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Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) efficiency, defined as the ATP-to-O ratio, is a critical feature of mitochondrial function that has been implicated in health, aging, and disease. To date, however, the methods to measure ATP/O have primarily relied on indirect approaches or entail parallel rather than simultaneous determination of ATP synthesis and O2 consumption rates. The purpose of this project was to develop and validate an approach to determine the ATP/O ratio in permeabilized fiber bundles (PmFBs) from simultaneous measures of ATP synthesis (JATP) and O2 consumption (JO2 ) rates in real time using a custom-designed apparatus. JO2 was measured via a polarigraphic oxygen sensor and JATP via fluorescence using an enzyme-linked assay system (hexokinase II, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) linked to NADPH production. Within the dynamic linear range of the assay system, ADP-stimulated increases in steady-state JATP mirrored increases in steady-state JO2 (r(2) = 0.91, P < 0.0001, n = 57 data points). ATP/O ratio was less than one under low rates of respiration (15 μM ADP) but increased to more than two at moderate (200 μM ADP) and maximal (2,000 μM ADP) rates of respiration with an interassay coefficient of variation of 24.03, 16.72, and 11.99%, respectively. Absolute and relative (to mechanistic) ATP/O ratios were lower in PmFBs (2.09 ± 0.251, 84%) compared with isolated mitochondria (2.44 ± 0.124, 98%). ATP/O ratios in PmFBs were not affected by the activity of adenylate kinase or creatine kinase. These findings validate an enzyme-linked respiratory clamp system for measuring OXPHOS efficiency in PmFBs and provide evidence that OXPHOS efficiency increases as energy demand increases.
Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Silent cerebral infarct (SCI) is the most commonly recognized cause of neurological injury in sickle cell anaemia (SCA). We tested the hypothesis that magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)-defined vasculopathy is associated with SCI. Furthermore, we examined genetic variations in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and HBA (α-globin) genes to determine their association with intracranial vasculopathy in children with SCA. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and MRA of the cerebral vasculature were available in 516 paediatric patients with SCA, enrolled in the Silent Infarct Transfusion (SIT) Trial. All patients were screened for G6PD mutations and HBA deletions. SCI were present in 41·5% (214 of 516) of SIT Trial children. The frequency of intracranial vasculopathy with and without SCI was 15·9% and 6·3%, respectively (P < 0·001). Using a multivariable logistic regression model, only the presence of a SCI was associated with increased odds of vasculopathy (P = 0·0007, odds ratio (OR) 2·84; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1·55-5·21). Among male children with SCA, G6PD status was associated with vasculopathy (P = 0·04, OR 2·78; 95% CI = 1·04-7·42), while no significant association was noted for HBA deletions. Intracranial vasculopathy was observed in a minority of children with SCA, and when present, was associated with G6PD status in males and SCI.
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
BACKGROUND - The nature of oxidative stress and the activity of antioxidant enzyme systems are incompletely characterized in the failing human heart.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We obtained ventricular myocardium from failing, explanted human hearts in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy at the time of heart transplant to examine whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant enzyme activity or expression were altered in end-stage human heart failure. Nonfailing myocardium was obtained from organ donors who were not eligible for transplantation. Electroparamagnetic resonance (EPR) with the O(2)(-) spin trap 5-diethoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide demonstrated that formation of superoxide anion was increased more than 2-fold in the failing (P < .001 vs. nonfailing) myocardium. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) mRNA and catalase mRNA expression were increased by 52% (P=.05) and 116% (P < .05), respectively, in failing vs. nonfailing hearts. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) mRNA and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) mRNA were unchanged. The expression of MnSOD, CuZnSOD, and catalase mRNA showed moderate correlation, suggesting coordinate regulation of gene expression. Activity was no different with regard to catalase, GPx-1, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. MnSOD activity accounted for approximately 90% of total SOD activity, and was markedly decreased in failing hearts (by 61%, P < .05). MnSOD protein expression by western blot analysis was decreased in the failing group (P < .05 vs. nonfailing).
CONCLUSION - The decrease in MnSOD activity in failing myocardium, in the setting of increased mRNA expression, may reflect decreased translation or processing, or a posttranslational modification of MnSOD. The increase in MnSOD mRNA in failing hearts is consistent with the thesis that there is increased oxidative stress in failing myocardium that leads to increase transcription of antioxidant enzymes. The source of this direct measure of ROS is likely superoxide. These observations have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of heart failure.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell injury contributes to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease and myocardial dysfunction. Protection against ROS requires maintenance of endogenous thiol pools, most importantly, reduced glutathione (GSH), by NADPH. In cardiomyocytes, GSH resides in two separate cellular compartments: the mitochondria and cytosol. Although mitochondrial GSH is maintained largely by transhydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase, the mechanisms responsible for sustaining cytosolic GSH remain unclear. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) functions as the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, responsible for the generation of NADPH in a reaction coupled to the de novo production of cellular ribose. We hypothesized that G6PD is required to maintain cytosolic GSH levels and protect against ROS injury in cardiomyocytes. We found that in adult cardiomyocytes, G6PD activity is rapidly increased in response to cellular oxidative stress, with translocation of G6PD to the cell membrane. Furthermore, inhibition of G6PD depletes cytosolic GSH levels and subsequently results in cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction through dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. Cardiomyocyte dysfunction was reversed through treatment with either a thiol-repleting agent (L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) or antioxidant treatment (Eukarion-134), but not with exogenous ribose. Finally, in a murine model of G6PD deficiency, we demonstrate the development of in vivo adverse structural remodeling and impaired contractile function over time. We, therefore, conclude that G6PD is a critical cytosolic antioxidant enzyme, essential for maintenance of cytosolic redox status in adult cardiomyocytes. Deficiency of G6PD may contribute to cardiac dysfunction through increased susceptibility to free radical injury and impairment of intracellular calcium transport. The full text of this article is available online at http://www.circresaha.org.
Recent studies on the in vivo roles of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) family indicate that SREBP-2 is more specific to cholesterogenic gene expression whereas SREBP-1 targets lipogenic genes. To define the molecular mechanism involved in this differential regulation, luciferase-reporter gene assays were performed in HepG2 cells to compare the transactivities of nuclear SREBP-1a, -1c, and -2 on a battery of SREBP-target promoters containing sterol regulatory element (SRE), SRE-like, or E-box sequences. The results show first that cholesterogenic genes containing classic SREs in their promoters are strongly and efficiently activated by both SREBP-1a and SREBP-2, but not by SREBP-1c. Second, an E-box containing reporter gene is much less efficiently activated by SREBP-1a and -1c, and SREBP-2 was inactive in spite of its ability to bind to the E-box. Third, promoters of lipogenic enzymes containing variations of SRE (SRE-like sequences) are strongly activated by SREBP-1a, and only modestly and equally by both SREBP-1c and -2. Finally, substitution of the unique tyrosine residue within the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) portion of nuclear SREBPs with arginine, the conserved residue found in all other bHLH proteins, abolishes the transactivity of all SREBPs for SRE, and conversely results in markedly increased activity of SREBP-1 but not activity of SREBP-2 for E-boxes. These data demonstrate the different specificity and affinity of nuclear SREBP-1 and -2 for different target DNAs, explaining a part of the mechanism behind the differential in vivo regulation of cholesterogenic and lipogenic enzymes by SREBP-1 and -2, respectively.
Trichloroethylene (TCE) shows several types of toxicities, some of which may be the result of bioactivation. Oxidation by P450s yields the electrophile TCE oxide. We previously analyzed N(6)-acyllysine adducts formed from the reaction of TCE oxide with proteins [Cai, H., and Guengerich, F. P. (2000) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13, 327-335]; however, we had been unable to measure ester adducts under the prolonged conditions of proteolysis and derivatization. Protein amino acid adducts were directly observed by mass spectrometry during the reaction of TCE oxide with the model polypeptides insulin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, residues 1-24). The majority (80%) of the protein adducts were unstable under physiological conditions and had a collective t(1/2) of approximately 1 h, suggesting that they are ester type adducts formed from reactions of Cys, Ser, Tyr, or Thr residues with intermediates formed in TCE oxide hydrolysis. Synthetic O-acetyl-L-Ser and O-acetyl-L-Tyr had half-lives of 1 h and 10 min at pH 8.0, respectively, similar to the stabilities of the protein adducts. The effects of TCE oxide adduct formation on catalytic activities were examined with five model enzymes. No recovery of catalytic activity was observed during the reaction of TCE oxide with two model enzymes for which the literature suggests roles of a Lys, rabbit muscle aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. However, in the cases of papain (essential Cys residue in the active site), alpha-chymotrypsin (critical Ser residue), and D-amino acid oxidase (essential Cys and Tyr residues), time-dependent recoveries of enzyme activity were observed following reaction with TCE oxide or either of two model nucleophiles (dichloroacetyl chloride and acetic formic anhydride), paralleling the kinetics of removal of adducts from insulin and ACTH. Formation of adducts ( approximately 2%) was detected in the direct reaction of TCE oxide with 2'-deoxyguanosine, but not with the other three nucleosides found in DNA. During the reaction of TCE oxide with a synthetic 8-mer oligonucleotide, formation of adducts was observed by mass spectrometry. However, the adducts had a t(1/2) of 30 min at pH 8.5. These results indicate the transient nature of the adducts formed from the reaction of TCE oxide with macromolecules and their biological effects.
The study was designed to test the hypothesis whether cervical dysplasias of the more severe grades are associated with elevated erythrocyte glutathione levels. Subjects were women who obtained Pap tests and were subsequently found (1) not to have any cervical lesions or (2) to have colposcopically visualized, biopsy-confirmed cervical abnormalities histopathologically diagnosed as mild, moderate, severe dysplasias, or carcinoma in situ (CIS). The erythrocyte levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) were analyzed from coded peripheral venous blood samples. GSH and GR concentrations increased with increasing severity of dysplasia. Exploratory data analysis and multiple pairwise comparisons suggested comparable levels of the glutathione-related variables between these histopathological pairs: (1) mild and moderate dysplasias or (2) severe dysplasia and CIS. We suggest that the changes in erythrocyte glutathione-related indices in conjunction with histopathological diagnosis may have the potential to distinguish between low- and high-grade cervical dysplastic lesions.
The activities of six enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism were estimated in tissue samples from 99 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder undergoing transurethral resection. The results were analysed according to the stage of the disease and the malignancy grade of the carcinoma. There were statistically significant differences in the activities of three enzymes between various stages and grades. The activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK), alpha-glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH), and phosphohexose isomerase (PHI) showed significant decreases with increased stage and grade. Of the total of 64 patients with superficial disease at presentation, five developed progressive disease during the course of this investigation. The activities of the three enzymes in these patients were compared to the median values for the group of patients with superficial disease. The activity of PFK was observed to be below the median value in all the five patients whereas the activities of alpha-GPDH and PHI showed similar patterns in four of the five patients. These preliminary data indicate that, in association with established clinical parameters, the measurement of the activity of these three enzymes may prove useful in selecting patients with an increased potential for developing progressive disease.