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Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a pediatric disorder of dysregulated growth and differentiation caused by loss of function mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which regulate mTOR kinase activity. To study aberrations of early development in TSC, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells using dermal fibroblasts obtained from patients with TSC. During validation, we found that stem cells generated from TSC patients had a very high rate of integration of the reprogramming plasmid containing a shRNA against TP53. We also found that loss of one allele of TSC2 in human fibroblasts is sufficient to increase p53 levels and impair stem cell reprogramming. Increased p53 was also observed in TSC2 heterozygous and homozygous mutant human stem cells, suggesting that the interactions between TSC2 and p53 are consistent across cell types and gene dosage. These results support important contributions of TSC2 heterozygous and homozygous mutant cells to the pathogenesis of TSC and the important role of p53 during reprogramming.
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
BACKGROUND - Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by interobserver variability in histologic diagnosis. Mutations in IDH, TP53, and ATRX and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion) have been implicated as clinically relevant markers of lower-grade gliomas.
METHODS - We performed genomewide analyses of 293 lower-grade gliomas from adults, incorporating exome sequence, DNA copy number, DNA methylation, messenger RNA expression, microRNA expression, and targeted protein expression. These data were integrated and tested for correlation with clinical outcomes.
RESULTS - Unsupervised clustering of mutations and data from RNA, DNA-copy-number, and DNA-methylation platforms uncovered concordant classification of three robust, nonoverlapping, prognostically significant subtypes of lower-grade glioma that were captured more accurately by IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than by histologic class. Patients who had lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion had the most favorable clinical outcomes. Their gliomas harbored mutations in CIC, FUBP1, NOTCH1, and the TERT promoter. Nearly all lower-grade gliomas with IDH mutations and no 1p/19q codeletion had mutations in TP53 (94%) and ATRX inactivation (86%). The large majority of lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation had genomic aberrations and clinical behavior strikingly similar to those found in primary glioblastoma.
CONCLUSIONS - The integration of genomewide data from multiple platforms delineated three molecular classes of lower-grade gliomas that were more concordant with IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than with histologic class. Lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation either had 1p/19q codeletion or carried a TP53 mutation. Most lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation were molecularly and clinically similar to glioblastoma. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small 19- to 24-nt noncoding RNAs that have the capacity to regulate fundamental biological processes essential for cancer initiation and progression. In cancer, miRNAs may function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Here, we conducted global profiling for miRNAs in a cohort of stage 1 nonsmall cell lung cancers (n = 81) and determined that miR-486 was the most down-regulated miRNA in tumors compared with adjacent uninvolved lung tissues, suggesting that miR-486 loss may be important in lung cancer development. We report that miR-486 directly targets components of insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha) (PIK3R1, or p85a) and functions as a potent tumor suppressor of lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings support the role for miR-486 loss in lung cancer and suggest a potential biological link to p53.
In this issue of Cancer Cell, Rad and colleagues report findings that underscore the importance of oncogenic BRAF mutation coupled with microsatellite instability, p16Ink4a inactivation, and p53 mutation in the serrated pathway of colon cancer development. These findings provide translational insights into potential therapeutic intervention for BRAF mutant colon cancers.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We analysed primary breast cancers by genomic DNA copy number arrays, DNA methylation, exome sequencing, messenger RNA arrays, microRNA sequencing and reverse-phase protein arrays. Our ability to integrate information across platforms provided key insights into previously defined gene expression subtypes and demonstrated the existence of four main breast cancer classes when combining data from five platforms, each of which shows significant molecular heterogeneity. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at >10% incidence across all breast cancers; however, there were numerous subtype-associated and novel gene mutations including the enrichment of specific mutations in GATA3, PIK3CA and MAP3K1 with the luminal A subtype. We identified two novel protein-expression-defined subgroups, possibly produced by stromal/microenvironmental elements, and integrated analyses identified specific signalling pathways dominant in each molecular subtype including a HER2/phosphorylated HER2/EGFR/phosphorylated EGFR signature within the HER2-enriched expression subtype. Comparison of basal-like breast tumours with high-grade serous ovarian tumours showed many molecular commonalities, indicating a related aetiology and similar therapeutic opportunities. The biological finding of the four main breast cancer subtypes caused by different subsets of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities raises the hypothesis that much of the clinically observable plasticity and heterogeneity occurs within, and not across, these major biological subtypes of breast cancer.
Human high-grade gliomas (HGGs) are known for their histologic diversity. To address the role of cell of origin in glioma phenotype, transgenic mice were generated in which oncogenic Ras and p53 deletion were targeted to neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and mature astrocytes. The hGFAP-Cre/Kras/p53 mice develop multifocal HGGs that vary histopathologically and with respect to the expression of markers associated with NSPCs. One HGG pattern strongly expressed markers of NSPCs and arose near the subventricular zone. Additional nonoverlapping patterns that recapitulate human HGG variants were present simultaneously in the same brain. These neoplastic foci were more often cortical or leptomeningeal based, and the neoplastic cells lacked expression of NSPC markers. To determine whether cell of origin determines tumor phenotype, astrocytes and NSPCs were harvested from neonatal mutant pups. Onorthotopic transplantation, early-passage astrocytes and NSPCs formed tumors that differed in engraftment rates, latency to clinical signs, histopathology, and protein expression. Astrocyte-derivedtumors were more aggressive, had giant-cell histology, and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. The NSPC-derived tumors retained NSPC markers and showed evidence of differentiation along astrocytic, oligodendroglial, and neuronal lineages. These results indicate that identical tumorigenic stimuli produce markedly different glioma phenotypes, depending on the differentiation status of the transformed cell.
The neural crest is a stem cell-like population exclusive to vertebrates that gives rise to many different cell types including chondrocytes, neurons and melanocytes. Arising from the neural plate border at the intersection of Wnt and Bmp signaling pathways, the complexity of neural crest gene regulatory networks has made the earliest steps of induction difficult to elucidate. Here, we report that tfap2a and foxd3 participate in neural crest induction and are necessary and sufficient for this process to proceed. Double mutant tfap2a (mont blanc, mob) and foxd3 (mother superior, mos) mob;mos zebrafish embryos completely lack all neural crest-derived tissues. Moreover, tfap2a and foxd3 are expressed during gastrulation prior to neural crest induction in distinct, complementary, domains; tfap2a is expressed in the ventral non-neural ectoderm and foxd3 in the dorsal mesendoderm and ectoderm. We further show that Bmp signaling is expanded in mob;mos embryos while expression of dkk1, a Wnt signaling inhibitor, is increased and canonical Wnt targets are suppressed. These changes in Bmp and Wnt signaling result in specific perturbations of neural crest induction rather than general defects in neural plate border or dorso-ventral patterning. foxd3 overexpression, on the other hand, enhances the ability of tfap2a to ectopically induce neural crest around the neural plate, overriding the normal neural plate border limit of the early neural crest territory. Although loss of either Tfap2a or Foxd3 alters Bmp and Wnt signaling patterns, only their combined inactivation sufficiently alters these signaling gradients to abort neural crest induction. Collectively, our results indicate that tfap2a and foxd3, in addition to their respective roles in the differentiation of neural crest derivatives, also jointly maintain the balance of Bmp and Wnt signaling in order to delineate the neural crest induction domain.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Both the G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity assay and allelic differences in TP53 codon-72 have been associated with cancer predisposition. The relationship between the two endpoints was determined in 56 human EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. Although there were overlapping distributions of sensitivity for the different genotypes, cell lines that were homozygous for the proline coding allele were more likely to be resistant to chromatid break formation than those containing two arginine coding alleles, whereas cell lines expressing both the proline and arginine codon were either resistant like proline-proline lines or sensitive like arginine-arginine lines. The results support an important role of the TP53 codon-72 polymorphism in modifying G2-chromosome radiosensitivity. Distinguishing the effect of TP53 codon-72 variations from other modifiers of G2-chromosome radiosensitivity might aid in identifying new markers of cancer risk.
Many tumor cells express globally reduced levels of microRNAs (miRNA), suggesting that decreased miRNA expression in premalignant cells contributes to their tumorigenic phenotype. In support of this, Dicer, an RNase III-like enzyme that controls the maturation of miRNA, was recently shown to function as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in nonhematopoietic cells. Because the Myc oncoprotein, a critical inducer of B-cell lymphomas, was reported to suppress the expression of multiple miRNAs in lymphoma cells, it was presumed that a deficiency of Dicer and subsequent loss of miRNA maturation would accelerate Myc-induced lymphoma development. We report here that, surprisingly, a haploinsufficiency of Dicer in B cells failed to promote B-cell malignancy or accelerate Myc-induced B-cell lymphomagenesis in mice. Moreover, deletion of Dicer in B cells of CD19-cre(+)/Emicro-myc mice significantly inhibited lymphomagenesis, and all lymphomas that did arise in these mice lacked functional Cre expression and retained at least one functional Dicer allele. Uncharacteristically, the lymphomas that frequently developed in the CD19-cre(+)/Dicer(fl/fl)/Emicro-myc mice were of very early precursor B-cell origin, a stage of B-cell development prior to Cre expression. Therefore, loss of Dicer function was not advantageous for lymphomagenesis, but rather, Dicer ablation was strongly selected against during Myc-induced B-cell lymphoma development. Moreover, deletion of Dicer in established B-cell lymphomas resulted in apoptosis, revealing that Dicer is required for B-cell lymphoma survival. Thus, Dicer does not function as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in B cells and is required for B-cell lymphoma development and survival.
The effect of p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest and senescence on Emu-myc-induced B-cell lymphoma development remains controversial. To address this question, we crossed Emu-myc mice with the p53(515C) mutant mouse, encoding the mutant p53R172P protein that retains the ability to activate the cell-cycle inhibitor and senescence activator p21. Importantly, this mutant lacks the ability to activate p53-dependent apoptotic genes. Hence, Emu-myc mice that harbor two p53(515C) alleles are completely defective for p53-dependent apoptosis. Both Emu-myc::p53(515C/515C) and Emu-myc::p53(515C/+) mice survive significantly longer than Emu-myc::p53(+/-) mice, indicating the importance of the p53-dependent non-apoptotic pathways in B-cell lymphomagenesis. In addition, the p53(515C) allele is deleted in several Emu-myc::p53(515C/+) lymphomas, further emphasizing the functionality of p53R172P in tumor inhibition. Lymphomas from both Emu-myc::p53(515C/515C) and Emu-myc::p53(515C/+) mice retain the ability to upregulate p21, resulting in cellular senescence. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA beta-gal) activity was observed in lymphomas from Emu-myc::p53(+/+), Emu-myc::p53(515C/515C) and Emu-myc::p53(515C /+) mice but not in lymphomas isolated from Emu-myc::p53(+/-) mice. Thus, in the absence of p53-dependent apoptosis, the ability of p53R172P to induce senescence leads to a significant delay in B-cell lymphoma development.