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2-hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA), a compound found in buckwheat, is a potent scavenger of reactive γ-ketoaldehydes, which are increased in diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. While the potential of 2-HOBA is promising, studies were needed to characterize the safety of the compound before clinical trials. In a series of experiments, the risks of 2-HOBA-mediated mutagenicity and cardio-toxicity were assessed in vitro. The effects of 2-HOBA on the mRNA expression of select cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes were also assessed in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Further, the distribution and metabolism of 2-HOBA in blood were determined. Our results indicate that 2-HOBA is not cytotoxic or mutagenic in vitro and does not induce the expression of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, or CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes. The results of the hERG testing showed a low risk of cardiac QT wave prolongation. Plasma protein binding and red blood cell distribution characteristics indicate low protein binding and no preferential distribution into erythrocytes. The major metabolites identified were salicylic acid and the glycoside conjugate of 2-HOBA. Together, these findings support development of 2-HOBA as a nutritional supplement and provide important information for the design of further preclinical safety studies in animals as well as for human clinical trials with 2-HOBA.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Potentiating anti-tumor immunity by inducing tumor inflammation and T cell-mediated responses are a promising area of cancer therapy. Immunomodulatory agents that promote these effects function via a wide variety of mechanisms, including upregulation of antigen presentation pathways. Here, we show that major histocompatibility class-I (MHC-I) genes are methylated in human breast cancers, suppressing their expression. Treatment of breast cancer cell lines with a next-generation hypomethylating agent, guadecitabine, upregulates MHC-I expression in response to interferon-γ. In murine tumor models of breast cancer, guadecitabine upregulates MHC-I in tumor cells promoting recruitment of CD8+ T cells to the microenvironment. Finally, we show that MHC-I genes are upregulated in breast cancer patients treated with hypomethylating agents. Thus, the immunomodulatory effects of hypomethylating agents likely involve upregulation of class-I antigen presentation to potentiate CD8+ T cell responses. These strategies may be useful to potentiate anti-tumor immunity and responses to checkpoint inhibition in immune-refractory breast cancers.
Endothelial dysfunction, characterized by changes in eNOS, is a common finding in chronic inflammatory vascular diseases. These states are associated with increased infectious complications. We hypothesized that alterations in eNOS would enhance the response to LPS-mediated TLR4 inflammation. Human microvascular endothelial cells were treated with sepiapterin or N-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) to alter endogenous NO production, and small interfering RNA to knockdown eNOS. Alterations of endogenous NO by sepiapterin, and L-NAME provided no significant changes to LPS inflammation. In contrast, eNOS knockdown greatly enhanced endothelial IL-6 production and permeability in response to LPS. Knockdown of eNOS enhanced LPS-induced p38. Inhibition of p38 with SB203580 prevented IL-6 production, without altering permeability. Knockdown of p38 impaired NF-κB activation. Physical interaction between p38 and eNOS was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation, suggesting a novel, NO-independent mechanism for eNOS regulation of TLR4. In correlation, biopsy samples in patients with systemic lupus erythematous showed reduced eNOS expression with associated elevations in TLR4 and p38, suggesting an in vivo link. Thus, reduced expression of eNOS, as seen in chronic inflammatory disease, was associated with enhanced TLR4 signaling through p38. This may enhance the response to infection in patients with chronic inflammatory conditions.-Stark, R. J., Koch, S. R., Choi, H., Mace, E. H., Dikalov, S. I., Sherwood, E. R., Lamb, F. S. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase modulates Toll-like receptor 4-mediated IL-6 production and permeability via nitric oxide-independent signaling.
The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) regulates multiple behaviors across phylogeny, with disrupted DA signaling in humans associated with addiction, attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. The DA transporter (DAT) imposes spatial and temporal limits on DA action, and provides for presynaptic DA recycling to replenish neurotransmitter pools. Molecular mechanisms that regulate DAT expression, trafficking, and function, particularly , remain poorly understood, though recent studies have implicated rho-linked pathways in psychostimulant action. To identify genes that dictate the ability of DAT to sustain normal levels of DA clearance, we pursued a forward genetic screen in based on the phenotype swimming-induced paralysis (Swip), a paralytic behavior observed in hermaphrodite worms with loss-of-function mutations. Here, we report the identity of , which encodes a highly conserved ortholog of the human atypical MAP kinase ERK8. We present evidence that SWIP-13 acts presynaptically to insure adequate levels of surface DAT expression and DA clearance. Moreover, we provide and evidence supporting a conserved pathway involving SWIP-13/ERK8 activation of Rho GTPases that dictates DAT surface expression and function. Signaling by the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is tightly regulated by the DA transporter (DAT), insuring efficient DA clearance after release. Molecular networks that regulate DAT are poorly understood, particularly Using a forward genetic screen in the nematode , we implicate the atypical mitogen activated protein kinase, SWIP-13, in DAT regulation. Moreover, we provide and evidence that SWIP-13, as well as its human counterpart ERK8, regulate DAT surface availability via the activation of Rho proteins. Our findings implicate a novel pathway that regulates DA synaptic availability and that may contribute to risk for disorders linked to perturbed DA signaling. Targeting this pathway may be of value in the development of therapeutics in such disorders.
Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/379288-17$15.00/0.
Switching of cellular energy production from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by mitochondria to aerobic glycolysis occurs in many types of tumors. However, the significance of this switching for the development of gastric carcinoma and what connection it may have to infection of the gut, a primary cause of gastric cancer, are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the expression of OXPHOS complexes in two types of human gastric carcinomas ("intestinal" and "diffuse"), bacterial gastritis with and without metaplasia, and chemically induced gastritis by using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of HP infection on several key mitochondrial proteins. Complex I expression was significantly reduced in intestinal type (but not diffuse) gastric carcinomas compared to adjacent control tissue, and the reduction was independent of HP infection. Significantly, higher complex I and complex II expression was present in large tumors. Furthermore, higher complex II and complex III protein levels were also obvious in grade 3 versus grade 2. No differences of OXPHOS complexes and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis were found between bacterially caused and chemically induced gastritis. Thus, intestinal gastric carcinomas, but not precancerous stages, are frequently characterized by loss of complex I, and this pathophysiology occurs independently of HP infection.
Recently, zebrafish and human cytochrome P450 (P450) 27C1 enzymes have been shown to be retinoid 3,4-desaturases. The enzyme is unusual among mammalian P450s in that the predominant oxidation is a desaturation and in that hydroxylation represents only a minor pathway. We show by proteomic analysis that P450 27C1 is localized to human skin, with two proteins of different sizes present, one being a cleavage product of the full-length form. P450 27C1 oxidized all--retinol to 3,4-dehydroretinol, 4-hydroxy (OH) retinol, and 3-OH retinol in a 100:3:2 ratio. Neither 3-OH nor 4-OH retinol was an intermediate in desaturation. No kinetic burst was observed in the steady state; neither the rate of substrate binding nor product release was rate-limiting. Ferric P450 27C1 reduction by adrenodoxin was 3-fold faster in the presence of the substrate and was ∼5-fold faster than the overall turnover. Kinetic isotope effects of 1.5-2.3 (on / ) were observed with 3,3-, 4,4-, and 3,3,4,4-deuterated retinol. Deuteration at C-4 produced a 4-fold increase in 3-hydroxylation due to metabolic switching, with no observable effect on 4-hydroxylation. Deuteration at C-3 produced a strong kinetic isotope effect for 3-hydroxylation but not 4-hydroxylation. Analysis of the products of deuterated retinol showed a lack of scrambling of a putative allylic radical at C-3 and C-4. We conclude that the most likely catalytic mechanism begins with abstraction of a hydrogen atom from C-4 (or possibly C-3) initiating the desaturation pathway, followed by a sequential abstraction of a hydrogen atom or proton-coupled electron transfer. Adrenodoxin reduction and hydrogen abstraction both contribute to rate limitation.
© 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
DNA glycosylases are important editing enzymes that protect genomic stability by excising chemically modified nucleobases that alter normal DNA metabolism. These enzymes have been known only to initiate base excision repair of small adducts by extrusion from the DNA helix. However, recent reports have described both vertebrate and microbial DNA glycosylases capable of unhooking highly toxic interstrand cross-links (ICLs) and bulky minor groove adducts normally recognized by Fanconi anemia and nucleotide excision repair machinery, although the mechanisms of these activities are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of AlkZ (previously Orf1), a bacterial DNA glycosylase that protects its host by excising ICLs derived from azinomycin B (AZB), a potent antimicrobial and antitumor genotoxin. AlkZ adopts a unique fold in which three tandem winged helix-turn-helix motifs scaffold a positively charged concave surface perfectly shaped for duplex DNA. Through mutational analysis, we identified two glutamine residues and a β-hairpin within this putative DNA-binding cleft that are essential for catalytic activity. Additionally, we present a molecular docking model for how this active site can unhook either or both sides of an AZB ICL, providing a basis for understanding the mechanisms of base excision repair of ICLs. Given the prevalence of this protein fold in pathogenic bacteria, this work also lays the foundation for an emerging role of DNA repair in bacteria-host pathogenesis.
Inhalation anesthetics are reported to affect cognition in both animals and humans. The influence of inhalation anesthetics in learning and memory are contradictory. We therefore investigated the effects of sevoflurane anesthesia with different durations on cognitive performance and the levels of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B, phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and activated caspase3 in mouse hippocampus. We anaesthetized eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice with 2.5% sevoflurane for durations ranging from one to four hours. Non-anaesthetized mice served as controls. Mice exposed to sevoflurane for one to three hours showed improved performance, whereas mice with exposure up to four hours displayed similar behavioral performance as control group. NR2B was increased both at 24h and at two weeks post sevoflurane exposure in all groups. The p-ERK1/2: total ERK1/2 ratio increased at 24h in all anesthesia groups. The ratio remained elevated at two weeks in groups with two- to four-hour exposure. Activated caspase3 was detected elevated at 24h in groups with two- to four-hour exposure. The elevated trend of activated caspase3 was still detectable at two weeks in groups with three- to four-hour exposure. At two weeks post anesthesia, the typical morphology associated with apoptotic cells was observed in the hippocampus of mice exposed to four hours of sevoflurane. Our results indicate that 2.5% sevoflurane exposure for one to three hours improved spatial cognitive performance in young adult mice. The cognitive improvement might be related to the increase of NR2B, the p-ERK1/2: total ERK1/2 ratio in hippocampus. However, exposure to sevoflurane for four hours caused neurotoxicity due to caspase3 activation and apoptosis.
Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is implicated in ovarian cancer. However, patterns of COX expression and function have been unclear and controversial. In this report, patterns of COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression were obtained from RNA-seq data through The Cancer Genome Atlas. Our analysis revealed markedly higher COX-1 mRNA expression than COX-2 in high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC) and higher COX-1 expression in HGSOC tumors than 10 other tumor types. High expression of COX-1 in HGSOC tumors was confirmed in an independent tissue microarray. In contrast, lower or similar expression of COX-1 compared to COX-2 was observed in endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell tumors. Stable COX-1 knockdown in HGSOC-representative OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells reduced gene expression in multiple pro-tumorigenic pathways. Functional cell viability, clonogenicity, and migration/invasion assays were consistent with transcriptomic changes. These effects were reversed by stable over-expression of COX-1 in SKOV-3 cells. Our results demonstrate a distinct pattern of COX-1 over-expression in HGSOC tumors and strong association of COX-1 with multiple pro-tumorigenic pathways in ovarian cancer cells. These findings provide additional insight into the role of COX-1 in human ovarian cancer and support further development of methods to selectively target COX-1 in the management of HGSOC tumors.
BACKGROUND - PIM1 kinase is coexpressed with c-MYC in human prostate cancers (PCs) and dramatically enhances c-MYC-induced tumorigenicity. Here we examine the effects of a novel oral PIM inhibitor, AZD1208, on prostate tumorigenesis and recurrence.
METHODS - A mouse c-MYC/Pim1-transduced tissue recombination PC model, Myc-CaP allografts, and human PC xenografts were treated with AZD1208 (n = 5-11 per group). Androgen-sensitive and castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) models were studied as well as the effects of hypoxia and radiation. RNA sequencing was used to analyze drug-induced gene expression changes. Results were analyzed with χ(2) test. Student's t test and nonparametric Mann-Whitney rank sum U Test. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS - AZD1208 inhibited tumorigenesis in tissue recombinants, Myc-CaP, and human PC xenograft models. PIM inhibition decreased c-MYC/Pim1 graft growth by 54.3 ± 39% (P < .001), decreased cellular proliferation by 46 ± 14% (P = .016), and increased apoptosis by 326 ± 170% (P = .039). AZD1208 suppressed multiple protumorigenic pathways, including the MYC gene program. However, it also downregulated the p53 pathway. Hypoxia and radiation induced PIM1 in prostate cancer cells, and AZD1208 functioned as a radiation sensitizer. Recurrent tumors postcastration responded transiently to either AZD1208 or radiation treatment, and combination treatment resulted in more sustained inhibition of tumor growth. Cell lines established from recurrent, AZD1208-resistant tumors again revealed downregulation of the p53 pathway. Irradiated AZD1208-treated tumors robustly upregulated p53, providing a possible mechanistic explanation for the effectiveness of combination therapy. Finally, an AZD1208-resistant gene signature was found to be associated with biochemical recurrence in PC patients.
CONCLUSIONS - PIM inhibition is a potential treatment for MYC-driven prostate cancers including CRPC, and its effectiveness may be enhanced by activators of the p53 pathway, such as radiation.
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