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PURPOSE - This work proposes a theoretical framework that enables comparative risk predictions for second cancer incidence after particle beam therapy for different ion species for individual patients, accounting for differences in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the competing processes of tumor initiation and cell inactivation. Our working hypothesis was that use of carbon-ion therapy instead of proton therapy would show a difference in the predicted risk of second cancer incidence in the breast for a sample of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients.
METHODS AND MATERIALS - We generated biologic treatment plans and calculated relative predicted risks of second cancer in the breast by using two proposed methods: a full model derived from the linear quadratic model and a simpler linear-no-threshold model.
RESULTS - For our reference calculation, we found the predicted risk of breast cancer incidence for carbon-ion plans-to-proton plan ratio,
, to be 0.75 ± 0.07 but not significantly smaller than 1 (P=.180).
CONCLUSIONS - Our findings suggest that second cancer risks are, on average, comparable between proton therapy and carbon-ion therapy.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors treated with thoracic radiation therapy (RT) have impaired exercise tolerance and increased cardiovascular mortality.
OBJECTIVES - The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of autonomic dysfunction and its implications on exercise capacity and mortality in long-term survivors of HL.
METHODS - Exercise parameters in 263 HL survivors referred for exercise treadmill testing at a median interval of 19 years after RT were compared with 526 age-, sex-, and cardiovascular risk score-matched control subjects. Within the RT cohort, the presence of autonomic dysfunction, defined by an elevated resting heart rate (HR) (≥80 beats/min) and abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR) at 1 min (≤12 beats/min if active cool-down, or ≤18 beats/min if passive recovery), was correlated with exercise capacity and all-cause mortality over a median follow-up of 3 years.
RESULTS - RT was associated with elevated resting HR and abnormal HRR after adjusting for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, and indication for exercise treadmill testing: odds ratio: 3.96 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.52 to 6.23) and odds ratio: 5.32 (95% CI: 2.94 to 9.65), respectively. Prevalence of autonomic dysfunction increased with radiation dose and time from RT. Both elevated resting HR and abnormal HRR were associated with reduced exercise capacity in RT patients. Abnormal HRR was also associated with increased all-cause mortality (age-adjusted hazard ratio: 4.60 [95% CI: 1.62 to 13.02]).
CONCLUSIONS - Thoracic RT is associated with autonomic dysfunction, as measured by elevated resting HR and abnormal HRR. These abnormalities are associated with impaired exercise tolerance, and abnormal HRR predicts increased all-cause mortality in RT patients.
Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In the time period 1996-2004, 697 cases with lymphoid neoplasms and 3606 controls with nonneoplastic conditions were included in a case-control study conducted in the Cancer Institute of Uruguay. They were administered a routine questionnaire that included 8 sections and a food frequency questionnaire focused on intakes of total meat, red meat, salted meat, barbecued meat, processed meat, milk, total vegetables and total fruits, and alcoholic beverages. Lymphoid cancers were analyzed by multiple polytomous regression. Red meat, salted meat, and milk were positively associated with risk of lymphoid cancers [odds ratios (OR) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest one of red meat = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-2.08, OR for whole milk = 2.92, 95% CI 2.63-3.63). On the other hand, plant foods, particularly total fruits, and alcoholic beverages (mainly red wine) were protective. We could conclude that these foods could play a significant role in the etiology of lymphoid malignancies.
Ehrlichiosis, a tickborne illness transmitted by tick vectors Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis, can be acquired in endemic areas. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic to fulminant in nature. We report three cases of ehrlichiosis in pediatric oncology patients, one of whom was a stem cell transplant recipient. Early symptoms included fever, malaise, and vague gastrointestinal symptoms. Laboratory abnormalities were initially attributed to chemotherapy toxicity. Illness was severe in all three patients and one patient died even after initiation of doxycycline. These cases emphasize the need for a high index of suspicion for tickborne illness in oncology patients, and the importance of a low threshold for starting empiric treatment before confirming the diagnosis.
Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk for the development of acute leukemia but they rarely develop other hematologic malignancies or solid tumors. Despite aggressive supportive care, DS patients have increased risk of treatment related morbidity and mortality compared to other children. There are few reported cases of Hodgkin disease in children with DS, and no reported cases of successful therapy for patients with relapsed disease. We report on a child with DS and relapsed Hodgkin disease who was successfully treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant.
(c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Between January 1990 and April 2001, 115 patients received high-dose chemotherapy (HDT) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). With a median follow-up of 58 months (range, 1 - 175 months), 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 46% and 58%, respectively. Twelve patients with primary refractory disease had a 5-year PFS of 41% and OS of 58%, not significantly different from those of the remaining cohort. Early and overall regimen related mortality were 7% and 16%, respectively. Male gender (P = 0.04) and a time to relapse (TTR) < 12 months (P = 0.03) were associated with decreased OS by univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, TTR < 12 months remained statistically significant (P = 0.04). We have confirmed that HDT and ASCT result in long-term survival for a proportion of patients with relapsed or refractory HL. All patients, including those with primary refractory disease, benefited from HDT and ASCT.
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE - Cancer studies mandate quality assurance programs for clinical trials. Surgeons consistently play 2 roles early in the management of Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents: obtaining a specimen for pathologic diagnosis and placing a central venous catheter to assist with therapy delivery. A surgical quality assurance program was embedded as part of the of the Hodgkin lymphoma study (AHODOOO31) to assess diagnostic accuracy and complications.
METHODS - Surgical checklists and operative and pathology reports were reviewed concurrently. Diagnostic technique, success rate, location of biopsy, combined procedures under one anesthetic, and complications are reported.
RESULTS - One hundred eighty-five cases were reviewed, with 169 having complete data. Diagnostic techniques included open biopsy (n = 148), computed tomography-guided core biopsy (n = 5), thoracoscopic/laparoscopic biopsy (n = 10) and fine-needle aspirations (n = 4). No staging laparotomies were performed. Biopsy sites included cervical (133), mediastinal (18), axillary (7), and others (11). Diagnostic accuracy was 145 of 148 (98.5%) for the open biopsy; 4 of 5, core biopsy (80%); 6 of 10 (60%), thoracoscopic/laparoscopic biopsy; and 1 of 4, fine-needle aspiration (25%). Eighteen had mediastinal disease only, 9 of whom had a thoracoscopic biopsy with a 55% diagnostic accuracy. Inadequate sample was the only reason for a lack of diagnosis. A second open operation was required in these cases for diagnosis. At biopsy, frozen section confirmed a malignancy in 68. In 38 of these 68 children, a central line was placed during the same anesthetic. The most common complication was inadequate sampling. Three wound infections were reported.
CONCLUSIONS - With an appropriate surgical approach to obtain an adequate tissue specimen, diagnostic accuracy is high and surgical complications are low in children with Hodgkin lymphoma. Diagnostic technique should ensure adequate tissue sampling especially when not using an open procedure. When possible, central line insertion should be performed under the same anesthetic. Fine-needle aspiration was not used enough to assess its role in the diagnosis of children with Hodgkin lymphoma.