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PURPOSE - To compare subharmonic aided pressure estimation (SHAPE) with pressure catheter-based measurements in human patients with chronic liver disease undergoing transjugular liver biopsy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - This HIPAA-compliant study had U.S. Food and Drug Administration and institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Forty-five patients completed this study between December 2010 and December 2011. A clinical ultrasonography (US) scanner was modified to obtain SHAPE data. After transjugular liver biopsy with pressure measurements as part of the standard of care, 45 patients received an infusion of a microbubble US contrast agent and saline. During infusion, SHAPE data were collected from a portal and hepatic vein and were compared with invasive measurements. Correlations between data sets were determined by using the Pearson correlation coefficient, and statistical significance between groups was determined by using the Student t test.
RESULTS - The 45 study patients included 27 men and 18 women (age range, 19-71 years; average age, 55.8 years). The SHAPE gradient between the portal and hepatic veins was in good overall agreement with the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) (R = 0.82). Patients at increased risk for variceal hemorrhage (HVPG ≥ 12 mm Hg) had a significantly higher mean subharmonic gradient than patients with lower HVPGs (1.93 dB ± 0.61 [standard deviation] vs -1.47 dB ± 0.29, P < .001), with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 81%, indicating that SHAPE may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of clinically important portal hypertension.
CONCLUSION - Preliminary results show SHAPE to be an accurate noninvasive technique for estimating portal hypertension.
BACKGROUND - Liver regeneration enables repeat surgical procedures to achieve a potential cure in liver cancer patients. However, data regarding segmental regeneration and liver anatomy after liver resection are scarce. This study examined left liver regeneration after right hepatectomy and the impact of hepatic venous drainage on the regeneration of the paramedian sector (Couinaud's segment IV).
METHODS - Twenty patients in whom right hepatectomy with conservation of the middle hepatic vein (MHV) on healthy liver had been performed were analysed for segmental volumes and vascular anatomy. Volumetric analysis of left liver segments and three-dimensional MHV reconstruction were conducted using pre- and postoperative computed tomography. The volumetric proportions represented by each segment within the left liver were compared and MHV anatomy was analysed to determine its potential role in the regeneration of left liver segments.
RESULTS - After right hepatectomy, the proportion represented by segment IV within the left liver decreases by 13%, whereas the proportion represented by segments II and III increases by 15%. This heterogeneous regeneration is particularly observed in patients in whom a venous branch for segment IVb is sacrificed, leading to an altered outflow similar to that observed in MHV deprivation. The risk for venous branch deprivation in IVb is correlated to the depth of the bifurcation of the MHV in liver parenchyma.
CONCLUSIONS - It is crucial to conserve the MHV in its distal part if homogeneous left liver regeneration after right hepatectomy that will allow potential repeat liver resection is to be achieved.
© 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.
OBJECTIVE - We previously showed that elevating hepatic nitric oxide (NO) levels reduced net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) in the presence of portal glucose delivery, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of a downstream signal, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), in the regulation of NHGU by NO.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Studies were performed on 42-h-fasted conscious dogs fitted with vascular catheters. At 0 min, somatostatin was given peripherally along with 4× basal insulin and basal glucagon intraportally. Glucose was delivered at a variable rate via a leg vein to double the blood glucose level and hepatic glucose load throughout the study. From 90 to 270 min, an intraportal infusion of the sGC inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) was given in -sGC (n = 10) and -sGC/+NO (n = 6), whereas saline was given in saline infusion (SAL) (n = 10). The -sGC/+NO group also received intraportal SIN-1 (NO donor) to elevate hepatic NO from 180 to 270 min.
RESULTS - In the presence of 4× basal insulin, basal glucagon, and hyperglycemia (2× basal ), inhibition of sGC in the liver enhanced NHGU (mg/kg/min; 210-270 min) by ∼55% (2.9 ± 0.2 in SAL vs. 4.6 ± 0.5 in -sGC). Further elevating hepatic NO failed to reduce NHGU (4.5 ± 0.7 in -sGC/+NO). Net hepatic carbon retention (i.e., glycogen synthesis; mg glucose equivalents/kg/min) increased to 3.8 ± 0.2 in -sGC and 3.8 ± 0.4 in -sGC/+NO vs. 2.4 ± 0.2 in SAL (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS - NO regulates liver glucose uptake through a sGC-dependent pathway. The latter could be a target for pharmacologic intervention to increase meal-associated hepatic glucose uptake in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
BACKGROUND - Hepatic outflow block is one of the major complications leading to severe graft dysfunction after left lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).
METHODS - Medical records of 46 recipients of a left lobe LDLT were reviewed. The method of outflow reconstruction and post-transplant morphological changes of hepatic veins were investigated. The subjects were followed up until September 2008, with a median follow-up period of 2.0 yr (range: 0.5-5.9 yr).
RESULTS - There were no multiple outflow tracts to be reconstructed, and the median caliber of the single orifices with or without venoplasty was 32.0 mm. The difference between the angle of hepatic veins to the sagittal plane measured on computed tomography was calculated for pre-operative donors and post-operative recipients a month after LDLT. Both left and middle hepatic veins showed a significantly greater change in angle than the right hepatic vein. Both left and middle hepatic veins more frequently showed a nearly flat wave form on Doppler study one month after LDLT. In the 46 recipients of left lobe grafts, three developed outflow block (6.5%).
CONCLUSIONS - The middle and left hepatic veins tend to distort and stretch during graft regeneration. These characteristics seem to be associated with outflow disturbances.
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in regulating metabolism, serving as a metabolic master switch. The aim of this study was to assess whether increased concentrations of the AMP analog, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribosyl-5-monophosphate, in the liver would create a metabolic response consistent with an increase in whole-body metabolic need. Dogs had sampling (artery, portal vein, hepatic vein) and infusion (vena cava, portal vein) catheters and flow probes (hepatic artery, portal vein) implanted >16 days before a study. Protocols consisted of equilibration (-130 to -30 min), basal (-30 to 0 min), and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic or -hypoglycemic clamp periods (0-150 min). At t = 0 min, somatostatin was infused and glucagon was replaced in the portal vein at basal rates. An intraportal hyperinsulinemic (2 mU . kg(-1) . min(-1)) infusion was also initiated at this time. Glucose was clamped at hypoglycemic or euglycemic levels in the presence (H-AIC, n = 6; E-AIC, n = 6) or absence (H-SAL, n = 6; E-SAL, n = 6) of a portal venous 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribofuranoside (AICAR) infusion (1 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1)) initiated at t = 60 min. In the presence of intraportal saline, glucose was infused into the vena cava to match glucose levels seen with intraportal AICAR. Glucagon remained fixed at basal levels, whereas insulin rose similarly in all groups. Glucose fell to 50 +/- 2 mg/dl by t = 60 min in hypoglycemic groups and remained at 105 +/- 3 mg/dl in euglycemic groups. Endogenous glucose production (R(a)) was similarly suppressed among groups in the presence of euglycemia or hypoglycemia before t = 60 min and remained suppressed in the H-SAL and E-SAL groups. However, intraportal AICAR infusion stimulated R(a) to increase by 2.5 +/- 1.0 and 3.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) in the E-AIC and H-AIC groups, respectively. Arteriovenous measurement of net hepatic glucose output showed similar results. AICAR stimulated hepatic glycogen to decrease by 5 +/- 3 and 19 +/- 5 mg/g tissue (P < 0.05) in the presence of euglycemia and hypoglycemia, respectively. AICAR significantly increased net hepatic lactate output in the presence of hypoglycemia. Thus, intraportal AICAR infusion caused marked stimulation of both hepatic glucose output and net hepatic glycogenolysis, even in the presence of high levels of physiological insulin. This stimulation of glucose output by AICAR was equally marked in the presence of both euglycemia and hypoglycemia. However, hypoglycemia amplified the net hepatic glycogenolytic response to AICAR by approximately fourfold.
Infusion of glucose into the hepatic artery blocks the stimulatory effect of the "portal signal" on net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) during portal glucose delivery. We hypothesized that hepatic artery ligation (HAL) would result in enhanced NHGU during peripheral glucose infusion because the arterial glucose concentration would be perceived as lower than that in the portal vein. Fourteen dogs underwent HAL approximately 16 days before study. Conscious 42-h-fasted dogs received somatostatin, intraportal insulin, and glucagon infusions at fourfold basal and at basal rates, respectively, and peripheral glucose infusion to create hyperglycemia. After 90 min (period 1), seven dogs (HALpo) received intraportal glucose (3.8 mg. kg-1. min-1) and seven (HALpe) continued to receive only peripheral glucose for 90 min (period 2). These two groups were compared with nine non-HAL control dogs (control) treated as were HALpe. During period 2, the arterial plasma insulin concentrations (24 +/- 3, 20 +/- 1, and 24 +/- 2 microU/ml) and hepatic glucose loads (39.1 +/- 2.5, 43.8 +/- 2.9, and 37.7 +/- 3.7 mg. kg-1. min-1) were not different in HALpe, HALpo, and control, respectively. HALpo exhibited greater (P < 0.05) NHGU than HALpe and control (3.1 +/- 0.3, 2.0 +/- 0.4, and 2.0 +/- 0.1 mg. kg-1. min-1, respectively). Net hepatic carbon retention was approximately twofold greater (P < 0.05) in HALpo than in HALpe and control. NHGU and net hepatic glycogen synthesis during peripheral glucose infusion were not enhanced by HAL. Even though there exists an intrahepatic arterial reference site for the portal vein glucose concentration, the failure of HAL to result in enhanced NHGU during peripheral glucose infusion suggests the existence of one or more comparison sites outside the liver.
These studies were conducted to assess the relationship between visceral adipose tissue free fatty acid (FFA) release and splanchnic FFA release. Steady-state splanchnic bed palmitate ([9,10-(3)H]palmitate) kinetics were determined from 14 sampling intervals from eight dogs with chronic indwelling arterial, portal vein, and hepatic vein catheters. We tested a model designed to predict the proportion of FFAs delivered to the liver from visceral fat by use of hepatic vein data. The model predicted that 15 +/- 2% of hepatic palmitate delivery originated from visceral lipolysis, which was greater (P = 0.004) than the 11 +/- 2% actually observed. There was a good relationship (r(2) = 0.63) between the predicted and observed hepatic palmitate delivery values, but the model overestimated visceral FFA release more at lower than at higher palmitate concentrations. The discrepancy could be due to differential uptake of FFAs arriving from the arterial vs. the portal vein or to release of FFAs in the hepatic circulatory bed. Splanchnic FFA release measured using hepatic vein samples was strongly related to visceral adipose tissue FFA release into the portal vein. This finding suggests that splanchnic FFA release is a good indicator of visceral adipose tissue lipolysis.
The glycemic and hormonal responses and net hepatic and nonhepatic glucose uptakes were quantified in conscious 42-h-fasted dogs during a 180-min infusion of glucose at 10 mg. kg(-1). min(-1) via a peripheral (Pe10, n = 5) or the portal (Po10, n = 6) vein. Arterial plasma insulin concentrations were not different during the glucose infusion in Pe10 and Po10 (37 +/- 6 and 43 +/- 12 microU/ml, respectively), and glucagon concentrations declined similarly throughout the two studies. Arterial blood glucose concentrations during glucose infusion were not different between groups (125 +/- 13 and 120 +/- 6 mg/dl in Pe10 and Po10, respectively). Portal glucose delivery made the hepatic glucose load significantly greater (36 +/- 3 vs. 46 +/- 5 mg. kg(-1). min(-1) in Pe10 vs. Po10, respectively, P < 0.05). Net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU; 1.1 +/- 0. 4 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.4 mg. kg(-1). min(-1)) and fractional extraction (0. 03 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.07 +/- 0.01) were smaller (P < 0.05) in Pe10 than in Po10. Nonhepatic (primarily muscle) glucose uptake was correspondingly increased in Pe10 compared with Po10 (8.9 +/- 0.4 vs. 6.9 +/- 0.4 mg. kg(-1). min(-1), P < 0.05). Approximately one-half of the difference in NHGU between groups could be accounted for by the difference in hepatic glucose load, with the remainder attributable to the effect of the portal signal itself. Even in the absence of somatostatin and fixed hormone concentrations, the portal signal acts to alter partitioning of a glucose load among the tissues, stimulating NHGU and reducing peripheral glucose uptake.
The aim of this study was to determine whether the elimination of the hepatic arterial-portal (A-P) venous glucose gradient would alter the effects of portal glucose delivery on hepatic or peripheral glucose uptake. Three groups of 42-h-fasted conscious dogs (n = 7/group) were studied. After a 40-min basal period, somatostatin was infused peripherally along with intraportal insulin (7.2 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and glucagon (0.65 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1)). In test period 1 (90 min), glucose was infused into a peripheral vein to double the hepatic glucose load (HGL) in all groups. In test period 2 (90 min) of the control group (CONT), saline was infused intraportally; in the other two groups, glucose was infused intraportally (22.2 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)). In the second group (PD), saline was simultaneously infused into the hepatic artery; in the third group (PD+HAD), glucose was infused into the hepatic artery to eliminate the negative hepatic A-P glucose gradient. HGL was twofold basal in each test period. Net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) was 10.1 +/- 2.2 and 12.8 +/- 2.1 vs. 11.5 +/- 1.6 and 23.8 +/- 3.3* vs. 9.0 +/- 2.4 and 13.8 +/- 4.2 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1) in the two periods of CONT, PD, and PD+HAD, respectively (* P < 0.05 vs. same test period in PD and PD+HAD). NHGU was 28.9 +/- 1.2 and 39.5 +/- 4.3 vs. 26.3 +/- 3.7 and 24.5 +/- 3.7* vs. 36.1 +/- 3.8 and 53.3 +/- 8.5 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1) in the first and second periods of CONT, PD, and PD+HAD, respectively (* P < 0.05 vs. same test period in PD and PD+HAD). Thus the increment in NHGU and decrement in extrahepatic glucose uptake caused by the portal signal were significantly reduced by hepatic arterial glucose infusion. These results suggest that the hepatic arterial glucose level plays an important role in generation of the effect of portal glucose delivery on glucose uptake by liver and muscle.
Experiments were performed on two groups of 42-h-fasted conscious dogs (n = 6/group). Somatostatin was given peripherally with insulin (4-fold basal) and glucagon (basal) intraportally. In the first experimental period, glucose was infused peripherally to double the hepatic glucose load (HGL) in both groups. In the second experimental period, glucose (21.8 micromol. kg-1. min-1) was infused intraportally and the peripheral glucose infusion rate (PeGIR) was reduced to maintain the precreating HGL in the portal signal (PO) group, whereas saline was given intraportally in the control (CON) group and PeGIR was not changed. In the third period, the portal glucose infusion was stopped in the PO group and PeGIR was increased to sustain HGL. PeGIR was continued in the CON group. The glucose loads to the liver did not differ in the CON and PO groups. Net hepatic glucose uptake was 9.6 +/- 2.5, 11.6 +/- 2.6, and 15.5 +/- 3.2 vs. 10.8 +/- 1.8, 23.7 +/- 3.0, and 15.5 +/- 1.1 micromol. kg-1. min-1, and nonhepatic glucose uptake (non-HGU) was 29.8 +/- 1.1, 40.1 +/- 4.5, and 49.5 +/- 4.0 vs. 26.6 +/- 4.3, 23.2 +/- 4.0, and 40.4 +/- 3.1 micromol. kg-1. min-1 in the CON and PO groups during the three periods, respectively. Cessation of the portal signal shifted NHGU and non-HGU to rates similar to those evident in the CON group within 10 min. These results indicate that even under hyperinsulinemic conditions the effects of the portal signal on hepatic and peripheral glucose uptake are rapidly reversible.