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BACKGROUND - Pediatric oncology patients are at an increased risk of invasive bacterial infection due to immunosuppression. The risk of such infection in the absence of severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count ≥ 500/μL) is not well established and a validated prediction model for blood stream infection (BSI) risk offers clinical usefulness.
METHODS - A 6-site retrospective external validation was conducted using a previously published risk prediction model for BSI in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia: the Esbenshade/Vanderbilt (EsVan) model. A reduced model (EsVan2) excluding 2 less clinically reliable variables also was created using the initial EsVan model derivative cohort, and was validated using all 5 external validation cohorts. One data set was used only in sensitivity analyses due to missing some variables.
RESULTS - From the 5 primary data sets, there were a total of 1197 febrile episodes and 76 episodes of bacteremia. The overall C statistic for predicting bacteremia was 0.695, with a calibration slope of 0.50 for the original model and a calibration slope of 1.0 when recalibration was applied to the model. The model performed better in predicting high-risk bacteremia (gram-negative or Staphylococcus aureus infection) versus BSI alone, with a C statistic of 0.801 and a calibration slope of 0.65. The EsVan2 model outperformed the EsVan model across data sets with a C statistic of 0.733 for predicting BSI and a C statistic of 0.841 for high-risk BSI.
CONCLUSIONS - The results of this external validation demonstrated that the EsVan and EsVan2 models are able to predict BSI across multiple performance sites and, once validated and implemented prospectively, could assist in decision making in clinical practice. Cancer 2017;123:3781-3790. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
© 2017 American Cancer Society.
Work on type III or type IV secretion systems (T3SSs or T4SSs) is often focused on elucidating how these sophisticated bacterial virulence factors manipulate host cell physiology to cause disease. But to fully understand their role in pathogen biology, it is important to consider whether the morbidity or mortality they trigger is somehow linked to enhancing communicability of the microbe. Recent work on Salmonella enterica and Brucella abortus provide captivating examples of how manipulation of host cells with T3SSs or T4SSs instigates distant downstream consequences that promote spread of the pathogen. It is clear from these examples that T3SSs and T4SSs are ultimately transmission factors placed under selection by an incredibly complex series of events unfolding during host pathogen interaction.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
By manipulating arthropod reproduction worldwide, the heritable endosymbiont Wolbachia has spread to pandemic levels. Little is known about the microbial basis of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) except that bacterial densities and percentages of infected sperm cysts associate with incompatibility strength. The recent discovery of a temperate bacteriophage (WO-B) of Wolbachia containing ankyrin-encoding genes and virulence factors has led to intensifying debate that bacteriophage WO-B induces CI. However, current hypotheses have not considered the separate roles that lytic and lysogenic phage might have on bacterial fitness and phenotype. Here we describe a set of quantitative approaches to characterize phage densities and its associations with bacterial densities and CI. We enumerated genome copy number of phage WO-B and Wolbachia and CI penetrance in supergroup A- and B-infected males of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. We report several findings: (1) variability in CI strength for A-infected males is positively associated with bacterial densities, as expected under the bacterial density model of CI, (2) phage and bacterial densities have a significant inverse association, as expected for an active lytic infection, and (3) CI strength and phage densities are inversely related in A-infected males; similarly, males expressing incomplete CI have significantly higher phage densities than males expressing complete CI. Ultrastructural analyses indicate that approximately 12% of the A Wolbachia have phage particles, and aggregations of these particles can putatively occur outside the Wolbachia cell. Physical interactions were observed between approximately 16% of the Wolbachia cells and spermatid tails. The results support a low to moderate frequency of lytic development in Wolbachia and an overall negative density relationship between bacteriophage and Wolbachia. The findings motivate a novel phage density model of CI in which lytic phage repress Wolbachia densities and therefore reproductive parasitism. We conclude that phage, Wolbachia, and arthropods form a tripartite symbiotic association in which all three are integral to understanding the biology of this widespread endosymbiosis. Clarifying the roles of lytic and lysogenic phage development in Wolbachia biology will effectively structure inquiries into this research topic.
BACKGROUND - Substantial morbidity and mortality rates are associated with infections in the first year after pediatric lung transplantation. To understand better the clinical significance of bloodstream infections (BSIs), we evaluated systematically the epidemiologic features of BSIs in the first year after transplantation.
METHODS - A retrospective case-cohort study of pediatric primary lung transplant recipients was performed. The frequency of BSIs and the organisms isolated were determined through medical and laboratory record review. We assessed variations in causative organisms and rates of BSIs in 3 time periods after transplantation, ie, early (0-30 days), intermediate (31-90 days) and late (91-365 days).
RESULTS - Between July 1990 and November 2000, 190 pediatric patients received primary lung transplants. Twenty-six percent (49 of 190) of recipients had at least 1 BSI. The most commonly isolated organisms were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (n = 25, 28.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 14, 16.0%) and Candida spp. (n = 9, 10.2%). The overall rate of BSIs was 2.1 episodes per 1000 catheter-days. The highest rate of BSIs occurred in the early period, compared with the intermediate and late periods (5.5, 1.3 and 1.6 episodes per 1000 catheter-days, respectively; P = 0.21). Early BSIs were associated with death in the first year after transplantation (relative risk, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-9.4; P = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS - BSIs occur frequently after primary pediatric lung transplantation, with the highest rate being in the first 30 days after transplantation. Early BSIs are associated with death in the first year after transplantation.
The bioartificial kidney (BAK) consists of a conventional hemofiltration cartridge in series with a renal tubule assist device (RAD) containing 10(9) porcine renal proximal tubule cells. BAK replaces filtration, transport, and metabolic and endocrinologic activities of a kidney. Previous work in an acutely uremic dog model demonstrated that BAK ameliorated endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-induced hypotension and altered plasma cytokine levels. To further assess the role of BAK in sepsis in acute renal failure, dogs were nephrectomized and 48 h later administered intraperitoneally with 30 x 10(10) bacteria/kg of E. coli. One hour after bacterial administration, animals were placed in a continuous venovenous hemofiltration circuit with either a sham RAD without cells (n = 6) or a RAD with cells (n = 6). BP, cardiac output, heart rate, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and systemic vascular resistance were measured throughout the study. All animals tested were in renal failure, with blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine concentrations greater than 60 and 6 mg/dl, respectively. RAD treatment maintained significantly better cardiovascular performance, as determined by arterial BP (P < 0.05) and cardiac output (P < 0.02), for longer periods than sham RAD therapy. Consistently, all sham RAD-treated animals, except one, expired within 2 to 9 h after bacterial administration, whereas all RAD-treated animals survived more than 10 h. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha, IL-10, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured during cell RAD and sham RAD treatment. IL-10 levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01) during the entire treatment interval in the RAD animals compared with sham controls. These data demonstrated in a pilot large animal experiment that the BAK with RAD altered plasma cytokine levels in acutely uremic animals with septic shock. This change was associated with improved cardiovascular performance and increased survival time. These results demonstrate that the addition of cell therapy to hemofiltration in an acutely uremic animal model with septic shock ameliorates cardiovascular dysfunction, alters systemic cytokine balance, and improves survival time.
Achromobacter xylosoxidans (formerly Alcaligenes xylosoxidans) is a rare but important cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients, and strains are usually multiply resistant to antimicrobial therapy. We report an immunocompromised patient with hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome who suffered from 14 documented episodes of A. xylosoxidans bacteremia. Each episode was treated and resulted in rapid clinical improvement, with blood cultures testing negative for bacteria. Between episodes, A. xylosoxidans was isolated from an excised right axillary lymph node, whereas the culture of the central venous catheter, removed at the same time, was negative. Multiple cultures from sputum, stool, and urine samples, as well as from gastrointestinal biopsies or environmental sources, were negative. Results from antibiotic sensitivity testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested that a single strain of A. xylosoxidans caused the recurrent bacteremias in this patient; this strain originated from persistently infected lymph nodes. Lymphoid hyperplasia is a prominent characteristic of hyper-IgM syndrome and may serve as a source of bacteremia with low-pathogenicity organisms.
The use of the "peritonitis rate" in the management of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis is assuming importance in comparing the prowess of facilities, care givers and new innovations. For this to be a meaningful outcome measure, the type of infection (causative pathogen) must have less clinical significance than the number of infections during a time interval. The natural history of Staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas, and fungal peritonitis would not support that the outcome of an episode of peritonitis is independent of the causative pathogen. Could this concern be extended to other more frequently occurring pathogens? To address this, the Network 9 Peritonitis Study identified 530 episodes of single organism peritonitis caused by a gram positive organism and 136 episodes caused by a single non-pseudomonal gram negative (NPGN) pathogen. Coincidental soft tissue infections (exit site or tunnel) occurred equally in both groups. Outcomes of peritonitis were analyzed by organism classification and by presence or absence of a soft tissue infection. NPGN peritonitis was associated with significantly more frequent catheter loss, hospitalization, and technique failure and was less likely to resolve regardless of the presence or absence of a soft tissue infection. Hospitalization and death tended to occur more frequently with enterococcal peritonitis than with other gram positive peritonitis. The outcomes in the NPGN peritonitis group were significantly worse (resolution, catheter loss, hospitalization, technique failure) compared to coagulase negative staphylococcal or S. aureus peritonitis, regardless of the presence or absence of a coincidental soft tissue infection. Furthermore, for the first time, the poor outcomes of gram negative peritonitis are shown to be independent of pseudomonas or polymicrobial involvement or soft tissue infections. The gram negative organism appears to be the important factor. In addition, the outcome of peritonitis caused by S. aureus is worse than that of other staphylococci. Thus, it is clear that all peritonitis episodes cannot be considered equivalent in terms of outcome. The concept of peritonitis rate is only meaningful when specific organisms are considered.
Veillonella parvula is an anaerobic gram-negative coccus that is part of the normal human flora. It has rarely been identified as a pathogen in humans, and the most frequently reported infection caused by V. parvula is osteomyelitis. We report a case of bacteremia unrelated to a central venous catheter and without an underlying source of infection.