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BACKGROUND & AIMS - The presence of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be used to calculate an individual's risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), called a genetic risk score (GRS). We investigated whether GRS can identify individuals with clinically relevant neoplasms in a screening colonoscopy population.
METHODS - We derived a GRS based on 48 SNPs associated with CRC, identified in a comprehensive literature search. We obtained genetic data from 1043 participants (50-79 years old) in a screening colonoscopy study in Germany, recruited from 2005 through 2013 (294 with advanced neoplasms, 249 with non-advanced adenoma (NAAs), and 500 without neoplasms). Each participant was assigned a GRS by aggregating their risk alleles (0, 1, or 2). Risk of advanced neoplasms and NAA according to GRS was calculated by multiple logistic regression. Risk advancement periods were calculated. We replicated our findings using data from a subset of the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study.
RESULTS - An increased GRS was associated with higher prevalence of advanced neoplasms, but not NAAs. Participants in the middle and upper tertiles of GRS had a 2.2-fold and 2.7-fold increase in risk, respectively, of advanced neoplasms compared to those in the lower tertile. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-1.57) for NAA in the middle tertile and 1.05 (95% CI, 0.70-1.55) for NAA in the upper tertile. The ORs were largest for proximal advanced neoplasms for participants in the middle tertile (OR, 3.55; 95% CI 1.85-6.82) and the upper tertile (OR, 3.61; 95% CI 1.84-7.10). The risk advancement period for medium vs low GRS was 13.4 years (95% CI 4.8-22.0) and for high vs low GRS was 17.5 years (95% CI, 7.8-27.3).
CONCLUSIONS - In a genetic analysis of participants in a CRC screening study in Germany, an increased GRS (based on CRC-associated SNPs) was associated with increased prevalence of advanced neoplasms. These findings might be used in defining risk-adapted screening ages.
Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at chromosomes 4q25 (rs2200733, rs10033464 near PITX2), 1q21 (rs13376333 in KCNN3), and 16q22 (rs7193343 in ZFHX3) have consistently been associated with the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Single-center studies have shown that 4q25 risk alleles predict recurrence of AF after catheter ablation of AF. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that these 4 AF susceptibility SNPs modulate response to AF ablation.
METHODS AND RESULTS - Patients underwent de novo AF ablation between 2008 and 2012 at Vanderbilt University, the Heart Center Leipzig, and Massachusetts General Hospital. The primary outcome was 12-month recurrence, defined as an episode of AF, atrial flutter, or atrial tachycardia lasting >30 seconds after a 3-month blanking period. Multivariable analysis of the individual cohorts using a Cox proportional hazards model was performed. Summary statistics from the 3 centers were analyzed using fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 991 patients were included (Vanderbilt University, 245; Heart Center Leipzig, 659; and Massachusetts General Hospital, 87). The overall single procedure 12-month recurrence rate was 42%. The overall risk allele frequency for these SNPs ranged from 12% to 35%. Using a dominant genetic model, the 4q25 SNP, rs2200733, predicted a 1.4-fold increased risk of recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio,1.3 [95% confidence intervals, 1.1-1.6]; P=0.011). The remaining SNPs, rs10033464 (4q25), rs13376333 (1q21), and rs7193343 (16q22) were not significantly associated with recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS - Among the 3 genetic loci most strongly associated with AF, the chromosome 4q25 SNP rs2200733 is significantly associated with recurrence of atrial arrhythmias after catheter ablation for AF.
© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
OBJECTIVE - To correlate the amount and types of pain medications prescribed to CRPS patients, using the Medication Quantification Scale, and patients' subjective pain levels.
DESIGN - An international, multisite, retrospective review.
SETTING - University medical centers in the United States, Israel, Germany, and the Netherlands.
SUBJECTS/METHODS - A total of 89 subjects were enrolled from four different countries: 27 from the United States, 20 Germany, 18 Netherlands, and 24 Israel. The main outcome measures used were the Medication Quantification Scale III and numerical analog pain scale.
RESULTS - There was no statistically significant correlation noted between the medication quantification scale and the visual analog scale for any site except for a moderate positive correlation at German sites. The medication quantification scale mean differences between the United States and Germany, the Netherlands, and Israel were 9.793 (P < 0.002), 10.389 (P < 0.001), and 4.984 (P = 0.303), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS - There appears to be only a weak correlation between amount of pain medication prescribed and patients' reported subjective pain intensity within this limited patient population. The Medication Quantification Scale is a viable tool for the analysis of pharmaceutical treatment of CRPS patients and would be useful in further prospective studies of pain medication prescription practices in the CRPS population worldwide.
Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
BACKGROUND - Apoptosis has been speculated to be involved in schizophrenia. In a previously study, we reported the association of the MEGF10 gene with the disease. In this study, we followed the apoptotic engulfment pathway involving the MEGF10, GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes and tested their association with the disease.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS - Ten, eleven and five SNPs were genotyped in the GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes respectively for the ISHDSF and ICCSS samples. In all 3 genes, we observed nominally significant associations. Rs2004888 at GULP1 was significant in both ISHDSF and ICCSS samples (p = 0.0083 and 0.0437 respectively). We sought replication in independent samples for this marker and found highly significant association (p = 0.0003) in 3 Caucasian replication samples. But it was not significant in the 2 Chinese replication samples. In addition, we found a significant 2-marker (rs2242436 * rs3858075) interaction between the ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes in the ISHDSF sample (p = 0.0022) and a 3-marker interaction (rs246896 * rs4522565 * rs3858075) amongst the MEGF10, GULP1 and ABCA1 genes in the ICCSS sample (p = 0.0120). Rs3858075 in the ABCA1 gene was involved in both 2- and 3-marker interactions in the two samples.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE - From these data, we concluded that the GULP1 gene and the apoptotic engulfment pathway are involved in schizophrenia in subjects of European ancestry and multiple genes in the pathway may interactively increase the risks to the disease.
Basic and clinical studies have suggested that inflammation predisposes to atrial fibrillation (AF). We assessed the association of 12 circulating inflammatory biomarkers (i.e., C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 [mass and activity], monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, myeloperoxidase, CD40 ligand, osteoprotegerin, P-selectin, and tumor necrosis factor receptor II) with incident AF in 2863 Framingham Offspring Study participants (mean age 60.7 years, SD = 9.4, 55% women). During follow-up (median 6 years), 148 participants (43% women) developed incident AF. In the multivariable proportional hazards models, the inflammatory biomarker panel was associated with incident AF (p = 0.03). With stepwise selection (p <0.01 for entry and retention), log-transformed osteoprotegerin was associated with incident AF (hazard ratio per SD 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.56, p = 0.006). Adjusting for interim myocardial infarction or heart failure attenuated the association between osteoprotegerin and incident AF (hazard ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.43, p = 0.09). In conclusion, circulating osteoprotegerin concentration was significantly associated with incident AF in our community-based sample, possibly mediated by interim cardiovascular events.
INTRODUCTION - The presentation and outcome of patients with acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) of the pancreas compared to the more common ductal cell adenocarcinoma (DCA) may be distinct. This study combines the experience with ACC from multiple academic institutions to better understand its natural history and outcomes.
METHODS - This study is a multi-institutional retrospective review of patients with ACC.
RESULTS - Between 1988 and 2008, 17 patients were identified with pathologically confirmed ACC. Median age at presentation was 59 years. Common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (60%), back pain (50%), and weight loss (45%). Fifteen patients underwent 16 operations: pancreaticoduodenectomy (nine), distal pancreatectomy (four), and exploratory laparotomy (three). Mean tumor size was 5.3 cm. American Joint Commission on Cancer tumor stages were stage I (two), stage II (eight), stage III (four), and stage IV (three). Overall, 1- and 5-year survival rates were 88% and 50%, respectively. In resected cases (13), 1- and 5-year survival rates were 92% and 53%, respectively. Median survival in resected cases was 61 months. This is in contrast to 1,608 patients with ductal cell adenocarcinoma who underwent resection identified from recent literature reports where the average median survival was only 24 months. There was no discernable difference in the outcomes of patients with ACC between United States and Germany patients.
CONCLUSION - Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is rare and appears to have a presentation and outcome distinct from the more common pancreatic DCA. Based upon these data, the outcome of patients with ACC is superior to that of DCA.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS - The aim was to identify type 2 diabetes susceptibility regions in 250 German families.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS - We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan using 439 short tandem repeat polymorphisms at an average resolution of 7.76 +/- 3.80 cM (Marshfield). In an affected-only-design (affected sib pairs), we performed nonparametric multipoint linkage analyses. Conditional analyses were applied where linkage signals were found in the baseline analyses.
RESULTS - We identified two loci with nominal evidence for linkage on chromosomes 1p36.13 and 16p12.2 (D1S3669, 37.05 cM, logarithmic odds ratio [LOD] = 1.49, p = 0.004; D16S403, 43.89 cM, LOD = 1.85, p = 0.002). D16S403 crossed the empirically obtained threshold of genome-wide suggestive significance of LOD = 1.51. Positive findings in those regions have been reported by the following other linkage studies on: (1) symptomatic/clinical gall bladder disease with type 2 diabetes in Mexican Americans from the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study (LOD = 3.7, D1S1597-D1S407, 29.93-33.75 cM); (2) body size-adiposity in another Mexican American population (D1S1597, LOD = 2.53, 29.93 cM); (3) lipid abnormalities (LOD = 3.1, D1S2826-D1S513, 41.92-60.01 cM); and (4) hypertension in Australian sib pairs (LOD = 3.1, D1S2834-D1S2728, 31.02-33.75 cM); as well as (5) a meta-analysis of four European type 2 diabetes-related genome scans (LOD = 1.09, D16S412, 42.81 cM). In linkage analyses conditional on evidence for linkage at D16S403 we identified a LOD increase (Delta LOD) of 1.55 (p = 0.0075) at D17S2180. Similar conditioning on D17S2180 revealed evidence for interaction with D1S3669 (Delta LOD = 1.67, p = 0.0055), D16S403 (Delta LOD = 1.48, p = 0.0091) and another locus on chromosome 1 where several genome scans have reported evidence for linkage ( approximately 200 cM, Delta LOD = 1.60, p = 0.0066).
CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION - Our results and the findings of other studies are consistent with the presence of a locus for a complex metabolic syndrome on chromosome 1p36.13.
BACKGROUND - Genome-wide linkage scans to identify asthma susceptibility loci have revealed many linked regions, including a broad region on chromosome 5p.
OBJECTIVE - To identify a 5p-linked asthma or bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) locus.
METHODS - We performed fine mapping and positional candidate studies of this region in the Hutterites and an outbred case-control sample from Germany by genotyping 89 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 22 genes. SNP and haplotype analyses were performed.
RESULTS - Three genes in a distal region (zinc finger RNA binding protein [ZFR], natriuretic peptide receptor C, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin type 1 motif [ADAMTS12]) were associated with BHR, whereas 4 genes in a proximal region (prolactin receptor, IL-7 receptor [IL7R], leukemia inhibitory factor receptor [LIFR], and prostaglandin E4 receptor [PTGER4]) were associated with asthma symptoms in the Hutterites. Furthermore, nearly the entire original linkage signal in the Hutterites was generated by individuals who had the risk-associated alleles in ZFR3, natriuretic peptide receptor C, ADAMTS12, LIFR, and PTGER4. Variation in ADAMTS12, IL7R, and PTGER4 were also associated with asthma in the outbred Germans, and the frequencies of long-range haplotypes composed of SNPs at ZFR, ADAMTS12, IL7R, LIFR, and PTGER4 were significantly different between both the German and Hutterite cases and controls. There is little linkage disequilbrium between alleles in these 2 regions in either population.
CONCLUSION - These results suggest that a broad region on 5p, separated by >9 Mb, harbors at least 2 and possibly 5 asthma or BHR susceptibility loci. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that regions providing evidence for linkage in multiple populations may, in fact, house more than 1 susceptibility locus, as appears to be the case for the linked region on 5p.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS - Identifying asthma or BHR genes could lead to novel therapeutic approaches.
A genome-wide correlation analysis and cluster analysis were utilized to determine chromosomal regions that had similar nonparametric linkage scores across families in order to locate interacting susceptibility loci for asthma. Conditional analysis was performed to detect any increase in lod score over baseline. Eight of the strongest 5% of the correlations in the German and CSGA asthma data sets occurred in both data sets. The strongest positive correlations found in both data sets were between the 200 cM region on chromosome 2 with chromosome 12 at 90-120 cM (r = 0.26) and also with chromosome 6 at 40-70 cM (r = 0.24). While the cluster analysis did not find any regions that clustered across data sets, this method did detect clustering in regions that have been previously linked to asthma.
Differences in the costs of health care systems among industrialized countries has been the focus of several studies. Labor costs, specifically the amount of resources used for administration, are considered to contribute to differences in overall health care costs. To determine differences in the use of labor resources, especially administrative and managerial, among American, Austrian and German hospitals, we use a convenience sample of one Austrian, one German and two United States (US) tertiary care centers. In our analysis we used payroll data of the four hospitals. First, we categorized job titles and created job categories. Subsequently, we calculated full time equivalents (FTEs) per job category and compared them across countries. Adjustments were made for differences in health systems. The main outcome measures were FTEs per patient day and per discharge in each job category. In the US hospitals > 19% of FTEs were in administrative categories as compared with < 8% in the European hospitals. For administrative managers, US hospitals used > 11 times the labor per patient day of the European institutions. Among administrative areas, the largest absolute FTE difference was in financial operations. US hospitals used > 5 FTEs of personnel per 10,000 patient days versus < 1.0 FTE in the European hospitals. Given the kinds of administrative work done in US hospitals compared to Austria and Germany, differences in the organization and financing of these countries' health care systems may account for an important part of the higher number of US personnel.