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Bergmann glial Sonic hedgehog signaling activity is required for proper cerebellar cortical expansion and architecture.
Cheng FY, Fleming JT, Chiang C
(2018) Dev Biol 440: 152-166
MeSH Terms: Animals, Astrocytes, Cell Differentiation, Cell Division, Cell Proliferation, Cells, Cultured, Cerebellar Cortex, Cerebellar Neoplasms, Cerebellum, Developmental Disabilities, Hedgehog Proteins, Mice, Nervous System Malformations, Neural Stem Cells, Neuroglia, Neurons, Purkinje Cells, Signal Transduction, Wnt Signaling Pathway
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2019
Neuronal-glial relationships play a critical role in the maintenance of central nervous system architecture and neuronal specification. A deeper understanding of these relationships can elucidate cellular cross-talk capable of sustaining proper development of neural tissues. In the cerebellum, cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs) proliferate in response to Purkinje neuron-derived Sonic hedgehog (Shh) before ultimately exiting the cell cycle and migrating radially along Bergmann glial fibers. However, the function of Bergmann glia in CGNP proliferation remains not well defined. Interestingly, the Hh pathway is also activated in Bergmann glia, but the role of Shh signaling in these cells is unknown. In this study, we show that specific ablation of Shh signaling using the tamoxifen-inducible TNC line to eliminate Shh pathway activator Smoothened in Bergmann glia is sufficient to cause severe cerebellar hypoplasia and a significant reduction in CGNP proliferation. TNC; Smo (Smo) mice demonstrate an obvious reduction in cerebellar size within two days of ablation of Shh signaling. Mutant cerebella have severely reduced proliferation and increased differentiation of CGNPs due to a significant decrease in Shh activity and concomitant activation of Wnt signaling in Smo CGNPs, suggesting that this pathway is involved in cross-talk with the Shh pathway in regulating CGNP proliferation. In addition, Purkinje cells are ectopically located, their dendrites stunted, and the Bergmann glial network disorganized. Collectively, these data demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for Bergmann glial Shh signaling activity in the proliferation of CGNPs and proper maintenance of cerebellar architecture.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
Lkb1 regulates granule cell migration and cortical folding of the cerebellar cortex.
Ryan KE, Kim PS, Fleming JT, Brignola E, Cheng FY, Litingtung Y, Chiang C
(2017) Dev Biol 432: 165-177
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Differentiation, Cell Division, Cell Movement, Cerebellar Cortex, Cytoplasmic Granules, Hedgehog Proteins, Mice, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Neurons, Organogenesis, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2019
Cerebellar growth and foliation require the Hedgehog-driven proliferation of granule cell precursors (GCPs) in the external granule layer (EGL). However, that increased or extended GCP proliferation generally does not elicit ectopic folds suggests that additional determinants control cortical expansion and foliation during cerebellar development. Here, we find that genetic loss of the serine-threonine kinase Liver Kinase B1 (Lkb1) in GCPs increased cerebellar cortical size and foliation independent of changes in proliferation or Hedgehog signaling. This finding is unexpected given that Lkb1 has previously shown to be critical for Hedgehog pathway activation in cultured cells. Consistent with unchanged proliferation rate of GCPs, the cortical expansion of Lkb1 mutants is accompanied by thinning of the EGL. The plane of cell division, which has been implicated in diverse processes from epithelial surface expansions to gyrification of the human cortex, remains unchanged in the mutants when compared to wild-type controls. However, we find that Lkb1 mutants display delayed radial migration of post-mitotic GCPs that coincides with increased cortical size, suggesting that aberrant cell migration may contribute to the cortical expansion and increase foliation. Taken together, our results reveal an important role for Lkb1 in regulating cerebellar cortical size and foliation in a Hedgehog-independent manner.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Inhibition of WNT signaling attenuates self-renewal of SHH-subgroup medulloblastoma.
Rodriguez-Blanco J, Pednekar L, Penas C, Li B, Martin V, Long J, Lee E, Weiss WA, Rodriguez C, Mehrdad N, Nguyen DM, Ayad NG, Rai P, Capobianco AJ, Robbins DJ
(2017) Oncogene 36: 6306-6314
MeSH Terms: Anilides, Animals, Cell Line, Tumor, Cerebellar Neoplasms, Disease Models, Animal, HEK293 Cells, Hedgehog Proteins, Humans, Male, Medulloblastoma, Mice, Mice, Transgenic, Pyridines, Random Allocation, SOXB1 Transcription Factors, Small Molecule Libraries, TRPC Cation Channels, Transfection, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53, Veratrum Alkaloids, Wnt Proteins, Wnt Signaling Pathway
Show Abstract · Added July 18, 2017
The SMOOTHENED inhibitor vismodegib is FDA approved for advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and shows promise in clinical trials for SONIC HEDGEHOG (SHH)-subgroup medulloblastoma (MB) patients. Clinical experience with BCC patients shows that continuous exposure to vismodegib is necessary to prevent tumor recurrence, suggesting the existence of a vismodegib-resistant reservoir of tumor-propagating cells. We isolated such tumor-propagating cells from a mouse model of SHH-subgroup MB and grew them as sphere cultures. These cultures were enriched for the MB progenitor marker SOX2 and formed tumors in vivo. Moreover, while their ability to self-renew was resistant to SHH inhibitors, as has been previously suggested, this self-renewal was instead WNT-dependent. We show here that loss of Trp53 activates canonical WNT signaling in these SOX2-enriched cultures. Importantly, a small molecule WNT inhibitor was able to reduce the propagation and growth of SHH-subgroup MB in vivo, in an on-target manner, leading to increased survival. Our results imply that the tumor-propagating cells driving the growth of bulk SHH-dependent MB are themselves WNT dependent. Further, our data suggest combination therapy with WNT and SHH inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy in patients with SHH-subgroup MB, in order to decrease the tumor recurrence commonly observed in patients treated with vismodegib.
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22 MeSH Terms
Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height.
Marouli E, Graff M, Medina-Gomez C, Lo KS, Wood AR, Kjaer TR, Fine RS, Lu Y, Schurmann C, Highland HM, Rüeger S, Thorleifsson G, Justice AE, Lamparter D, Stirrups KE, Turcot V, Young KL, Winkler TW, Esko T, Karaderi T, Locke AE, Masca NG, Ng MC, Mudgal P, Rivas MA, Vedantam S, Mahajan A, Guo X, Abecasis G, Aben KK, Adair LS, Alam DS, Albrecht E, Allin KH, Allison M, Amouyel P, Appel EV, Arveiler D, Asselbergs FW, Auer PL, Balkau B, Banas B, Bang LE, Benn M, Bergmann S, Bielak LF, Blüher M, Boeing H, Boerwinkle E, Böger CA, Bonnycastle LL, Bork-Jensen J, Bots ML, Bottinger EP, Bowden DW, Brandslund I, Breen G, Brilliant MH, Broer L, Burt AA, Butterworth AS, Carey DJ, Caulfield MJ, Chambers JC, Chasman DI, Chen YI, Chowdhury R, Christensen C, Chu AY, Cocca M, Collins FS, Cook JP, Corley J, Galbany JC, Cox AJ, Cuellar-Partida G, Danesh J, Davies G, de Bakker PI, de Borst GJ, de Denus S, de Groot MC, de Mutsert R, Deary IJ, Dedoussis G, Demerath EW, den Hollander AI, Dennis JG, Di Angelantonio E, Drenos F, Du M, Dunning AM, Easton DF, Ebeling T, Edwards TL, Ellinor PT, Elliott P, Evangelou E, Farmaki AE, Faul JD, Feitosa MF, Feng S, Ferrannini E, Ferrario MM, Ferrieres J, Florez JC, Ford I, Fornage M, Franks PW, Frikke-Schmidt R, Galesloot TE, Gan W, Gandin I, Gasparini P, Giedraitis V, Giri A, Girotto G, Gordon SD, Gordon-Larsen P, Gorski M, Grarup N, Grove ML, Gudnason V, Gustafsson S, Hansen T, Harris KM, Harris TB, Hattersley AT, Hayward C, He L, Heid IM, Heikkilä K, Helgeland Ø, Hernesniemi J, Hewitt AW, Hocking LJ, Hollensted M, Holmen OL, Hovingh GK, Howson JM, Hoyng CB, Huang PL, Hveem K, Ikram MA, Ingelsson E, Jackson AU, Jansson JH, Jarvik GP, Jensen GB, Jhun MA, Jia Y, Jiang X, Johansson S, Jørgensen ME, Jørgensen T, Jousilahti P, Jukema JW, Kahali B, Kahn RS, Kähönen M, Kamstrup PR, Kanoni S, Kaprio J, Karaleftheri M, Kardia SL, Karpe F, Kee F, Keeman R, Kiemeney LA, Kitajima H, Kluivers KB, Kocher T, Komulainen P, Kontto J, Kooner JS, Kooperberg C, Kovacs P, Kriebel J, Kuivaniemi H, Küry S, Kuusisto J, La Bianca M, Laakso M, Lakka TA, Lange EM, Lange LA, Langefeld CD, Langenberg C, Larson EB, Lee IT, Lehtimäki T, Lewis CE, Li H, Li J, Li-Gao R, Lin H, Lin LA, Lin X, Lind L, Lindström J, Linneberg A, Liu Y, Liu Y, Lophatananon A, Luan J, Lubitz SA, Lyytikäinen LP, Mackey DA, Madden PA, Manning AK, Männistö S, Marenne G, Marten J, Martin NG, Mazul AL, Meidtner K, Metspalu A, Mitchell P, Mohlke KL, Mook-Kanamori DO, Morgan A, Morris AD, Morris AP, Müller-Nurasyid M, Munroe PB, Nalls MA, Nauck M, Nelson CP, Neville M, Nielsen SF, Nikus K, Njølstad PR, Nordestgaard BG, Ntalla I, O'Connel JR, Oksa H, Loohuis LM, Ophoff RA, Owen KR, Packard CJ, Padmanabhan S, Palmer CN, Pasterkamp G, Patel AP, Pattie A, Pedersen O, Peissig PL, Peloso GM, Pennell CE, Perola M, Perry JA, Perry JR, Person TN, Pirie A, Polasek O, Posthuma D, Raitakari OT, Rasheed A, Rauramaa R, Reilly DF, Reiner AP, Renström F, Ridker PM, Rioux JD, Robertson N, Robino A, Rolandsson O, Rudan I, Ruth KS, Saleheen D, Salomaa V, Samani NJ, Sandow K, Sapkota Y, Sattar N, Schmidt MK, Schreiner PJ, Schulze MB, Scott RA, Segura-Lepe MP, Shah S, Sim X, Sivapalaratnam S, Small KS, Smith AV, Smith JA, Southam L, Spector TD, Speliotes EK, Starr JM, Steinthorsdottir V, Stringham HM, Stumvoll M, Surendran P, 't Hart LM, Tansey KE, Tardif JC, Taylor KD, Teumer A, Thompson DJ, Thorsteinsdottir U, Thuesen BH, Tönjes A, Tromp G, Trompet S, Tsafantakis E, Tuomilehto J, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Tyrer JP, Uher R, Uitterlinden AG, Ulivi S, van der Laan SW, Van Der Leij AR, van Duijn CM, van Schoor NM, van Setten J, Varbo A, Varga TV, Varma R, Edwards DR, Vermeulen SH, Vestergaard H, Vitart V, Vogt TF, Vozzi D, Walker M, Wang F, Wang CA, Wang S, Wang Y, Wareham NJ, Warren HR, Wessel J, Willems SM, Wilson JG, Witte DR, Woods MO, Wu Y, Yaghootkar H, Yao J, Yao P, Yerges-Armstrong LM, Young R, Zeggini E, Zhan X, Zhang W, Zhao JH, Zhao W, Zhao W, Zheng H, Zhou W, EPIC-InterAct Consortium, CHD Exome+ Consortium, ExomeBP Consortium, T2D-Genes Consortium, GoT2D Genes Consortium, Global Lipids Genetics Consortium, ReproGen Consortium, MAGIC Investigators, Rotter JI, Boehnke M, Kathiresan S, McCarthy MI, Willer CJ, Stefansson K, Borecki IB, Liu DJ, North KE, Heard-Costa NL, Pers TH, Lindgren CM, Oxvig C, Kutalik Z, Rivadeneira F, Loos RJ, Frayling TM, Hirschhorn JN, Deloukas P, Lettre G
(2017) Nature 542: 186-190
MeSH Terms: ADAMTS Proteins, Adult, Alleles, Body Height, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Variation, Genome, Human, Glycoproteins, Glycosaminoglycans, Hedgehog Proteins, Humans, Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Interferon Regulatory Factors, Interleukin-11 Receptor alpha Subunit, Male, Multifactorial Inheritance, NADPH Oxidase 4, NADPH Oxidases, Phenotype, Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A, Procollagen N-Endopeptidase, Proteoglycans, Proteolysis, Receptors, Androgen, Somatomedins
Show Abstract · Added April 26, 2017
Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with approximately 700 common associated variants identified through genome-wide association studies so far. Here, we report 83 height-associated coding variants with lower minor-allele frequencies (in the range of 0.1-4.8%) and effects of up to 2 centimetres per allele (such as those in IHH, STC2, AR and CRISPLD2), greater than ten times the average effect of common variants. In functional follow-up studies, rare height-increasing alleles of STC2 (giving an increase of 1-2 centimetres per allele) compromised proteolytic inhibition of PAPP-A and increased cleavage of IGFBP-4 in vitro, resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors. These 83 height-associated variants overlap genes that are mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates (such as ADAMTS3, IL11RA and NOX4) and pathways (such as proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesis) involved in growth. Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low-frequency variants of moderate-to-large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes, and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways.
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27 MeSH Terms
Hedgehog and TGFβ signaling converge on Gli2 to control bony invasion and bone destruction in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Cannonier SA, Gonzales CB, Ely K, Guelcher SA, Sterling JA
(2016) Oncotarget 7: 76062-76075
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bone and Bones, Carcinoma, Squamous Cell, Cell Line, Tumor, Disease Models, Animal, Gene Expression, Hedgehog Proteins, Heterografts, Humans, Mice, Mouth Neoplasms, Neoplasm Invasiveness, Nuclear Proteins, Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein, Signal Transduction, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Zinc Finger Protein Gli2
Show Abstract · Added April 26, 2017
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. OSCC invasion into the lymph nodes and mandible correlates with increased rates of recurrence and lower overall survival. Tumors that infiltrate mandibular bone proliferate rapidly and induce bone destruction. While survival rates have increased 12% over the last 20 years, this improvement is attributed to general advances in prevention, earlier detection, and updated treatments. Additionally, despite decades of research, the molecular mechanisms of OSCC invasion into the mandible are not well understood. Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (PTHrP), has been shown to be essential for mandibular invasion in OSCC animal models, and our previous studies demonstrate that the transcription factor Gli2 increases PTHrP expression in tumor metastasis to bone. In OSCC, we investigated regulators of Gli2, including Hedgehog, TGFβ, and Wnt signaling to elucidate how PTHrP expression is controlled. Here we show that canonical Hedgehog and TGFβ signaling cooperate to increase PTHrP expression and mandibular invasion in a Gli2-dependent manner. Additionally, in an orthotopic model of mandibular invasion, inhibition of Gli2 using shRNA resulted in a significant decrease of both PTHrP expression and bony invasion. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that multiple signaling pathways converge on Gli2 to mediate PTHrP expression and bony invasion, highlighting Gli2 as a therapeutic target to prevent bony invasion in OSCC.
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17 MeSH Terms
WIP1 modulates responsiveness to Sonic Hedgehog signaling in neuronal precursor cells and medulloblastoma.
Wen J, Lee J, Malhotra A, Nahta R, Arnold AR, Buss MC, Brown BD, Maier C, Kenney AM, Remke M, Ramaswamy V, Taylor MD, Castellino RC
(2016) Oncogene 35: 5552-5564
MeSH Terms: Animals, Biomarkers, Cell Cycle, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Proliferation, Cell Transformation, Neoplastic, Cerebellar Neoplasms, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Hedgehog Proteins, Humans, Medulloblastoma, Mice, Mice, Transgenic, NIH 3T3 Cells, Neural Stem Cells, Protein Phosphatase 2C, Signal Transduction, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
Show Abstract · Added April 25, 2016
High-level amplification of the protein phosphatase PPM1D (WIP1) is present in a subset of medulloblastomas (MBs) that have an expression profile consistent with active Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. We found that WIP1 overexpression increased expression of Shh target genes and cell proliferation in response to Shh stimulation in NIH3T3 and cerebellar granule neuron precursor cells in a p53-independent manner. Thus, we developed a mouse in which WIP1 is expressed in the developing brain under control of the Neurod2 promoter (ND2:WIP1). The external granule layer (EGL) in early postnatal ND2:WIP1 mice exhibited increased proliferation and expression of Shh downstream targets. MB incidence increased and survival decreased when ND2:WIP1 mice were crossed with an Shh-activated MB mouse model. Conversely, Wip1 knockout significantly suppressed MB formation in two independent mouse models of Shh-activated MB. Furthermore, Wip1 knockdown or treatment with a WIP1 inhibitor suppressed the effects of Shh stimulation and potentiated the growth inhibitory effects of SHH pathway-inhibiting drugs in Shh-activated MB cells in vitro. This suggests an important cross-talk between SHH and WIP1 pathways that accelerates tumorigenesis and supports WIP1 inhibition as a potential treatment strategy for MB.
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18 MeSH Terms
Development of thieno- and benzopyrimidinone inhibitors of the Hedgehog signaling pathway reveals PDE4-dependent and PDE4-independent mechanisms of action.
Hempel JE, Cadar AG, Hong CC
(2016) Bioorg Med Chem Lett 26: 1947-53
MeSH Terms: Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, HEK293 Cells, Hedgehog Proteins, Humans, Molecular Structure, Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors, Pyrimidinones, Repressor Proteins, Signal Transduction, Smoothened Receptor, Structure-Activity Relationship
Show Abstract · Added March 17, 2016
From a high content in vivo screen for modulators of developmental patterning in embryonic zebrafish, we previously identified eggmanone (EGM1, 3) as a Hedgehog (Hh) signaling inhibitor functioning downstream of Smoothened. Phenotypic optimization studies for in vitro probe development utilizing a Gli transcription-linked stable luciferase reporter cell line identified EGM1 analogs with improved potency and aqueous solubility. Mechanistic profiling of optimized analogs indicated two distinct scaffold clusters: PDE4 inhibitors able to inhibit downstream of Sufu, and PDE4-independent Hh inhibitors functioning between Smo and Sufu. Each class represents valuable in vitro probes for elucidating the complex mechanisms of Hh regulation.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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12 MeSH Terms
YB-1 is elevated in medulloblastoma and drives proliferation in Sonic hedgehog-dependent cerebellar granule neuron progenitor cells and medulloblastoma cells.
Dey A, Robitaille M, Remke M, Maier C, Malhotra A, Gregorieff A, Wrana JL, Taylor MD, Angers S, Kenney AM
(2016) Oncogene 35: 4256-68
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Proliferation, Cerebellar Neoplasms, Cerebellum, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Hedgehog Proteins, Insulin-Like Growth Factor II, Medulloblastoma, Mice, Neural Stem Cells, Signal Transduction, Y-Box-Binding Protein 1
Show Abstract · Added April 25, 2016
Postnatal proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs), proposed cells of origin for the SHH-associated subgroup of medulloblastoma, is driven by Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) in the developing cerebellum. Shh induces the oncogene Yes-associated protein (YAP), which drives IGF2 expression in CGNPs and mouse Shh-associated medulloblastomas. To determine how IGF2 expression is regulated downstream of YAP, we carried out an unbiased screen for transcriptional regulators bound to IGF2 promoters. We report that Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1), an onco-protein regulating transcription and translation, binds to IGF2 promoter P3. We observed that YB-1 is upregulated across human medulloblastoma subclasses as well as in other varieties of pediatric brain tumors. Utilizing the cerebellar progenitor model for the Shh subgroup of medulloblastoma in mice, we show for the first time that YB-1 is induced by Shh in CGNPs. Its expression is YAP-dependent and it is required for IGF2 expression in CGNPs. Finally, both gain-of function and loss-of-function experiments reveal that YB-1 activity is required for sustaining CGNP and medulloblastoma cell (MBC) proliferation. Collectively, our findings describe a novel role for YB-1 in driving proliferation in the developing cerebellum and MBCs and they identify the SHH:YAP:YB1:IGF2 axis as a powerful target for therapeutic intervention in medulloblastomas.
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13 MeSH Terms
A Dorsal SHH-Dependent Domain in the V-SVZ Produces Large Numbers of Oligodendroglial Lineage Cells in the Postnatal Brain.
Tong CK, Fuentealba LC, Shah JK, Lindquist RA, Ihrie RA, Guinto CD, Rodas-Rodriguez JL, Alvarez-Buylla A
(2015) Stem Cell Reports 5: 461-70
MeSH Terms: Animals, Brain, Cell Lineage, Corpus Callosum, Gene Expression, Hedgehog Proteins, Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors, Mice, Neural Stem Cells, Olfactory Bulb, Oligodendroglia, Signal Transduction, Zinc Finger Protein GLI1
Show Abstract · Added March 12, 2017
Neural stem cells in different locations of the postnatal mouse ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) generate different subtypes of olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons. High Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the ventral V-SVZ regulates the production of specific subtypes of neurons destined for the OB. Here we found a transient territory of high SHH signaling in the dorsal V-SVZ beneath the corpus callosum (CC). Using intersectional lineage tracing in neonates to label dorsal radial glial cells (RGCs) expressing the SHH target gene Gli1, we demonstrate that this region produces many CC cells in the oligodendroglial lineage and specific subtypes of neurons in the OB. The number of oligodendroglial cells generated correlated with the levels of SHH signaling. This work identifies a dorsal domain of SHH signaling, which is an important source of oligodendroglial cells for the postnatal mammalian forebrain.
Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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An in vivo chemical genetic screen identifies phosphodiesterase 4 as a pharmacological target for hedgehog signaling inhibition.
Williams CH, Hempel JE, Hao J, Frist AY, Williams MM, Fleming JT, Sulikowski GA, Cooper MK, Chiang C, Hong CC
(2015) Cell Rep 11: 43-50
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases, Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4, Hedgehog Proteins, Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors, Pyrimidinones, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled, Signal Transduction, Small Molecule Libraries, Smoothened Receptor, Thiophenes, Transcriptional Activation, Zebrafish, Zebrafish Proteins
Show Abstract · Added April 5, 2015
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays an integral role in vertebrate development, and its dysregulation has been accepted widely as a driver of numerous malignancies. While a variety of small molecules target Smoothened (Smo) as a strategy for Hh inhibition, Smo gain-of-function mutations have limited their clinical implementation. Modulation of targets downstream of Smo could define a paradigm for treatment of Hh-dependent cancers. Here, we describe eggmanone, a small molecule identified from a chemical genetic zebrafish screen, which induced an Hh-null phenotype. Eggmanone exerts its Hh-inhibitory effects through selective antagonism of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), leading to protein kinase A activation and subsequent Hh blockade. Our study implicates PDE4 as a target for Hh inhibition, suggests an improved strategy for Hh-dependent cancer therapy, and identifies a unique probe of downstream-of-Smo Hh modulation.
Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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14 MeSH Terms