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Inferred divergent gene regulation in archaic hominins reveals potential phenotypic differences.
Colbran LL, Gamazon ER, Zhou D, Evans P, Cox NJ, Capra JA
(2019) Nat Ecol Evol 3: 1598-1606
MeSH Terms: Animals, Female, Genome, Human, Haplotypes, Hominidae, Humans, Neanderthals, Phenotype
Show Abstract · Added October 12, 2019
Sequencing DNA derived from archaic bones has enabled genetic comparison of Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans (AMHs), and revealed that they interbred. However, interpreting what genetic differences imply about their phenotypic differences remains challenging. Here, we introduce an approach for identifying divergent gene regulation between archaic hominins, such as Neanderthals, and AMH sequences, and find 766 genes that are likely to have been divergently regulated (DR) by Neanderthal haplotypes that do not remain in AMHs. DR genes include many involved in phenotypes known to differ between Neanderthals and AMHs, such as the structure of the rib cage and supraorbital ridge development. They are also enriched for genes associated with spontaneous abortion, polycystic ovary syndrome, myocardial infarction and melanoma. Phenotypes associated with modern human variation in these genes' regulation in ~23,000 biobank patients further support their involvement in immune and cardiovascular phenotypes. Comparing DR genes between two Neanderthals and a Denisovan revealed divergence in the immune system and in genes associated with skeletal and dental morphology that are consistent with the archaeological record. These results establish differences in gene regulatory architecture between AMHs and archaic hominins, and provide an avenue for exploring phenotypic differences between archaic groups from genomic information alone.
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2 Members
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8 MeSH Terms
Building evidence and measuring clinical outcomes for genomic medicine.
Peterson JF, Roden DM, Orlando LA, Ramirez AH, Mensah GA, Williams MS
(2019) Lancet 394: 604-610
MeSH Terms: Diagnostic Tests, Routine, Genome, Human, Genomics, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Humans, Patient Outcome Assessment, Precision Medicine, Standard of Care
Show Abstract · Added March 24, 2020
Human genomic sequencing has potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value across a wide breadth of clinical disciplines. One barrier to widespread adoption is the paucity of evidence for improved outcomes in patients who do not already have an indication for more focused testing. In this Series paper, we review clinical outcome studies in genomic medicine and discuss the important features and key challenges to building evidence for next generation sequencing in the context of routine patient care.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
Empowering genomic medicine by establishing critical sequencing result data flows: the eMERGE example.
Aronson S, Babb L, Ames D, Gibbs RA, Venner E, Connelly JJ, Marsolo K, Weng C, Williams MS, Hartzler AL, Liang WH, Ralston JD, Devine EB, Murphy S, Chute CG, Caraballo PJ, Kullo IJ, Freimuth RR, Rasmussen LV, Wehbe FH, Peterson JF, Robinson JR, Wiley K, Overby Taylor C, eMERGE Network EHRI Working Group
(2018) J Am Med Inform Assoc 25: 1375-1381
MeSH Terms: Computer Communication Networks, Electronic Health Records, Genetic Testing, Genome, Human, Genomics, Humans, Information Dissemination, Sequence Analysis, DNA, United States
Show Abstract · Added June 27, 2018
The eMERGE Network is establishing methods for electronic transmittal of patient genetic test results from laboratories to healthcare providers across organizational boundaries. We surveyed the capabilities and needs of different network participants, established a common transfer format, and implemented transfer mechanisms based on this format. The interfaces we created are examples of the connectivity that must be instantiated before electronic genetic and genomic clinical decision support can be effectively built at the point of care. This work serves as a case example for both standards bodies and other organizations working to build the infrastructure required to provide better electronic clinical decision support for clinicians.
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9 MeSH Terms
The Cancer Genome Atlas Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Ricketts CJ, De Cubas AA, Fan H, Smith CC, Lang M, Reznik E, Bowlby R, Gibb EA, Akbani R, Beroukhim R, Bottaro DP, Choueiri TK, Gibbs RA, Godwin AK, Haake S, Hakimi AA, Henske EP, Hsieh JJ, Ho TH, Kanchi RS, Krishnan B, Kwiatkowski DJ, Lui W, Merino MJ, Mills GB, Myers J, Nickerson ML, Reuter VE, Schmidt LS, Shelley CS, Shen H, Shuch B, Signoretti S, Srinivasan R, Tamboli P, Thomas G, Vincent BG, Vocke CD, Wheeler DA, Yang L, Kim WY, Robertson AG, Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Spellman PT, Rathmell WK, Linehan WM
(2018) Cell Rep 23: 313-326.e5
MeSH Terms: Biomarkers, Tumor, Carcinoma, Renal Cell, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16, Genome, Human, Humans, Kidney Neoplasms, Metabolic Networks and Pathways, Nuclear Proteins, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Phenotype, Survival Analysis, Transcription Factors, Tumor Suppressor Proteins, Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
Show Abstract · Added October 30, 2019
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not a single disease, but several histologically defined cancers with different genetic drivers, clinical courses, and therapeutic responses. The current study evaluated 843 RCC from the three major histologic subtypes, including 488 clear cell RCC, 274 papillary RCC, and 81 chromophobe RCC. Comprehensive genomic and phenotypic analysis of the RCC subtypes reveals distinctive features of each subtype that provide the foundation for the development of subtype-specific therapeutic and management strategies for patients affected with these cancers. Somatic alteration of BAP1, PBRM1, and PTEN and altered metabolic pathways correlated with subtype-specific decreased survival, while CDKN2A alteration, increased DNA hypermethylation, and increases in the immune-related Th2 gene expression signature correlated with decreased survival within all major histologic subtypes. CIMP-RCC demonstrated an increased immune signature, and a uniform and distinct metabolic expression pattern identified a subset of metabolically divergent (MD) ChRCC that associated with extremely poor survival.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
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MeSH Terms
Genomic and Molecular Landscape of DNA Damage Repair Deficiency across The Cancer Genome Atlas.
Knijnenburg TA, Wang L, Zimmermann MT, Chambwe N, Gao GF, Cherniack AD, Fan H, Shen H, Way GP, Greene CS, Liu Y, Akbani R, Feng B, Donehower LA, Miller C, Shen Y, Karimi M, Chen H, Kim P, Jia P, Shinbrot E, Zhang S, Liu J, Hu H, Bailey MH, Yau C, Wolf D, Zhao Z, Weinstein JN, Li L, Ding L, Mills GB, Laird PW, Wheeler DA, Shmulevich I, Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Monnat RJ, Xiao Y, Wang C
(2018) Cell Rep 23: 239-254.e6
MeSH Terms: Cell Line, Tumor, DNA Damage, Gene Silencing, Genome, Human, Humans, Loss of Heterozygosity, Machine Learning, Mutation, Neoplasms, Recombinational DNA Repair, Tumor Suppressor Proteins
Show Abstract · Added October 30, 2019
DNA damage repair (DDR) pathways modulate cancer risk, progression, and therapeutic response. We systematically analyzed somatic alterations to provide a comprehensive view of DDR deficiency across 33 cancer types. Mutations with accompanying loss of heterozygosity were observed in over 1/3 of DDR genes, including TP53 and BRCA1/2. Other prevalent alterations included epigenetic silencing of the direct repair genes EXO5, MGMT, and ALKBH3 in ∼20% of samples. Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) was present at varying frequency in many cancer types, most notably ovarian cancer. However, in contrast to ovarian cancer, HRD was associated with worse outcomes in several other cancers. Protein structure-based analyses allowed us to predict functional consequences of rare, recurrent DDR mutations. A new machine-learning-based classifier developed from gene expression data allowed us to identify alterations that phenocopy deleterious TP53 mutations. These frequent DDR gene alterations in many human cancers have functional consequences that may determine cancer progression and guide therapy.
Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Integrated Genomic Analysis of the Ubiquitin Pathway across Cancer Types.
Ge Z, Leighton JS, Wang Y, Peng X, Chen Z, Chen H, Sun Y, Yao F, Li J, Zhang H, Liu J, Shriver CD, Hu H, Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Piwnica-Worms H, Ma L, Liang H
(2018) Cell Rep 23: 213-226.e3
MeSH Terms: Cell Line, Tumor, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Genome, Human, Genomics, Humans, Metabolic Networks and Pathways, Neoplasms, Oncogene Proteins, Ubiquitination
Show Abstract · Added October 30, 2019
Protein ubiquitination is a dynamic and reversible process of adding single ubiquitin molecules or various ubiquitin chains to target proteins. Here, using multidimensional omic data of 9,125 tumor samples across 33 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we perform comprehensive molecular characterization of 929 ubiquitin-related genes and 95 deubiquitinase genes. Among them, we systematically identify top somatic driver candidates, including mutated FBXW7 with cancer-type-specific patterns and amplified MDM2 showing a mutually exclusive pattern with BRAF mutations. Ubiquitin pathway genes tend to be upregulated in cancer mediated by diverse mechanisms. By integrating pan-cancer multiomic data, we identify a group of tumor samples that exhibit worse prognosis. These samples are consistently associated with the upregulation of cell-cycle and DNA repair pathways, characterized by mutated TP53, MYC/TERT amplification, and APC/PTEN deletion. Our analysis highlights the importance of the ubiquitin pathway in cancer development and lays a foundation for developing relevant therapeutic strategies.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Machine Learning Detects Pan-cancer Ras Pathway Activation in The Cancer Genome Atlas.
Way GP, Sanchez-Vega F, La K, Armenia J, Chatila WK, Luna A, Sander C, Cherniack AD, Mina M, Ciriello G, Schultz N, Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Sanchez Y, Greene CS
(2018) Cell Rep 23: 172-180.e3
MeSH Terms: Cell Line, Tumor, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Genome, Human, Humans, Machine Learning, Neoplasms, Signal Transduction, ras Proteins
Show Abstract · Added October 30, 2019
Precision oncology uses genomic evidence to match patients with treatment but often fails to identify all patients who may respond. The transcriptome of these "hidden responders" may reveal responsive molecular states. We describe and evaluate a machine-learning approach to classify aberrant pathway activity in tumors, which may aid in hidden responder identification. The algorithm integrates RNA-seq, copy number, and mutations from 33 different cancer types across The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) PanCanAtlas project to predict aberrant molecular states in tumors. Applied to the Ras pathway, the method detects Ras activation across cancer types and identifies phenocopying variants. The model, trained on human tumors, can predict response to MEK inhibitors in wild-type Ras cell lines. We also present data that suggest that multiple hits in the Ras pathway confer increased Ras activity. The transcriptome is underused in precision oncology and, combined with machine learning, can aid in the identification of hidden responders.
Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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An integrative functional genomics framework for effective identification of novel regulatory variants in genome-phenome studies.
Zhao J, Cheng F, Jia P, Cox N, Denny JC, Zhao Z
(2018) Genome Med 10: 7
MeSH Terms: Gene Regulatory Networks, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome, Human, Genome-Wide Association Study, Genomics, Humans, Molecular Sequence Annotation, Organ Specificity, Phenotype, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Transcription Factors
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
BACKGROUND - Genome-phenome studies have identified thousands of variants that are statistically associated with disease or traits; however, their functional roles are largely unclear. A comprehensive investigation of regulatory mechanisms and the gene regulatory networks between phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) and genome-wide association study (GWAS) is needed to identify novel regulatory variants contributing to risk for human diseases.
METHODS - In this study, we developed an integrative functional genomics framework that maps 215,107 significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) traits generated from the PheWAS Catalog and 28,870 genome-wide significant SNP traits collected from the GWAS Catalog into a global human genome regulatory map via incorporating various functional annotation data, including transcription factor (TF)-based motifs, promoters, enhancers, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) generated from four major functional genomics databases: FANTOM5, ENCODE, NIH Roadmap, and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx). In addition, we performed a tissue-specific regulatory circuit analysis through the integration of the identified regulatory variants and tissue-specific gene expression profiles in 7051 samples across 32 tissues from GTEx.
RESULTS - We found that the disease-associated loci in both the PheWAS and GWAS Catalogs were significantly enriched with functional SNPs. The integration of functional annotations significantly improved the power of detecting novel associations in PheWAS, through which we found a number of functional associations with strong regulatory evidence in the PheWAS Catalog. Finally, we constructed tissue-specific regulatory circuits for several complex traits: mental diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, via exploring tissue-specific TF-promoter/enhancer-target gene interaction networks. We uncovered several promising tissue-specific regulatory TFs or genes for Alzheimer's disease (e.g. ZIC1 and STX1B) and asthma (e.g. CSF3 and IL1RL1).
CONCLUSIONS - This study offers powerful tools for exploring the functional consequences of variants generated from genome-phenome association studies in terms of their mechanisms on affecting multiple complex diseases and traits.
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12 MeSH Terms
Use of deep whole-genome sequencing data to identify structure risk variants in breast cancer susceptibility genes.
Guo X, Shi J, Cai Q, Shu XO, He J, Wen W, Allen J, Pharoah P, Dunning A, Hunter DJ, Kraft P, Easton DF, Zheng W, Long J
(2018) Hum Mol Genet 27: 853-859
MeSH Terms: BRCA1 Protein, Breast Neoplasms, Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group N Protein, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome, Human, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Humans, Membrane Proteins, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Rad51 Recombinase, Sequence Deletion, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
Functional disruptions of susceptibility genes by large genomic structure variant (SV) deletions in germlines are known to be associated with cancer risk. However, few studies have been conducted to systematically search for SV deletions in breast cancer susceptibility genes. We analysed deep (> 30x) whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data generated in blood samples from 128 breast cancer patients of Asian and European descent with either a strong family history of breast cancer or early cancer onset disease. To identify SV deletions in known or suspected breast cancer susceptibility genes, we used multiple SV calling tools including Genome STRiP, Delly, Manta, BreakDancer and Pindel. SV deletions were detected by at least three of these bioinformatics tools in five genes. Specifically, we identified heterozygous deletions covering a fraction of the coding regions of BRCA1 (with approximately 80kb in two patients), and TP53 genes (with ∼1.6 kb in two patients), and of intronic regions (∼1 kb) of the PALB2 (one patient), PTEN (three patients) and RAD51C genes (one patient). We confirmed the presence of these deletions using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Our study identified novel SV deletions in breast cancer susceptibility genes and the identification of such SV deletions may improve clinical testing.
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3 Members
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13 MeSH Terms
Programmable base editing of A•T to G•C in genomic DNA without DNA cleavage.
Gaudelli NM, Komor AC, Rees HA, Packer MS, Badran AH, Bryson DI, Liu DR
(2017) Nature 551: 464-471
MeSH Terms: Adenosine Deaminase, Base Pairing, CRISPR-Associated Proteins, Cell Line, Tumor, DNA, DNA Cleavage, Gene Editing, Genome, Human, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Models, Molecular, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Show Abstract · Added March 13, 2018
The spontaneous deamination of cytosine is a major source of transitions from C•G to T•A base pairs, which account for half of known pathogenic point mutations in humans. The ability to efficiently convert targeted A•T base pairs to G•C could therefore advance the study and treatment of genetic diseases. The deamination of adenine yields inosine, which is treated as guanine by polymerases, but no enzymes are known to deaminate adenine in DNA. Here we describe adenine base editors (ABEs) that mediate the conversion of A•T to G•C in genomic DNA. We evolved a transfer RNA adenosine deaminase to operate on DNA when fused to a catalytically impaired CRISPR-Cas9 mutant. Extensive directed evolution and protein engineering resulted in seventh-generation ABEs that convert targeted A•T base pairs efficiently to G•C (approximately 50% efficiency in human cells) with high product purity (typically at least 99.9%) and low rates of indels (typically no more than 0.1%). ABEs introduce point mutations more efficiently and cleanly, and with less off-target genome modification, than a current Cas9 nuclease-based method, and can install disease-correcting or disease-suppressing mutations in human cells. Together with previous base editors, ABEs enable the direct, programmable introduction of all four transition mutations without double-stranded DNA cleavage.
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12 MeSH Terms