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There remains a need for new non-ionic detergents that are suitable for use in biochemical and biophysical studies of membrane proteins. Here we explore the properties of n-dodecyl-β-melibioside (β-DDMB) micelles as a medium for membrane proteins. Melibiose is d-galactose-α(1→6)-d-glucose. Light scattering showed the β-DDMB micelle to be roughly 30 kDa smaller than micelles formed by the commonly used n-dodecyl-β-maltoside (β-DDM). β-DDMB stabilized diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) against thermal inactivation. Moreover, activity assays conducted using aliquots of DAGK purified into β-DDMB yielded activities that were 40% higher than those of DAGK purified into β-DDM. β-DDMB yielded similar or better TROSY-HSQC NMR spectra for two single-pass membrane proteins and the tetraspan membrane protein peripheral myelin protein 22. β-DDMB appears be a useful addition to the toolbox of non-ionic detergents available for membrane protein research.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major life-threatening complication of diabetes. Renal lesions affect glomeruli and tubules, but the pathogenesis is not completely understood. Phospholipids and glycolipids are molecules that carry out multiple cell functions in health and disease, and their role in DN pathogenesis is unknown. We employed high spatial resolution MALDI imaging MS to determine lipid changes in kidneys of eNOS(-/-) db/db mice, a robust model of DN. Phospholipid and glycolipid structures, localization patterns, and relative tissue levels were determined in individual renal glomeruli and tubules without disturbing tissue morphology. A significant increase in the levels of specific glomerular and tubular lipid species from four different classes, i.e., gangliosides, sulfoglycosphingolipids, lysophospholipids, and phosphatidylethanolamines, was detected in diabetic kidneys compared with nondiabetic controls. Inhibition of nonenzymatic oxidative and glycoxidative pathways attenuated the increase in lipid levels and ameliorated renal pathology, even though blood glucose levels remained unchanged. Our data demonstrate that the levels of specific phospho- and glycolipids in glomeruli and/or tubules are associated with diabetic renal pathology. We suggest that hyperglycemia-induced DN pathogenic mechanisms require intermediate oxidative steps that involve specific phospholipid and glycolipid species.
Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
NKT cells that express the semi-invariant TCR are innate-like lymphocytes whose functions are regulated by self and foreign glycolipid ligands presented by the Ag-presenting, MHC class I-like molecule CD1d. Activation of NKT cells in vivo results in rapid release of copious amounts of effector cytokines and chemokines with which they regulate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens, certain types of cancers, and self-antigens. The nature of CD1d-restricted ligands, the manner in which they are recognized, and the unique effector functions of NKT cells suggest an immunoregulatory role for this T cell subset. Their ability to respond fast and our ability to steer NKT cell cytokine response to altered lipid ligands make them an important target for vaccine design and immunotherapies against autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes our current understanding of CD1d-restricted ligand recognition by NKT cells and how these innate-like lymphocytes regulate inflammation.
Invariant NK T (iNKT) cells are a subset of T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens bound with the antigen-presenting molecule CD1d. iNKT cells have potent immunoregulatory activities that can promote or suppress immune responses during different pathological conditions. These immunoregulatory properties can be harnessed for therapeutic purposes with cognate glycolipid antigens, such as the marine sponge-derived glycosphingolipid α-galactosylceramide. Preclinical studies have shown substantial promise for iNKT cell-based treatments of infections, cancer and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Translation of these preclinical studies to the clinic, while faced with some obstacles, has already had some initial success. In this article, we review the immunodulatory activities of iNKT cells and the potential for developing iNKT cell-based prophylactic and curative therapies of human disease.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by dyslipidemia and accumulation of lipids in the arterial intima, with activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Reciprocally, dyslipidemia associated with atherosclerosis can perturb normal immune function. Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a specialized group of immune cells that share characteristics with both conventional T cells and natural killer cells. However, unlike these cells, NKT cells recognize glycolipid antigens and produce both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines upon activation. Because of these unique characteristics, NKT cells have recently been ascribed a role in the regulation of immunity and inflammation, including cardiovascular disease. In addition, NKT cells represent a bridge between dyslipidemia and immune regulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge of NKT cells and discusses the interplay between dyslipidemia and the normal functions of NKT cells and how this might modulate inflammation and atherosclerosis.
(c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a subset of T lymphocytes that react with glycolipid antigens presented by the major histocompatibility complex class I-related glycoprotein CD1d. Although iNKT cells express an antigen-specific receptor of the adaptive immune system, they behave more like cells of the innate immune system. A hallmark of iNKT cells is their capacity to produce copious amounts of immunoregulatory cytokines quickly after activation. The cytokines produced by iNKT cells can influence the level of activation of many cell types of the innate and adaptive immune systems as well as the quality of an adaptive immune response. As such, iNKT cells have emerged as important regulators of immune responses, playing a role in microbial immunity, autoimmunity, tumor immunity, and a variety of inflammatory conditions. Although several endogenous and exogenous glycolipid antigens of iNKT cells have been identified, how these glycolipids orchestrate iNKT-cell functions remains poorly understood. Nevertheless, iNKT cells hold substantial promise as targets for development of vaccine adjuvants and immunotherapies. These properties of iNKT cells have been investigated most extensively in mouse models of human disease using the marine sponge-derived agent alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) and related iNKT-cell antigens. While these preclinical studies have raised enthusiasm for developing iNKT-cell-based immunotherapies, they also showed potential health risks associated with iNKT cell activation. Although alpha-GalCer treatment in humans was shown to be safe in the short term, further studies are needed to develop safe and effective iNKT-cell-based therapies.
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique subset of T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens in the context of the antigen-presenting molecule CD1d. Upon glycolipid antigen stimulation, iNKT cells rapidly produce copious amounts of immunomodulatory cytokines, leading to potent activation of a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells. These immune-potentiating properties of iNKT cells hold great promise for the development of vaccine adjuvants. This review aims to summarize the immunomodulatory activities of iNKT cell ligands and to discuss prospects for developing iNKT cell-based vaccine adjuvants.
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate lymphocytes whose functions are regulated by self and foreign glycolipid antigens presented by the antigen-presenting molecule CD1d. Activation of iNKT cells in vivo results in rapid release of copious amounts of effector cytokines and chemokines with which they regulate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens, certain types of cancers and self-antigens. The nature of CD1d-restricted antigens, the manner in which they are recognised and the unique effector functions of iNKT cells suggest an innate immunoregulatory role for this subset of T cells. Their ability to respond fast and our ability to steer iNKT cell cytokine response to altered lipid antigens make them an important target for vaccine design and immunotherapies against autoimmune diseases. This review summarises our current understanding of CD1d-restricted antigen presentation, the recognition of such antigens by an invariant T-cell receptor on iNKT cells, and the functional consequences of these interactions.
The cell glycocalyx is an attractive model for surface modification of liposomes with the objectives of tissue targeting and prolonged circulation time. Here, we reported on glycocalyx-mimicking liposomes, prepared by incorporating a glycolipid of 3'-sulfo-Lewis a (SuLe(a))-PEG-DSPE with a headgroup of SuLe(a) and a spacer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linked to two hydrophobic tails. This PEG spaced structure is used to mimic the extended structure of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) on activated leukocytes, in order to facilitate the specific binding of liposomes to the receptor of P-selectin expressed on activated platelets. Our results indicate that SuLe(a)-PEG-DSPE can form stable, narrowly distributed liposomes with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and cholesterol, with a vesicle size of 113.3 nm. The resultant SuLe(a)-PEG-liposomes can facilitate their binding to the receptor of P-selectin 22 times higher than SuLe(a)-liposomes without a PEG spacer. Further studies by fluorescence microscopy show that SuLe(a)-PEG-liposomes can bind to activated platelets in vitro effectively. It suggests that biomimetic SuLe(a)-PEG-liposomes may be used as nanocarriers to target activated platelets for drug delivery to the injury sites of cardiovascular diseases.
We have demonstrated recently that the glycoinositolphospholipid (GIPL) molecule from the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is a TLR4 agonist with proinflammatory effects. Here, we show that GIPL-induced neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneal cavity is mediated by at least two pathways: one, where IL-1beta acts downstream of TNF-alpha, and a second, which is IL-1beta- and TNFRI-independent. Moreover, NKT cells participate in this proinflammatory cascade, as in GIPL-treated CD1d(-/-) mice, TNF-alpha and MIP-2 levels are reduced significantly. As a consequence of this inflammatory response, spleen and lymph nodes of GIPL-treated mice have an increase in the percentage of T and B cells expressing the CD69 activation marker. Cell-transfer experiments demonstrate that T and B cell activation by GIPL is an indirect effect, which relies on the expression of TLR4 by other cell types. Moreover, although signaling through TNFRI contributes to the activation of B and gammadelta+ T cells, it is not required for increasing CD69 expression on alphabeta+ T lymphocytes. It is interesting that T cells are also functionally affected by GIPL treatment, as spleen cells from GIPL-injected mice show enhanced production of IL-4 following in vitro stimulation by anti-CD3. Together, these results contribute to the understanding of the inflammatory properties of the GIPL molecule, pointing to its potential role as a parasite-derived modulator of the immune response during T. cruzi infection.