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Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an exceptionally lethal malignancy for which more effective therapies are urgently needed. Several lines of evidence, from SCLC primary human tumours, patient-derived xenografts, cancer cell lines and genetically engineered mouse models, appear to be converging on a new model of SCLC subtypes defined by differential expression of four key transcription regulators: achaete-scute homologue 1 (ASCL1; also known as ASH1), neurogenic differentiation factor 1 (NeuroD1), yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) and POU class 2 homeobox 3 (POU2F3). In this Perspectives article, we review and synthesize these recent lines of evidence and propose a working nomenclature for SCLC subtypes defined by relative expression of these four factors. Defining the unique therapeutic vulnerabilities of these subtypes of SCLC should help to focus and accelerate therapeutic research, leading to rationally targeted approaches that may ultimately improve clinical outcomes for patients with this disease.
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Growth factor-independent 1 (GFI1) is a zinc finger transcriptional repressor responsible for controlling secretory cell differentiation in the small intestine and colon. GFI1 plays a significant role in the development of human malignancies, including leukemia, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. However, the role of GFI1 in colorectal cancer progression is largely unknown. Our results demonstrate that RNA and protein expression of GFI1 are reduced in advanced-stage nonmucinous colorectal cancer. Subcutaneous tumor xenograft models demonstrated that the reexpression of GFI1 in 4 different human colorectal cancer cell lines inhibits tumor growth. To further investigate the role of Gfi1 in colorectal tumorigenesis, we developed transgenic mice harboring a deletion of Gfi1 in the colon driven by CDX2-cre (Gfi1; CDX2-cre) and crossed them with Apc mice (Apc; Gfi1; CDX2-cre). Loss of Gfi1 significantly increased the total number of colorectal adenomas compared with littermate controls with an APC mutation alone. Furthermore, we found that compound (Apc; Gfi1; CDX2-cre) mice develop larger adenomas, invasive carcinoma, as well as hyperplastic lesions expressing the neuroendocrine marker chromogranin A, a feature that has not been previously described in APC-mutant tumors in mice. Collectively, these results demonstrate that acts as a tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer, where deficiency of Gfi1 promotes malignancy in the colon. IMPLICATIONS: These findings reveal that GFI1 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in colorectal tumorigenesis.
©2019 American Association for Cancer Research.
BACKGROUND - Functional and molecular changes often precede gross anatomical changes, so early assessment of a tumor's functional and molecular response to therapy can help reduce a patient's exposure to the side effects of ineffective chemotherapeutics or other treatment strategies.
OBJECTIVE - Our intent was to test the hypothesis that an ultrasound microvascular imaging approach might provide indications of response to therapy prior to assessment of tumor size.
METHODS - Mice bearing clear-cell renal cell carcinoma xenograft tumors were treated with antiangiogenic and Notch inhibition therapies. An ultrasound measurement of microvascular density was used to serially track the tumor response to therapy.
RESULTS - Data indicated that ultrasound-derived microvascular density can indicate response to therapy a week prior to changes in tumor volume and is strongly correlated with physiological characteristics of the tumors as measured by histology ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, data demonstrated that ultrasound measurements of vascular density can determine response to therapy and classify between-treatment groups with high sensitivity and specificity.
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE - Results suggests that future applications utilizing ultrasound imaging to monitor tumor response to therapy may be able to provide earlier insight into tumor behavior from metrics of microvascular density rather than anatomical tumor size measurements.
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) endows carcinoma cells with traits needed to complete many of the steps leading to metastasis formation, but its contributions specifically to the late step of extravasation remain understudied. We find that breast cancer cells that have undergone an EMT extravasate more efficiently from blood vessels both in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of gene expression changes associated with the EMT program led to the identification of an EMT-induced cell-surface protein, podocalyxin (PODXL), as a key mediator of extravasation in mesenchymal breast and pancreatic carcinoma cells. PODXL promotes extravasation through direct interaction of its intracellular domain with the cytoskeletal linker protein ezrin. Ezrin proceeds to establish dorsal cortical polarity, enabling the transition of cancer cells from a non-polarized, rounded cell morphology to an invasive extravasation-competent shape. Hence, the EMT program can directly enhance the efficiency of extravasation and subsequent metastasis formation through a PODXL-ezrin signaling axis.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gallium, a metal with antineoplastic activity, binds transferrin (Tf) and enters tumor cells via Tf receptor1 (TfR1); it disrupts iron homeostasis leading to cell death. We hypothesized that TfR1 on brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) would facilitate Tf-Ga transport into the brain enabling it to target TfR-bearing glioblastoma. We show that U-87 MG and D54 glioblastoma cell lines and multiple glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) lines express TfRs, and that their growth is inhibited by gallium maltolate (GaM) After 24 hours of incubation with GaM, cells displayed a loss of mitochondrial reserve capacity followed by a dose-dependent decrease in oxygen consumption and a decrease in the activity of the iron-dependent M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM2). IHC staining of rat and human tumor-bearing brains showed that glioblastoma, but not normal glial cells, expressed TfR1 and RRM2, and that glioblastoma expressed greater levels of H- and L-ferritin than normal brain. In an orthotopic U-87 MG glioblastoma xenograft rat model, GaM retarded the growth of brain tumors relative to untreated control ( = 0.0159) and reduced tumor mitotic figures ( = 0.045). Tumors in GaM-treated animals displayed an upregulation of TfR1 expression relative to control animals, thus indicating that gallium produced tumor iron deprivation. GaM also inhibited iron uptake and upregulated TfR1 expression in U-87 MG and D54 cells We conclude that GaM enters the brain via TfR1 on BMECs and targets iron metabolism in glioblastoma thus inhibiting tumor growth. Further development of novel gallium compounds for brain tumor treatment is warranted. .
©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.
Cancer cells consume glucose and secrete lactate in culture. It is unknown whether lactate contributes to energy metabolism in living tumors. We previously reported that human non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) oxidize glucose in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here, we show that lactate is also a TCA cycle carbon source for NSCLC. In human NSCLC, evidence of lactate utilization was most apparent in tumors with high fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and aggressive oncological behavior. Infusing human NSCLC patients with C-lactate revealed extensive labeling of TCA cycle metabolites. In mice, deleting monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) from tumor cells eliminated lactate-dependent metabolite labeling, confirming tumor-cell-autonomous lactate uptake. Strikingly, directly comparing lactate and glucose metabolism in vivo indicated that lactate's contribution to the TCA cycle predominates. The data indicate that tumors, including bona fide human NSCLC, can use lactate as a fuel in vivo.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Advanced breast cancer is frequently associated with skeletal metastases and accelerated bone loss. Recombinant parathyroid hormone [teriparatide, PTH(1-34)] is the first anabolic agent approved in the US for treatment of osteoporosis. While signaling through the PTH receptor in the osteoblast lineage regulates bone marrow hematopoietic niches, the effects of anabolic PTH on the skeletal metastatic niche are unknown. Here, we demonstrate, using orthotopic and intratibial models of 4T1 murine and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer tumors, that anabolic PTH decreases both tumor engraftment and the incidence of spontaneous skeletal metastasis in mice. Microcomputed tomography and histomorphometric analyses revealed that PTH increases bone volume and reduces tumor engraftment and volume. Transwell migration assays with murine and human breast cancer cells revealed that PTH alters the gene expression profile of the metastatic niche, in particular VCAM-1, to inhibit recruitment of cancer cells. While PTH did not affect growth or migration of the primary tumor, it elicited several changes in the tumor gene expression profile resulting in a less metastatic phenotype. In conclusion, PTH treatment in mice alters the bone microenvironment, resulting in decreased cancer cell engraftment, reduced incidence of metastases, preservation of bone microarchitecture and prolonged survival.
BACKGROUND - The importance of the mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling complex in tumor progression is becoming increasingly recognized. HER2-amplified breast cancers use Rictor/mTORC2 signaling to drive tumor formation, tumor cell survival and resistance to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy. Cell motility, a key step in the metastatic process, can be activated by mTORC2 in luminal and triple negative breast cancer cell lines, but its role in promoting metastases from HER2-amplified breast cancers is not yet clear.
METHODS - Because Rictor is an obligate cofactor of mTORC2, we genetically engineered Rictor ablation or overexpression in mouse and human HER2-amplified breast cancer models for modulation of mTORC2 activity. Signaling through mTORC2-dependent pathways was also manipulated using pharmacological inhibitors of mTOR, Akt, and Rac. Signaling was assessed by western analysis and biochemical pull-down assays specific for Rac-GTP and for active Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Metastases were assessed from spontaneous tumors and from intravenously delivered tumor cells. Motility and invasion of cells was assessed using Matrigel-coated transwell assays.
RESULTS - We found that Rictor ablation potently impaired, while Rictor overexpression increased, metastasis in spontaneous and intravenously seeded models of HER2-overexpressing breast cancers. Additionally, migration and invasion of HER2-amplified human breast cancer cells was diminished in the absence of Rictor, or upon pharmacological mTOR kinase inhibition. Active Rac1 was required for Rictor-dependent invasion and motility, which rescued invasion/motility in Rictor depleted cells. Rictor/mTORC2-dependent dampening of the endogenous Rac1 inhibitor RhoGDI2, a factor that correlated directly with increased overall survival in HER2-amplified breast cancer patients, promoted Rac1 activity and tumor cell invasion/migration. The mTORC2 substrate Akt did not affect RhoGDI2 dampening, but partially increased Rac1 activity through the Rac-GEF Tiam1, thus partially rescuing cell invasion/motility. The mTORC2 effector protein kinase C (PKC)α did rescue Rictor-mediated RhoGDI2 downregulation, partially rescuing Rac-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and migration/motility.
CONCLUSION - These findings suggest that mTORC2 uses two coordinated pathways to activate cell invasion/motility, both of which converge on Rac1. Akt signaling activates Rac1 through the Rac-GEF Tiam1, while PKC signaling dampens expression of the endogenous Rac1 inhibitor, RhoGDI2.
In vivo evaluation of [F]BMS-754807 binding in mice and rats using microPET and biodistribution methods is described herein. The radioligand shows consistent binding characteristics, in vivo, in both species. Early time frames of the microPET images and time activity curves of brain indicate poor penetration of the tracer across the blood brain barrier (BBB) in both species. However, microPET experiments in mice and rats show high binding of the radioligand outside the brain to heart, pancreas and muscle, the organs known for higher expression of IGF1R/1R. Biodistribution analysis 2h after injection of [F]BMS-754807 in rats show negligible [F]defluorination as reflected by the low bone uptake and clearance from blood. Overall, the data indicate that [F]BMS-754807 can potentially be a radiotracer for the quantification of IGF1R/IR outside the brain using PET.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.