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PURPOSE - To assess whether BIO 300, a synthetic genistein nanosuspension, improves the therapeutic index in prostate cancer treatment by preventing radiation-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) without reducing tumor radiosensitivity.
METHODS AND MATERIALS - Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 25 Gy of 220-kV prostate-confined x-rays. Animals were randomized to receive sham radiation therapy (RT), RT alone, RT with daily BIO 300 at 2 experimental dosing regimens, or RT with daily genistein. Erectile response was evaluated over time. Penile shaft tissue was harvested for histologic analyses. Murine xenograft studies using prostate cancer cell lines determined the effects of BIO 300 dosing on RT efficacy.
RESULTS - Prostate-confined RT significantly decreased apomorphine-induced erectile response (P < .05 vs sham RT). Erection frequency in animals receiving prophylactic treatment with BIO 300 starting 3 days before RT was similar to sham controls after RT. Treatment with synthetic genistein did not mitigate loss in erectile frequency. At week 14, post-RT treatment with BIO 300 resulted in significantly higher quality of erectile function compared with both the RT arm and the RT arm receiving genistein starting 3 days before irradiation (P < .05). In hormone-sensitive and insensitive prostate tumor-bearing mice, BIO 300 administration did not negatively affect radiation-induced tumor growth delay.
CONCLUSIONS - BIO 300 prevents radiation-induced ED, measured by erection frequency, erectile function, and erection quality, when administered 3 days before RT and continued daily for up to 14 weeks. Data also suggest that BIO 300 administered starting 2 hours after RT mitigates radiation-induced ED. Data provide strong nonclinical evidence to support clinical translation of BIO 300 for mitigation of ED while maintaining treatment response to RT.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that modulate DNA under- and overwinding, knotting, and tangling. Beyond their critical physiological functions, these enzymes are the targets for some of the most widely prescribed anticancer drugs (topoisomerase II poisons) in clinical use. Topoisomerase II poisons kill cells by increasing levels of covalent enzyme-cleaved DNA complexes that are normal reaction intermediates. Drugs such as etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone are frontline therapies for a variety of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, their use also is associated with the development of specific leukemias. Regimens that include etoposide or doxorubicin are linked to the occurrence of acute myeloid leukemias that feature rearrangements at chromosomal band 11q23. Similar rearrangements are seen in infant leukemias and are associated with gestational diets that are high in naturally occurring topoisomerase II-active compounds. Finally, regimens that include mitoxantrone and epirubicin are linked to acute promyelocytic leukemias that feature t(15;17) rearrangements. The first part of this article will focus on type II topoisomerases and describe the mechanism of enzyme and drug action. The second part will discuss how topoisomerase II poisons trigger chromosomal breaks that lead to leukemia and potential approaches for dissociating the actions of drugs from their leukemogenic potential.
© 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Bioflavonoids are human dietary components that have been linked to the prevention of cancer in adults and the generation of specific types of leukemia in infants. While these compounds have a broad range of cellular activities, many of their genotoxic effects have been attributed to their actions as topoisomerase II poisons. However, the activities of bioflavonoids against the individual isoforms of human topoisomerase II have not been analyzed. Therefore, we characterized the activity and mechanism of action of three major classes of bioflavonoids, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavones, against human topoisomerase IIalpha and IIbeta. Genistein was the most active bioflavonoid tested and stimulated enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage approximately 10-fold. Generally, compounds were more active against topoisomerase IIbeta. DNA cleavage with both enzyme isoforms required a 5-OH and a 4'-OH and was enhanced by the presence of additional hydroxyl groups on the pendant ring. Competition DNA cleavage and topoisomerase II binding studies indicate that the 5-OH group plays an important role in mediating genistein binding, while the 4'-OH moiety contributes primarily to bioflavonoid function. Bioflavonoids do not require redox cycling for activity and function primarily by inhibiting enzyme-mediated DNA ligation. Mutagenesis studies suggest that the TOPRIM region of topoisomerase II plays a role in genistein binding. Finally, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavones with activity against purified topoisomerase IIalpha and IIbeta enhanced DNA cleavage by both isoforms in human CEM leukemia cells. These data support the hypothesis that bioflavonoids function as topoisomerase II poisons in humans and provide a framework for further analysis of these important dietary components.
We evaluated the reproducibility and validity of the FFQ used in the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) for assessing dietary isoflavone intake, using multiple 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and urinary isoflavones as the reference criteria, with data from the dietary validation study of the SMHS. A total of 196 study subjects completed the 24-HDR and 2 FFQ and donated a quarterly spot urine sample during the 1-y study period. Levels of urinary isoflavones were measured in a random sample of 48 study participants. The correlation coefficient between the 2 FFQ administered 1 y apart was 0.50 for soy protein intake and ranged from 0.50 to 0.51 for isoflavone intake. The correlations of isoflavone intake from the second FFQ with those from the multiple 24-HDR ranged from 0.38 (genistein) to 0.44 (glycitein), and the correlations with urinary isoflavone levels were 0.48 for total isoflavones, 0.44 for daidzein, 0.42 for genistein, and 0.54 for glycitein. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the 4 spot urine samples were 0.36, 0.42, and 0.40 for daidzein, genistein, and glycitein, respectively, and 0.62, 0.68, and 0.55 for their metabolic products equol, dihydrodaidzein, and O-desmethylangolensin, respectively. These results suggest that the SMHS FFQ can reliably and accurately measure usual intake of isoflavones, and that the levels of isoflavones in urine samples are relatively stable among men in Shanghai.
We have previously shown that PTH induction of c-fos expression in the rat osteoblastic cell line UMR 106-01 requires the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) at serine 133. Here we show that this event is not sufficient for induced transcriptional activity in UMR cells. Serine 129, but not the casein kinase II sites (serines 108, 111, 114, 117, and 121), also plays a role in the activation of CREB. First, by metabolically labeling an epitope-tagged CREB, we determined that, in addition to serine 133, other residues are phosphorylated in vivo. Using mutational analysis of a GAL4-CREB reporter system we demonstrate that serines 129 and 133 are both required for PTH-induced transcriptional activity, whereas the casein kinase II sites are not. Furthermore, PTH failed to induce transcriptional activity of GAL4-CREB in cells treated with genistein, a general tyrosine kinase inhibitor known to inhibit glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity, or LiCl, the most specific GSK-3-inhibiting agent known, strongly implicating GSK-3beta in this process. Importantly, although genistein and LiCl each inhibit GSK-3beta activity, neither prevented the phosphorylation of serine 133 induced by PTH. Lastly, when serine 129 is replaced with a negatively charged aspartic acid, LiCl has no effect on the PTH-induced trans-activation of CREB. We propose that GSK-3beta phosphorylates CREB at serine 129 and thus is required for the increased transcriptional activity of CREB in response to PTH.
The mechanisms by which interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) mediates its anti-leukemic effects in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells are not known. We determined whether p38 MAPK is activated by IFN-alpha in BCR-ABL-expressing cells and whether its function is required for the generation of growth inhibitory responses. IFN-alpha treatment induced phosphorylation/activation of p38 in the IFN-alpha-sensitive KT-1 cell line, but not in IFN-alpha-resistant K562 cells. Consistent with this, IFN-alpha treatment of KT-1 (but not K562) cells induced activation of the small GTPase Rac1, which functions as an upstream regulator of p38. In addition, IFN-alpha-dependent phosphorylation/activation of p38 was induced by treatment of primary granulocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of patients with CML. To define the functional role of the Rac1/p38 MAPK pathway in IFN-alpha signaling, the effects of pharmacological inhibition of p38 on the induction of IFN-alpha responses were determined. Treatment of KT-1 cells with the p38-specific inhibitors SB203580 and SB202190 reversed the growth inhibitory effects of IFN-alpha. On the other hand, the MEK kinase inhibitor PD098059 had no effects, further demonstrating the specificity of these findings. To directly determine the significance of IFN-alpha-dependent activation of p38 in the induction of the anti-leukemic effects of IFN-alpha, we evaluated the effects of p38 inhibition on leukemic colony formation in bone marrow samples of patients with CML. IFN-alpha inhibited leukemic granulocyte/macrophage colony formation in a dose-dependent manner, whereas concomitant treatment with p38 inhibitors reversed such an inhibition. Thus, the Rac1/p38 MAPK pathway is activated by IFN-alpha in BCR-ABL-expressing cells and appears to play a key role in the generation of the growth inhibitory effects of IFN-alpha in CML cells.
Growth factor receptors activate tyrosine kinases and undergo endocytosis. Recent data suggest that tyrosine kinase inhibition can affect growth factor receptor internalization. The type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1R) which is a G-protein-coupled receptor, also activates tyrosine kinases and undergoes endocytosis. Thus, we examined whether tyrosine kinase inhibition affected AT1R internalization. To verify protein tyrosine phosphorylation, both LLCPKCl4 cells expressing rabbit AT1R (LLCPKAT1R) and cultured rat mesangial cells (MSC) were treated with angiotensin II (Ang II) [1-100 nM] then solubilized and immunoprecipitated with antiphosphotyrosine antisera. Immunoblots of these samples demonstrated that Ang II stimulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation in both cell types. Losartan [1 microM], an AT1R antagonist, inhibited Ang II-stimulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation. LLCPKAT1R cells displayed specific 125I-Ang II binding at apical (AP) and basolateral (BL) membranes, and both AP and BL AT1R activated tyrosine phosphorylation. LLCPKAT1R cells, incubated with genistein (Gen) [200 microM] or tyrphostin B-48 (TB-48) [50 microM], were assayed for acid-resistant specific 125I-Ang II binding, a measure of Ang II internalization. Both Gen (n = 7) and TB-48 (n = 3) inhibited AP 125I-Ang II internalization (80+/-7% inhibition; p<0.025 vs. control). Neither compound affected BL internalization. TB-1, a non-tyrosine kinase-inhibiting tyrphostin, did not affect AP 125I-Ang II endocytosis (n = 3), suggesting that the TB-48 effect was specific for tyrosine kinase inhibition. Incubating MSC with Gen (n = 5) or herbimycin A [150 ng/ml] (n = 4) also inhibited MSC 125I-Ang II internalization (82+/-11% inhibition; p<0.005 vs. control). Thus, tyrosine kinase inhibition prevented Ang II internalization in MSC and selectively decreased AP Ang II internalization in LLCPKAT1R cells suggesting that AP AT1R in LLCPKAT1R cells and MSC AT1R have similar endocytic phenotypes, and tyrosine kinase activity may play a role in AT1R internalization.
p120(ctn) binds to the cytoplasmic domain of cadherins but its role is poorly understood. Colo 205 cells grow as dispersed cells despite their normal expression of E-cadherin and catenins. However, in these cells we can induce typical E-cadherin-dependent aggregation by treatment with staurosporine or trypsin. These treatments concomitantly induce an electrophoretic mobility shift of p120(ctn) to a faster position. To investigate whether p120(ctn) plays a role in this cadherin reactivation process, we transfected Colo 205 cells with a series of p120(ctn) deletion constructs. Notably, expression of NH2-terminally deleted p120(ctn) induced aggregation. Similar effects were observed when these constructs were introduced into HT-29 cells. When a mutant N-cadherin lacking the p120(ctn)-binding site was introduced into Colo 205 cells, this molecule also induced cell aggregation, indicating that cadherins can function normally if they do not bind to p120(ctn). These findings suggest that in Colo 205 cells, a signaling mechanism exists to modify a biochemical state of p120(ctn) and the modified p120(ctn) blocks the cadherin system. The NH2 terminus-deleted p120(ctn) appears to compete with the endogenous p120(ctn) to abolish the adhesion-blocking action.
BACKGROUND - Recent studies suggest that interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) stimulates the production of the acute phase protein complement component C3 in human intestinal epithelial cells. The transcription factor NF-kappaB activates different genes involved in the response to cytokines. It is not known if IL-1beta-induced C3 production in the enterocyte is regulated by NF-kappaB.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Cultured Caco-2 cells, a human intestinal epithelial cell line, were treated with one of the NF-kappaB inhibitors, tosyl-lys-chloromethylketone (TLCK), genistein, or pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), or with N-acetyl-leu-leu-norleucinal (LLnL), a proteasome inhibitor known to block the degradation of Ikappabeta, the cytosolic inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Following this treatment, the Caco-2 cells were stimulated with IL-1beta, and C3 levels in the culture medium were measured after 24 h by ELISA. C3 mRNA levels were determined after 4 h by Northern blot analysis. In other experiments, Caco-2 cells were transfected with a mutant IkappaBalpha in which serines 32 and 36 were substituted by alanine. This mutation prevents IkBalpha phosphorylation and subsequent NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. After transfection, the cells were stimulated with IL-1beta, and C3 levels in the culture medium were measured after 24 h. Cytosolic IkappaBalpha was determined by Western blot analysis.
RESULTS - TLCK, genistein, and LLnL each inhibited IL-1beta-induced C3 production in a dose-dependent fashion. These responses were associated with decreased C3 mRNA levels. In contrast, PDTC did not influence C3 production or C3 mRNA in the Caco-2 cells. Transfection of the Caco-2 cells with the Ser 32/36 mutant IkBalpha resulted in maintained IkappaBalpha levels and decreased IL-beta-induced C3 production.
CONCLUSIONS - IL-1beta-stimulated C3 production in the enterocyte may be regulated by NF-kappaB.
Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Isoflavonoids are a group of biologically active phytochemicals that humans are exposed to mainly through soy food intake. Because of the similar chemical structure of these compounds and estradiol, it has been hypothesized that isoflavonoids may be related to the risk of breast cancer. Overnight urine samples from 60 incident breast cancer cases and their individually matched controls were assayed for urinary excretion rates of five major isoflavonoids (daidzein, genistein, glycitein, equol, and O-desmethylangolensin) and total phenols. These subjects were from a large population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, and urine samples from breast cancer cases were collected before any cancer therapy to minimize the potential influence of the disease and its sequelae on study results. Urinary excretion of total phenols and all individual isoflavonoids, particularly glycitein, was substantially lower in breast cancer cases than controls. For total isoflavonoids, the mean excretion was 13.95 nmol/mg creatinine (SD, 20.76 nmol/mg creatinine) for cases and 19.52 nmol/mg creatinine (SD, 25.36 nmol/mg creatinine) for controls (P for difference = 0.04). The case-control difference was more evident when median levels of these compounds were compared, with the median excretion of all major isoflavonoids being 50-65% lower in cases than in controls. Individuals in the highest tertile of daidzein, glycitein, and total isoflavonoids had about half the cancer risk of those in the lowest tertile. The adjusted odds ratio for breast cancer was 0.14 (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.88) for women whose urinary excretion of both phenol and total isoflavonoids was in the upper 50% compared with those in the lower 50%. The results from this study support the hypothesis that a high intake of soy foods may reduce the risk of breast cancer.