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Metabolic alterations are established as a hallmark of cancer. Such hallmark changes in cancer metabolism are characterized by reprogramming of energy-producing pathways and increases in the generation of biosynthetic intermediates to meet the needs of rapidly proliferating tumor cells. Various metabolic phenotypes such as aerobic glycolysis, increased glutamine consumption, and lipolysis have also been associated with the process of metastasis. However, in addition to the energy and biosynthetic alterations, a number of secondary functions of enzymes and metabolites are emerging that specifically contribute to metastasis. Here, we describe atypical intracellular roles of metabolic enzymes, extracellular functions of metabolic enzymes, roles of metabolites as signaling molecules, and epigenetic regulation mediated by altered metabolism, all of which can affect metastatic progression. We highlight how some of these mechanisms are already being exploited for therapeutic purposes, and discuss how others show similar potential.
Activated T cells differentiate into functional subsets with distinct metabolic programs. Glutaminase (GLS) converts glutamine to glutamate to support the tricarboxylic acid cycle and redox and epigenetic reactions. Here, we identify a key role for GLS in T cell activation and specification. Though GLS deficiency diminished initial T cell activation and proliferation and impaired differentiation of Th17 cells, loss of GLS also increased Tbet to promote differentiation and effector function of CD4 Th1 and CD8 CTL cells. This was associated with altered chromatin accessibility and gene expression, including decreased PIK3IP1 in Th1 cells that sensitized to IL-2-mediated mTORC1 signaling. In vivo, GLS null T cells failed to drive Th17-inflammatory diseases, and Th1 cells had initially elevated function but exhausted over time. Transient GLS inhibition, however, led to increased Th1 and CTL T cell numbers. Glutamine metabolism thus has distinct roles to promote Th17 but constrain Th1 and CTL effector cell differentiation.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hyperkalemia in association with metabolic acidosis that are out of proportion to changes in glomerular filtration rate defines type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA), the most common RTA observed, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the associated metabolic acidosis are incompletely understood. We sought to determine whether hyperkalemia directly causes metabolic acidosis and, if so, the mechanisms through which this occurs. We studied a genetic model of hyperkalemia that results from early distal convoluted tubule (DCT)-specific overexpression of constitutively active Ste20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (DCT-CA-SPAK). DCT-CA-SPAK mice developed hyperkalemia in association with metabolic acidosis and suppressed ammonia excretion; however, titratable acid excretion and urine pH were unchanged compared with those in wild-type mice. Abnormal ammonia excretion in DCT-CA-SPAK mice associated with decreased proximal tubule expression of the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and overexpression of the ammonia-recycling enzyme glutamine synthetase. These mice also had decreased expression of the ammonia transporter family member Rhcg and decreased apical polarization of H-ATPase in the inner stripe of the outer medullary collecting duct. Correcting the hyperkalemia by treatment with hydrochlorothiazide corrected the metabolic acidosis, increased ammonia excretion, and normalized ammoniagenic enzyme and Rhcg expression in DCT-CA-SPAK mice. In wild-type mice, induction of hyperkalemia by administration of the epithelial sodium channel blocker benzamil caused hyperkalemia and suppressed ammonia excretion. Hyperkalemia decreases proximal tubule ammonia generation and collecting duct ammonia transport, leading to impaired ammonia excretion that causes metabolic acidosis.
Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Malignant tumors reprogram cellular metabolism to support cancer cell proliferation and survival. Although most cancers depend on a high rate of aerobic glycolysis, many cancer cells also display addiction to glutamine. Glutamine transporters and glutaminase activity are critical for glutamine metabolism in tumor cells. We found that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 activated the TEAD family transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ (YAP/TAZ), likely in a ligand-independent manner, to promote glutamine metabolism in cells and mouse models of HER2-positive breast cancer. Overexpression of EphA2 induced the nuclear accumulation of YAP and TAZ and increased the expression of YAP/TAZ target genes. Inhibition of the GTPase Rho or the kinase ROCK abolished EphA2-dependent YAP/TAZ nuclear localization. Silencing or substantially reduced the amount of intracellular glutamate through decreased expression of and , respectively, genes that encode proteins that promote glutamine uptake and metabolism. The regulatory DNA elements of both and contain TEAD binding sites and were bound by TEAD4 in an EphA2-dependent manner. In patient breast cancer tissues, expression positively correlated with that of and , as well as that of and Although high expression of predicted enhanced metastatic potential and poor patient survival, it also rendered HER2-positive breast cancer cells more sensitive to glutaminase inhibition. The findings define a previously unknown mechanism of EphA2-mediated glutaminolysis through YAP/TAZ activation in HER2-positive breast cancer and identify potential therapeutic targets in patients.
Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
OBJECTIVE - The significance of non-rheumatoid arthritis (RA) autoantibodies in patients with RA is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess associations of autoantibodies with autoimmune risk alleles and with clinical diagnoses from the electronic medical records (EMRs) among RA cases and non-RA controls.
METHODS - Data on 1,290 RA cases and 1,236 non-RA controls of European genetic ancestry were obtained from the EMRs of 2 large academic centers. The levels of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs), antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (AGTAs), and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies were measured. All subjects were genotyped for autoimmune risk alleles, and the association between number of autoimmune risk alleles present and number of types of autoantibodies present was studied. A phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) was conducted to study potential associations between autoantibodies and clinical diagnoses among RA cases and non-RA controls.
RESULTS - The mean ages were 60.7 years in RA cases and 64.6 years in non-RA controls. The proportion of female subjects was 79% in each group. The prevalence of ACPAs and ANAs was higher in RA cases compared to controls (each P < 0.0001); there were no differences in the prevalence of anti-TPO antibodies and AGTAs. Carriage of higher numbers of autoimmune risk alleles was associated with increasing numbers of autoantibody types in RA cases (P = 2.1 × 10(-5)) and non-RA controls (P = 5.0 × 10(-3)). From the PheWAS, the presence of ANAs was significantly associated with a diagnosis of Sjögren's/sicca syndrome in RA cases.
CONCLUSION - The increased frequency of autoantibodies in RA cases and non-RA controls was associated with the number of autoimmune risk alleles carried by an individual. PheWAS of EMR data, with linkage to laboratory data obtained from blood samples, provide a novel method to test for the clinical significance of biomarkers in disease.
Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Because MYC plays a causal role in many human cancers, including those with hypoxic and nutrient-poor tumor microenvironments, we have determined the metabolic responses of a MYC-inducible human Burkitt lymphoma model P493 cell line to aerobic and hypoxic conditions, and to glucose deprivation, using stable isotope-resolved metabolomics. Using [U-(13)C]-glucose as the tracer, both glucose consumption and lactate production were increased by MYC expression and hypoxia. Using [U-(13)C,(15)N]-glutamine as the tracer, glutamine import and metabolism through the TCA cycle persisted under hypoxia, and glutamine contributed significantly to citrate carbons. Under glucose deprivation, glutamine-derived fumarate, malate, and citrate were significantly increased. Their (13)C-labeling patterns demonstrate an alternative energy-generating glutaminolysis pathway involving a glucose-independent TCA cycle. The essential role of glutamine metabolism in cell survival and proliferation under hypoxia and glucose deficiency makes them susceptible to the glutaminase inhibitor BPTES and hence could be targeted for cancer therapy.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic, progressive autoimmune disease primarily affecting women. Diagnosis of SS requires an invasive salivary gland tissue biopsy and a long delay from the start of the symptoms to final diagnosis has been frequently observed. In this study,we aim to identify salivary autoantibody biomarkers for primary SS (pSS) using a protein microarray approach. Immune-response protoarrays were used to profile saliva autoantibodies from patients with pSS (n = 514), patients with systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE, n = 513), and healthy control subjects (n = 513). We identified 24 potential autoantibody biomarkers that can discriminate patients with pSS from both patients with SLE and healthy individuals. Four saliva autoantibody biomarkers, anti-transglutaminase, anti-histone, anti-SSA, and anti-SSB, were further tested in independent pSS (n = 534), SLE (n = 534), and healthy control (n = 534) subjects and all were successfully validated with ELISA. This study has demonstrated the potential of a high-throughput protein microarray approach for the discovery of autoantibody biomarkers. The identified saliva autoantibody biomarkers may lead to a clinical tool for simple, noninvasive detection of pSS at low cost.
Protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity must be tightly controlled to maintain cell homeostasis. Here, we report the identification of a previously uncharacterized mammalian protein, type 2A-interacting protein (TIP), as a novel regulatory protein of PP2A and the PP2A-like enzymes PP4 and PP6. TIP is a ubiquitously expressed protein and parallels the distribution of the PP2A catalytic subunit. Unlike its role in yeast, TIP does not interact with the mammalian homolog of type 2A-associated protein of 42 kDa (Tap42), alpha4, but instead associates with PP2A, PP4 and PP6 catalytic subunits independently of mammalian target of rapamycin kinase activity. Interestingly, the 20 kDa TIP splice variant TIP_i2, which lacks amino acids 173-272 of TIP's C-terminus, does not interact with PP2A; this finding indicates that residues 173-272 are important for the assembly of the TIP.phosphatase complex. In contrast to purified PP2A holoenzymes, TIP.PP2A complexes are devoid of phosphatase activity. Furthermore, alterations in the cellular levels of TIP influence the phosphorylation state of a specific protein substrate of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) kinases. Elevated levels of TIP result in an increase in the phosphorylation state of this protein substrate, whereas TIP-depleted cells exhibit a significant decrease in this protein's phosphorylation state, which is reversed by treatment with the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid. These results indicate TIP is a novel inhibitory regulator of PP2A and implicate a role for TIP.PP2A complexes within the ATM/ATR signaling pathway controlling DNA replication and repair.
The microtubule-associated protein tau is highly soluble under physiological conditions. However, in tauopathies, tau protein aggregates into insoluble filaments and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The mechanisms underlying the formation of tau filaments and NFTs in tauopathies remain unclear. Several lines of evidence suggest that transglutaminase may cross-link tau into stable, insoluble aggregates, leading to the formation of NFTs in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. To further determine the contribution of transglutaminase in the formation of NFTs, we compared the levels of cross-linked tau protein from P301L tau transgenic mice that develop NFTs to four-repeat wild-type (4RWT) tau transgenic and nontransgenic mice that do not develop NFT pathology. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting experiments show that transglutaminase cross-links phosphorylated tau in the hindbrain of P301L tau transgenic mice but not in mice overexpressing 4RWT tau and nontransgenic mice. Cross-linked, phosphorylated tau from P301L tau transgenic mice runs as high-molecular mass aggregates on Western blots, similar to cross-linked tau from paired helical filaments of Alzheimer's disease. We also used double-label immunofluorescence to demonstrate colocalization of PHF-1-immunoreactive tau and the transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-link in the hindbrain, spinal cord, and cortex of P301L tau transgenic mice. In the spinal cord, 87% of PHF-1-labeled cells colocalize with the transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-link. Additionally, transglutaminase enzymatic activity is significantly elevated in the spinal cord of P301L tau transgenic mice. These studies further implicate transglutaminase in the formation and/or stabilization of NFT and paired helical filaments and provide a model system to investigate the therapeutic potential of transglutaminase inhibitors in tauopathies.
PURPOSE - Animal models that mimic this hormone refractory prostate cancer may be useful for developing and testing novel treatment strategies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Using the prostate of the 12T-10 transgenic mouse an allograft model was established by transplantation into a nude mouse. To our knowledge we describe the first allograft model derived from the primary prostate tumor of a transgenic mouse.
RESULTS - The primary tumor progressed from high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasm to invasive, undifferentiated and metastatic cancer with loss of androgen receptor expression. After 10 passages in nude mice the allograft retained the same histological and immunohistochemical features as the primary tumors, including neuroendocrine differentiation. The allograft demonstrated androgen independent growth and metastases to liver and lung, paralleling tumor behavior in the original transgenic line. Cytogenetic characterization of the allograft revealed consistent chromosomal abnormalities for multiple in vivo passages.
CONCLUSIONS - This allograft model may give insight into the mechanism by which human prostate cancer progresses to an androgen independent state and provide a system for testing drugs that can inhibit this disease.