
Sierra-Rivera E, Summar ML, Dasouki M, Krishnamani MR, Phillips JA, Freeman ML
(1995) Cytogenet Cell Genet 70: 278-9
MeSH Terms: Animals, Base Sequence, Blotting, Southern, Chromosome Mapping, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6, DNA, DNA Primers, DNA, Complementary, Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase, Hominidae, Humans, Macromolecular Substances, Molecular Sequence Data, Polymerase Chain Reaction
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
Assignment of the human gene (GLCLC) that encodes the heavy or catalytic subunit of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (glutamate-cysteine ligase; EC 6.3.2.2) to human chromosome 6 was accomplished by hybridization to Southern blotted somatic cell hybrid DNA. This assignment was confirmed by PCR from somatic cell hybrid DNAs.
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1 Members
0 Resources
14 MeSH Terms
Organization of the bovine gene encoding the endothelial nitric oxide synthase.
Venema RC, Nishida K, Alexander RW, Harrison DG, Murphy TJ
(1994) Biochim Biophys Acta 1218: 413-20
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Oxidoreductases, Animals, Base Sequence, Cattle, DNA, DNA Primers, Endothelium, Vascular, Exons, Hominidae, Humans, Introns, Molecular Sequence Data, Nitric Oxide Synthase, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Restriction Mapping, Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid, TATA Box
Show Abstract · Added December 10, 2013
The bovine endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene plus 2.9 kilobases of 5'-flanking sequence has been isolated and characterized. The gene spans 20 kilobases and contains 26 exons and 25 introns. Two transcription start sites have been determined by primer extension analysis which are located 170 and 240 base pairs upstream, respectively, from the methionine translational initiation codon. Evidence supporting the upstream boundary region for transcriptional initiation was also obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The 5'-flanking region lacks a typical TATA box but contains numerous putative transcription factor binding sites. These include consensus sequences for an AP-1 site, an NF-1 site, a tumor necrosis factor responsive element, two sterol regulatory elements, 3 acute-phase response element, two sterol regulatory elements, 3 acute-phase response elements, 6 GATA motifs, 16 CACCC boxes, 5 Sp1 sites, 15 estrogen half-palindromic motifs, and 9 fluid shear stress-responsive elements. The isolated gene promoter directs basal transcription of a luciferase reporter gene when transiently transfected into bovine aortic endothelial cells. High sequence homology of the promoter region to the human endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene promoter (75% nucleotide identity in 1.6 kilobases of 5'-flanking sequence) suggests evolutionary conservation of transcriptional regulation. Isolation and characterization of the bovine endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene should facilitate further investigation of mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated.
1 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
17 MeSH Terms