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Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the clade sister to the known CUG-Ser clade. Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as xylose utilization, remains unresolved. Our data also provide insight into early evolution of ascomycetes. We document the loss of H3K9me2/3 heterochromatin, the origin of ascomycete mating-type switching, and panascomycete synteny at the MAT locus. These data and analyses will facilitate the engineering of efficient biosynthetic and degradative pathways and gateways for genomic manipulation.
Using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, mRNAs encoding steroidogenic P450s as well as NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450 reductase), adrenodoxin and the transcription factor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) were all detected in rodent brain, but their distribution between brain regions varied. Adrenodoxin and P450 reductase were detected in all regions, suggesting the presence of both mitochondrial and microsomal P450s throughout the brain. Messenger RNAs encoding P450scc (CYP11A1) and P45017 alpha (CYP17) were also detected in all brain regions, this being the first report of CYP17 in the brain. P450c21 (CYP21) was detected only in the brain stem. P45011 beta (CYP11B1) and P450aldo (CYP11B2) are expressed in rat brain, but not in mouse brain; CYP11B1 primarily in the cerebrum, whereas CYP11B2 was detected in all brain regions. In both species, highest levels of aromatase P450 (CYP19) mRNA were detected in the cerebrum. SF-1 expression was restricted to the cerebrum minus cortex. Thus, although SF-1 is required for high level expression of the steroidogenic enzymes in adrenals and gonads, other factors may influence the expression of these genes in the brain. If the mRNAs detected by RT-PCR are indeed translated into functional enzymes, these studies suggest that different brain regions have different capacities for local steroid hormone production and metabolism. This raises the technical challenge of locating the specific sites of synthesis as well as the function of such locally produced ligands.
The distribution of antigenic determinants recognized by the anti-Ia-like antigen monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) Q2/70, Q5/6 and Q5/13 on molecules coded for by the DR locus and by non-DR loci was investigated using a binding assay with 125I-labeled Ia-like antigens isolated from four B lymphoid cell lines. The determinants reacting with the MoAb Q2/70 and Q5/13 are expressed on all DR alloantigens tested and on BR4X7 specificities, while those reacting with the MoAb Q5/6 are not detectable on DRw7 and BR4X7 molecules. None of the monoclonal antibodies reacted with DC1 molecules. The MoAb Q5/6 and Q5/13 reacted with the isolated beta subunit of the Ia-like antigenic complex, while the MoAb Q2/70 did not react with the isolated chains.