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BACKGROUND - Surgical resection is the cornerstone of curative-intent therapy for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). The role of vascular resection (VR) in the treatment of HC in western centres is not well defined.
METHODS - Utilizing data from the U.S. Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium, patients were grouped into those who underwent resection for HC based on VR status: no VR, portal vein resection (PVR), or hepatic artery resection (HAR). Perioperative and long-term survival outcomes were analyzed.
RESULTS - Between 1998 and 2015, 201 patients underwent resection for HC, of which 31 (15%) underwent VR: 19 patients (9%) underwent PVR alone and 12 patients (6%) underwent HAR either with (n = 2) or without PVR (n = 10). Patients selected for VR tended to be younger with higher stage disease. Rates of postoperative complications and 30-day mortality were similar when stratified by vascular resection status. On multivariate analysis, receipt of PVR or HAR did not significantly affect OS or RFS.
CONCLUSION - In a modern, multi-institutional cohort of patients undergoing curative-intent resection for HC, VR appears to be a safe procedure in a highly selected subset, although long-term survival outcomes appear equivalent. VR should be considered only in select patients based on tumor and patient characteristics.
Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In Part I of the paper, we demonstrated through simulation the potential of volumetric short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging to improve visualization of hypoechoic targets in three dimensions. Here, we demonstrate the application of volumetric SLSC imaging in phantom and in vivo experiments using a clinical 3-D ultrasound scanner and matrix array. Using a custom single-channel acquisition tool, we collected partially beamformed channel data from the fully sampled matrix array at high speeds and created matched Bmode and SLSC volumes of a vessel phantom and in vivo liver vasculature. 2-D and 3-D images rendered from the SLSC volumes display reduced clutter and improved visibility of the vessels when compared with their B-mode counterparts. We use concurrently acquired color Doppler volumes to confirm the presence of the vessels of interest and to define the regions inside the vessels used in contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculations. SLSC volumes show higher CNR values than their matched B-mode volumes, while the contrast values appear to be similar between the two imaging methods.
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES - The end point of chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma is qualitative. We intended to determine the feasibility of measuring intra-arterial pressure changes after chemoembolization and hypothesized that pressures would increase in the distal hepatic artery after the procedure.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Before and after chemoembolization, systemic (S) systolic and mean pressures were measured along with celiac (C), lobar (L), and distal (D) hepatic artery pressures with a pressure wire. Corrected pressures were defined as a ratio with S as the denominator to account for intraprocedural S changes. Changes in the systolic and mean corrected pressures at each location (C/S, L/S, and D/S) were evaluated using paired t tests. Pressure changes in patients with and without tumor response using the Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors were also compared.
RESULTS - Sixteen tumors were treated in 15 patients. One patient had bilobar tumors with separate supplying arteries. The only significant pressure change was systolic D/S (P = .02), while mean D/S approached significance (P = .08). C/S and L/S did not change significantly after chemoembolization. Eleven of 16 patients had a complete response, whereas the other five had a partial response after chemoembolization. When comparing complete to partial responders, no changes in systolic or mean C/S, L/S, or D/S reached statistical significance (all P > .05).
CONCLUSIONS - Measuring change in hepatic artery pressures is feasible. Distal intra-arterial corrected pressures increase significantly after chemoembolization. Further study to determine the ability to predict tumor necrosis at follow-up imaging is warranted.
Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - To estimate the possible radiation dose to other individuals from patients treated with yttrium-90 ((90)Y).
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Dosimetry data were analyzed after 143 consecutive administrations of (90)Y (124 resin, 19 glass) in 86 patients. External radiation exposure levels from patients were measured immediately after infusion. Total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to maximally exposed individuals was calculated based on total body residence time and measured dose rate. These values were compared to Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (maximum, 1 mSv) and other potential guidelines for caregivers, extensive caregivers, or pregnant contacts.
RESULTS - Mean administered activity for resin microspheres was 0.71 GBq ± 0.35 (range, 0.07-1.6GBq). Mean TEDE dose to the maximally exposed contact was 0.03 mSv (range, 0.0005-0.16 mSv). For glass microspheres, mean administered activity was 2.8 GBq ± 1.5 (range, 0.37-5.14 GBq). Mean TEDE dose to the maximally exposed contact was 0.06 mSv (range, 0.0023-0.23 mSv). All (90)Y treatments were within current NRC regulations for release without instructions. One, three, and one infusion were beyond potential thresholds for caregivers, extensive caregivers, or pregnant contacts, respectively. For any contact scenario, release without instruction was appropriate when administered activity was less than 3 GBq.
CONCLUSIONS - All patients treated with (90)Y hepatic radioembolization to a maximum administered activity of 5.14 GBq and maximum dose rate of 10 uSv/h were releasable without contact restrictions according to the NRC contact scenario. Patients who receive more than 3 GBq during infusion may require dose rate measurement if more restrictive contact scenarios are considered.
Copyright © 2012 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Absence of bile ducts (BDs) in >50% of portal tracts is currently the most widely accepted criterion for the diagnosis of ductopenia. In this study, we describe an alternative method for the quantitative assessment of BDs based on the percentage of portal tracts containing unpaired hepatic arteries (HAs). Diagnostic criteria for ductopenia were defined as follows: 1. presence of at least 1 unpaired HA in >10% of all portal tracts; 2. at least 2 unpaired HAs present in different portal tracts in a given sample. In liver biopsies from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and suspected chronic allograft rejection (n = 32), loss of BD was detected in 59.4% of patients using the unpaired HA method compared with 43.7% (P = 0.31), 21.9% (P = 0.005), and 12.5% (P = 0.001) by the traditional method, depending on specific adequacy criteria used (no adequacy criteria, >10 portal tracts, or >5 complete portal tracts per biopsy, respectively). The percentage of portal tracts containing BD(s) was significantly affected by the degree of portal inflammation, fibrosis stage, percentage of complete portal tracts, and biopsy width, whereas none of these factors influenced the prevalence of unpaired arteries. The unpaired HA method showed higher sensitivity for the detection of mild degrees of loss of BD compared with the traditional method, and was not influenced by factors that affected the percentage of portal tracts containing BDs.
OBJECTIVE - Hepatic arterial chemoembolization is an accepted therapy for stage 4 melanoma with liver-dominant metastasis. However, the reports of outcomes are limited. We present our outcomes with hepatic arterial chemoembolization for metastasis of stage 4 melanoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Twenty patients with liver-dominant metastasis of ocular or cutaneous melanoma were treated with hepatic arterial chemoembolization. Overall survival and progression-free survival rates were calculated from the first treatment. Patients with intrahepatic tumor progression were treated with additional hepatic arterial chemoembolization. Both overall survival and progression-free survival were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Tumor pattern on angiography was characterized as either nodular or infiltrative on the basis of angiographic appearance.
RESULTS - The 20 patients underwent 46 hepatic arterial chemoembolization sessions (mean, 2.4 sessions; range, 1-5). The mean and median overall survival times were 334 +/- 71 and 271 days, respectively. There were no deaths within 30 days of treatment. Thirteen of the 20 patients had progression of disease. The mean and median progression-free survival times for these patients were 231 +/- 42 and 185 days, respectively. Patients with lesions that had a nodular angiographic appearance had longer progression-free survival than patients with lesions that had an infiltrative appearance (mean progression-free survival time, 249 vs 63 days). Patients with lesions that had a nodular angiographic appearance also survived significantly longer than those with lesions that had an infiltrative angiographic pattern (mean overall survival time, 621 vs 114 days; p = 0.0002).
CONCLUSION - Hepatic arterial chemoembolization for liver-dominant metastasis of stage 4 melanoma is a safe treatment that results in longer survival than has occurred among historical controls. Patients with lesions that have a nodular tumor appearance on angiography survive significantly longer than patients with lesions that have an infiltrative appearance on angiography.
OBJECTIVE - Hepatic artery chemoembolization and hepatic artery embolization (HAE) are accepted treatments of patients with hepatic metastasis from neuroendocrine tumors. Long-term outcome data are limited. We present our experience in the use of hepatic artery chemoembolization in the treatment of patients with hepatic metastasis from neuroendocrine tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Forty-six patients with carcinoid (n = 31) or islet cell (n = 15) tumors were treated. Overall and progression-free survival times starting with the first treatment were calculated. Potential factors affecting survival, including presence of extrahepatic disease and resection of the primary lesion, were analyzed. Relief of symptoms was subjectively determined for tumors with hormonal secretion.
RESULTS - The 46 patients underwent 93 hepatic artery chemoembolization or HAE sessions. The mean overall survival time for the entire group was 1,273 +/- 185 days. The mean overall survival times for the carcinoid (1,255 +/- 163 days) and islet cell tumor (1,311 +/- 403 days) subgroups were similar (p = 0.66). The progression-free survival times for the carcinoid (602 +/- 144 days) and islet cell (501 +/- 107 days) tumor subgroups also were similar (p = 0.72). The survival time of patients without known extrahepatic metastasis (n = 18; 1,571 +/- 291 days) trended toward significance compared with that of patients with known extrahepatic disease (n = 26; 770 +/- 112 days; p = 0.08). Resection of the primary tumor in 19 of 46 patients did not affect survival (resection survival, 1,558 +/- 400 days; nonresection survival, 1,000 +/- 179 days; p = 0.44). Twenty of 25 patients with hormonally active tumors had relief of symptoms after one cycle of treatment. The 30-day mortality was 4.3%.
CONCLUSION - The overall survival time after hepatic artery chemoembolization or HAE among patients with neuroendocrine tumors is approximately 3.5 years. The progression-free survival time approaches 1.5 years. The presence of extrahepatic metastasis or an unresected primary tumor should not limit the use of hepatic artery chemoembolization or HAE.
Hepatic arterial therapy with yttrium-90 microspheres exploits the avenue provided by the neoplastic microvasculature to deliver high-energy, low-penetrating therapeutic doses of radiation. Variant hepatic arterial anatomy, collateral vessels, and changes in flow dynamics during treatment can affect particle dispersion and lead to nontarget particle distribution and subsequent gastrointestinal morbidity. Awareness of these variances and techniques to prevent gastrointestinal tract microsphere delivery is essential in mitigating this serious complication. Our aim is to increase the understanding of the role of various imaging and preventative techniques in minimizing this undesired effect.