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PURPOSE - The objective of this study was to assess toileting behaviors in community dwelling women.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Women 18 years old or older were recruited through a national registry of research volunteers. They were asked to complete validated questionnaires assessing urinary symptoms and toileting behaviors, specifically place preference for voiding, convenience voiding, delayed voiding, straining during voiding and position preference for voiding. The PPBC (patient perception of bladder condition) was administered to assess the participant impression of bladder health. Analyses were done to determine the prevalence of each toileting behavior reported to occur sometimes or more often as well as differences in toileting behaviors in women with vs without self-perceived bladder problems based on the PPBC response.
RESULTS - The 6,695 women who completed the questionnaires were 18 to 89 years old (mean ± SD age 41.4 ± 15). Of the women 79.9% identified as white and 71.0% were college educated. Of the women 6,613 (98.8%) reported a place preference for voiding. The 3,552 women (53.1%) who reported a bladder problem were more likely to report convenience voiding, delayed voiding and strained voiding behaviors. While 6,657 women (99.4%) reported sitting to void at home only 5,108 (76.2%) reported sitting when using public toilets.
CONCLUSIONS - Certain toileting behaviors, of which some may be considered unhealthy, were common in this sample of women and most were associated with a perception of bladder problems. Voiding positions other than sitting were frequently used when away from home. These data have important implications for defining bladder health and implementing behavior based interventions for women with lower urinary tract symptoms.
OBJECTIVE - To assess associations between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and measures of brain health in a population-based sample of adults.
METHODS - Participants from the CARDIA study (Y25 exam; age 43-55 years) with concurrent computed tomography quantification of liver fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images were included (n = 505). NAFLD was identified after exclusion of other causes of liver fat. Total tissue volume (TTV) and gray matter cerebral blood flow (GM-CBF) were estimated using 3T brain MR images.
RESULTS - NAFLD prevalence was 18%. NAFLD was associated with lower TTV and GM-CBF after adjusting for intracranial volume, demographics, and health behaviors (P < 0.04 for all). In models with additional adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, the association of NAFLD with GM-CBF remained significant (P = 0.04) but was attenuated after adjustment for VAT (P = 0.06) and eliminated with BMI (P = 0.20). NAFLD was not associated with TTV after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (P = 0.10) or additional adjustment for VAT (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS - NAFLD is negatively associated with early brain health as assessed by MR measures of structure (TTV) and perfusion (GM-CBF). BMI and VAT attenuated this relationship, providing insight into the potential metabolic role of liver fat in brain health and disease.
© 2017 The Obesity Society.
INTRODUCTION - African Americans and low-income whites have higher mortality than the U.S. general population. This study prospectively investigated the combined influence of major lifestyle factors and poverty on mortality in this vulnerable population.
METHODS - Data were collected in 2002-2009 from 79,101 Southern Community Cohort Study participants, of which 67% were African American and 55% had household incomes <$15,000. Mortality outcomes were identified from the National Death Index though December 31, 2011 (data analyzed in 2014-2015). Healthy behavior scores were created based on tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, diet, physical activity, and sedentary time. The primary analysis was performed based on the score created by counting each participant as having met/not met public health guidelines for each behavior.
RESULTS - Healthy behavior scores were associated with reduced cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Associations were stronger for whites than African Americans: hazard ratios for all-cause mortality comparing participants meeting four or five guidelines versus participants meeting zero were 0.41 (95% CI=0.30, 0.55) for African American men; 0.36 (95% CI=0.24, 0.55) for white men; 0.46 (95% CI=0.36, 0.59) for African American women; and 0.27 (95% CI=0.18, 0.43) for white women. The association between healthy lifestyle and all-cause mortality was weaker among those with incomes <$15,000 than those with higher income, particularly in men (p<0.05 for interaction).
CONCLUSIONS - This study demonstrates the importance of health behaviors on mortality among all groups, but highlights the need for additional research to identify factors contributing to high risk of mortality among low-income and African American populations.
Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVES - Little is known regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use during pregnancy and the preconception period. Since half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended, understanding the patterns of CAM use among women of childbearing age has implications for fetal and maternal health.
METHODS - Descriptive statistics were generated from the 2012 National Health Interview Study (NHIS) to estimate weighted prevalence and patterns of CAM use by women of childbearing age. Comparisons were made between pregnant and nonpregnant respondents.
RESULTS - In this sample of 10,002 women, 7 percent (n = 727) were recently pregnant. Over one-third of all the women used CAM during the previous year (34/38%, pregnant/nonpregnant, respectively) and only half disclosed CAM use to conventional providers (50/49%). In the adjusted model, taking multivitamins (OR 2.52 [CI 2.22-2.86]) and moderate to heavy alcohol use (OR 1.92 [CI 1.53-2.41]) were more likely associated with CAM use. The two most commonly used modalities were herbs (14/17%) and yoga (13/16%). The top reasons for CAM use were to improve general wellness or to prevent disease (33/35%) and to treat back pain (16/18%). When examining all pregnancy-related symptoms treated with CAM, no difference was found in the rates of CAM use between pregnant and nonpregnant users.
CONCLUSIONS - CAM use by women of childbearing age in the United States is common, with over a third of the population using one or more therapies. However, only half disclosed their use to conventional providers despite limited evidence on safety and effectiveness. This study highlights the important need for further research in this area.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES - To explore health value and perceived control over health in relation to self-management behaviours in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
BACKGROUND - Helping people to modify health related behaviour in diabetes is complex due to a multitude of factors. Exploring the meaning of the constructs of Modified Social Learning Theory could be beneficial to identifying people at risk of poor diabetes self-management.
DESIGN - An exploratory qualitative study.
METHODS - Thirteen adults with insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes mellitus were purposively sampled. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. An in-depth thematic analysis was carried out.
RESULTS - Health became a value priority on diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Participants described holding both terminal (relating to desired end states) and instrumental (a means to an end) health values pre-diagnosis but these became instrumental post-diagnosis to meet new lifestyle needs and maintain their quality of life. Descriptions of 'conflicts' in locus of control beliefs when managing Type 2 diabetes mellitus demonstrated influences on levels of self-efficacy and health value. Common themes that impacted on diabetes self-management included co-morbidities, medication management, blood glucose monitoring and reasoning for Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSIONS - Locus of control beliefs, levels of self-efficacy and health value were influenced by complications associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The findings on Modified Social Learning Theory and instrumental health value as a moderator to health behaviour resulted in the development of a proposed framework with potential practical utility.
RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE - This research demonstrates the relevance of exploring the constructs of Modified Social Learning Theory (MSLT) in relation to diabetes self-management behaviours in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The proposed Type 2 diabetes mellitus Self-management Behaviour Support framework incorporates Modified Social Learning Theory and instrumental health value as the theoretical basis for development and could provide clinical nurses and doctors with a tool that will allow for in-depth assessment and planning of Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients' self-management behaviours.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
BACKGROUND - A healthy diet, as defined by the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), has been associated with lower morbidity and mortality from major chronic diseases in studies conducted in predominantly non-Hispanic white individuals. It is unknown whether this association can be extrapolated to African-Americans and low-income populations.
METHODS AND FINDINGS - We examined the associations of adherence to the DGA with total and cause-specific mortality in the Southern Community Cohort Study, a prospective study that recruited 84,735 American adults, aged 40-79 y, from 12 southeastern US states during 2002-2009, mostly through community health centers that serve low-income populations. The present analysis included 50,434 African-Americans, 24,054 white individuals, and 3,084 individuals of other racial/ethnic groups, among whom 42,759 participants had an annual household income less than US$15,000. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Adherence to the DGA was measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), 2010 and 2005 editions (HEI-2010 and HEI-2005, respectively). During a mean follow-up of 6.2 y, 6,906 deaths were identified, including 2,244 from cardiovascular disease, 1,794 from cancer, and 2,550 from other diseases. A higher HEI-2010 score was associated with lower risks of disease death, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73-0.86) for all-disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.94) for cardiovascular disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.95) for cancer mortality, and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88) for other disease mortality, when comparing the highest quintile with the lowest (all p-values for trend < 0.05). Similar inverse associations between HEI-2010 score and mortality were observed regardless of sex, race, and income (all p-values for interaction > 0.50). Several component scores in the HEI-2010, including whole grains, dairy, seafood and plant proteins, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, showed significant inverse associations with total mortality. HEI-2005 score was also associated with lower disease mortality, with a HR of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.79-0.93) when comparing extreme quintiles. Given the observational study design, however, residual confounding cannot be completely ruled out. In addition, future studies are needed to evaluate the generalizability of these findings to African-Americans of other socioeconomic status.
CONCLUSIONS - Our results showed, to our knowledge for the first time, that adherence to the DGA was associated with lower total and cause-specific mortality in a low-income population, including a large proportion of African-Americans, living in the southeastern US.
BACKGROUND - The American Heart Association (AHA) established recommendations based on 7 ideal health behaviors and factors with the goal of improving cardiovascular health (CVH) and reducing both morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease by 20% by 2020. Few studies have investigated their association with subclinical coronary heart disease. We sought to examine whether the 7 AHA CVH metrics were associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries.
METHODS - In a cross-sectional design, we studied 1,731 predominantly white men and women from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study without prevalent coronary heart disease. Diet was assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by cardiac computed tomography. We defined prevalent CAC using an Agatston score of 100+ and fitted generalized estimating equations to calculate prevalence odds ratios of CAC.
RESULTS - Mean age was 56.8 years, and 41% were male. The median number of ideal CVH metrics was 3, and no participant met all 7. There was a strong inverse relationship between number of ideal CVH metrics and prevalent CAC. Odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC of 100+ were 1.0 (reference), 0.37 (0.29-0.45), 0.35 (0.26-0.44), and 0.27 (0.20-0.36) among subjects with 0 to 1, 2, 3, and 4+ ideal CVH metrics, respectively (P = .0001), adjusting for sex, age, field center, alcohol, income, education, and energy consumption.
CONCLUSIONS - These data demonstrate a strong and graded inverse relationship between AHA ideal CVH metrics and prevalent CAC in adult men and women.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
PURPOSE - Gathering contextual information (i.e., location and purpose) about active and sedentary behaviors is an advantage of self-report tools such as previous day recalls (PDR). However, the validity of PDR's for measuring context has not been empirically tested. The purpose of this paper was to compare PDR estimates of location and purpose to direct observation (DO).
METHODS - Fifteen adult (18-75 y) and 15 adolescent (12-17 y) participants were directly observed during at least one segment of the day (i.e., morning, afternoon or evening). Participants completed their normal daily routine while trained observers recorded the location (i.e., home, community, work/school), purpose (e.g., leisure, transportation) and whether the behavior was sedentary or active. The day following the observation, participants completed an unannounced PDR. Estimates of time in each context were compared between PDR and DO. Intra-class correlations (ICC), percent agreement and Kappa statistics were calculated.
RESULTS - For adults, percent agreement was 85% or greater for each location and ICC values ranged from 0.71 to 0.96. The PDR-reported purpose of adults' behaviors were highly correlated with DO for household activities and work (ICCs of 0.84 and 0.88, respectively). Transportation was not significantly correlated with DO (ICC = -0.08). For adolescents, reported classification of activity location was 80.8% or greater. The ICCs for purpose of adolescents' behaviors ranged from 0.46 to 0.78. Participants were most accurate in classifying the location and purpose of the behaviors in which they spent the most time.
CONCLUSIONS - This study suggests that adults and adolescents can accurately report where and why they spend time in behaviors using a PDR. This information on behavioral context is essential for translating the evidence for specific behavior-disease associations to health interventions and public policy.
BACKGROUND - Low seat belt use and higher crash rates contribute to persistence of motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of teenage death. Service-learning has been identified as an important component of public health interventions to improve health behavior.
METHODOLOGY - A service-learning intervention was conducted in eleven selected high schools across the United States in the 2011-2012 school year. Direct morning and afternoon observations of seat belt use were used to obtain baseline observations during the fall semester and post-intervention observations in the spring. The Mann-Whitney U test for 2 independent samples was used to evaluate if the intervention was associated with a statistically significant change in seat belt use. We identified factors associated with seat belt use post-intervention using multivariable logistic regression.
RESULTS - Overall seat belt use rate increased by 12.8%, from 70.4% at baseline to 83.2% post-intervention (p<0.0001). A statistically significant increase in seat belt use was noted among white, black, and Hispanic teen drivers. However, black and Hispanic drivers were still less likely to use seat belts while driving compared to white drivers. Female drivers and drivers who had passengers in their vehicle had increased odds of seat belt use.
CONCLUSION - A high school service-learning intervention was associated with improved seat belt use regardless of race, ethnicity, or gender, but did not eliminate disparities adversely affecting minority youth. Continuous incorporation of service-learning in high school curricula could benefit quality improvement evaluations aimed at disparities elimination and might improve the safety behavior of emerging youth cohorts.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - To characterize factors associated with physical inactivity among employees with access to workplace wellness program.
METHODS - We examined data on physical inactivity, defined as exercise less than once a week, from the 2010 health risk assessment completed by employees at a major academic institution (N = 16,976).
RESULTS - Among employees, 18% of individuals reported physical activity less than once a week. Individuals who were physically inactive as compared with physically active reported higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.36 [1.23 to 1.51]), fair or poor health status (AOR, 3.52 [2.97 to 4.17]), and absenteeism from work (AOR, 1.59 [1.41 to 1.79]). Overall, physically inactive employees as compared with physically active employees reported more interest in health education programs.
CONCLUSION - Future research is needed to address barriers to physical inactivity to improve employee wellness and potentially lower health utility costs.