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In 1888, Pierre Ménétrier first described the disease that bears his name. Many of the findings he reported then remain accepted features of the disease. Based on studies performed in our laboratory over the past 20 years, we have implicated increased transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) expression and heightened epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity in the pathogenesis of Ménétrier's disease. Herein, we provide a historical perspective of this rare disorder, review our experience with Ménétrier's disease, and discuss future challenges and opportunities posed by this disorder.
The isolated retrograde-perfused Langendorff heart and the isolated ejecting heart have, over many decades, resulted in fundamental discoveries that form the underpinnings of our current understanding of the biology and physiology of the heart. These two experimental methodologies have proven invaluable in studying pharmacological effects on myocardial function, metabolism, and vascular reactivity and in the investigation of clinically relevant disease states such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, diabetes, obesity, and heart failure. With the advent of the genomics era, the isolated mouse heart preparation has gained prominence as an ex vivo research tool for investigators studying the impact of gene modification in the intact heart. This review summarizes the historical development of the isolated heart and provides a practical guide for the establishment of the Langendorff and ejecting heart preparations with a particular emphasis on the murine heart. In addition, current applications and novel methods of recording cardiovascular parameters in the isolated heart preparation will be discussed. With continued advances in methodological recordings, the isolated mouse heart preparation will remain physiologically relevant for the foreseeable future, serving as an integral bridge between in vitro assays and in vivo approaches.
Neurosurgical treatment of psychiatric disorders has been influenced by evolving neurobiological models of symptom generation. The advent of functional neuroimaging and advances in the neurosciences have revolutionized understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of psychiatric disorders. This article reviews neuroimaging studies of depression from the last 3 decades and describes an emerging neurocircuitry model of mood disorders, focusing on critical circuits of cognition and emotion, particularly those networks involved in the regulation of evaluative, expressive and experiential aspects of emotion. The relevance of this model for neurotherapeutics is discussed, as well as the role of functional neuroimaging of psychiatric disorders.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The biochemical facets of toxicology have always had a major role in providing insight into mechanisms. Some of the history of the development of this area is summarized, including metabolism, enzymology, and the chemistry of reactive intermediates. Knowledge in these fields has had a major impact in the areas of drug metabolism and safety assessment, which are both critical steps in the development of pharmaceuticals and the rational use of commodity chemicals. The science of toxicology has developed considerably with input from other disciplines and today is poised to emerge as a predictive science with even more dramatic impact. The challenges ahead are considerable but there is renewed excitement in the potential of the field. As in the past, further advances in the field of toxicology will require the input of knowledge from many disciplines.