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Infection by is the primary cause of gastric adenocarcinoma. The most potent virulence factor is cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), which is translocated by a type 4 secretion system (T4SS) into gastric epithelial cells and activates oncogenic signaling pathways. The gene encodes for a key component of the T4SS and can undergo gene rearrangements. We have shown that the cancer chemopreventive agent α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), known to inhibit the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase, reduces -mediated gastric cancer incidence in Mongolian gerbils. In the present study, we questioned whether DFMO might directly affect pathogenicity. We show that output strains isolated from gerbils treated with DFMO exhibit reduced ability to translocate CagA in gastric epithelial cells. Further, we frequently detected genomic modifications in the middle repeat region of the gene of output strains from DFMO-treated animals, which were associated with alterations in the CagY protein. Gerbils did not develop carcinoma when infected with a DFMO output strain containing rearranged or the parental strain in which the wild-type was replaced by with DFMO-induced rearrangements. Lastly, we demonstrate that in vitro treatment of by DFMO induces oxidative DNA damage, expression of the DNA repair enzyme MutS2, and mutations in , demonstrating that DFMO directly affects genomic stability. Deletion of abrogated the ability of DFMO to induce rearrangements directly. In conclusion, DFMO-induced oxidative stress in leads to genomic alterations and attenuates virulence.
RATIONALE - Atherosclerosis is, in part, caused by immune and inflammatory cell infiltration into the vascular wall, leading to enhanced inflammation and lipid accumulation in the aortic endothelium. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease is critical for the development of new therapies. Our recent studies demonstrate that epsins, a family of ubiquitin-binding endocytic adaptors, are critical regulators of atherogenicity. Given the fundamental contribution lesion macrophages make to fuel atherosclerosis, whether and how myeloid-specific epsins promote atherogenesis is an open and significant question.
OBJECTIVE - We will determine the role of myeloid-specific epsins in regulating lesion macrophage function during atherosclerosis.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We engineered myeloid cell-specific epsins double knockout mice (LysM-DKO) on an ApoE background. On Western diet, these mice exhibited marked decrease in atherosclerotic lesion formation, diminished immune and inflammatory cell content in aortas, and reduced necrotic core content but increased smooth muscle cell content in aortic root sections. Epsins deficiency hindered foam cell formation and suppressed proinflammatory macrophage phenotype but increased efferocytosis and anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype in primary macrophages. Mechanistically, we show that epsin loss specifically increased total and surface levels of LRP-1 (LDLR [low-density lipoprotein receptor]-related protein 1), an efferocytosis receptor with antiatherosclerotic properties. We further show that epsin and LRP-1 interact via epsin's ubiquitin-interacting motif domain. ox-LDL (oxidized LDL) treatment increased LRP-1 ubiquitination, subsequent binding to epsin, and its internalization from the cell surface, suggesting that epsins promote the ubiquitin-dependent internalization and downregulation of LRP-1. Crossing ApoE/LysM-DKO mice onto an LRP-1 heterozygous background restored, in part, atherosclerosis, suggesting that epsin-mediated LRP-1 downregulation in macrophages plays a pivotal role in propelling atherogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS - Myeloid epsins promote atherogenesis by facilitating proinflammatory macrophage recruitment and inhibiting efferocytosis in part by downregulating LRP-1, implicating that targeting epsins in macrophages may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy to treat atherosclerosis.
β-Site APP (amyloid precursor protein) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the β-secretase enzyme that initiates production of the toxic amyloid-β peptide that accumulates in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, BACE1 is a prime therapeutic target, and several BACE1 inhibitor drugs are currently being tested in clinical trials for AD. However, the safety of BACE1 inhibition is unclear. Germline BACE1 knockout mice have multiple neurological phenotypes, although these could arise from BACE1 deficiency during development. To address this question, we report that tamoxifen-inducible conditional BACE1 knockout mice in which the gene was ablated in the adult largely lacked the phenotypes observed in germline BACE1 knockout mice. However, one BACE1-null phenotype was induced after gene deletion in the adult mouse brain. This phenotype showed reduced length and disorganization of the hippocampal mossy fiber infrapyramidal bundle, the axonal pathway of dentate gyrus granule cells that is maintained by neurogenesis in the mouse brain. This defect in axonal organization correlated with reduced BACE1-mediated cleavage of the neural cell adhesion protein close homolog of L1 (CHL1), which has previously been associated with axon guidance. Although our results indicate that BACE1 inhibition in the adult mouse brain may avoid phenotypes associated with BACE1 deficiency during embryonic and postnatal development, they also suggest that BACE1 inhibitor drugs developed for treating AD may disrupt the organization of an axonal pathway in the hippocampus, an important structure for learning and memory.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Transient upregulation of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (R) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is proposed as an intermediate to long-term AMPAR plasticity associated with persistent cocaine-related behaviors. However, cell type- and input-specific contributions of GluN2B underlying lasting actions of cocaine remain to be elucidated. We utilized GluN2B cell type-specific knockouts and optogenetics to deconstruct the role of GluN2B in cocaine-induced NAc synaptic and behavioral plasticity. While reward learning was unaffected, loss of GluN2B in D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells (D1) led to prolonged retention of reward memory. In control mice, prefrontal cortex (PFC)-D1(+) NAc AMPAR function was unaffected by cocaine exposure, while midline thalamus (mThal)-D1(+) NAc AMPAR function was potentiated but diminished after withdrawal. In D1-GluN2B mice, the potentiation of mThal-D1(+) NAc AMPAR function persisted following withdrawal, corresponding with continued expression of cocaine reward behavior. These data suggest NAc GluN2B-containing NMDARs serve a feedback role and may weaken reward-related memories.
Polyamines have been implicated in numerous biological processes, including inflammation and carcinogenesis. Homeostatic regulation leads to interconversion of the polyamines putrescine and the downstream metabolites spermidine and spermine. The enzyme spermine oxidase (SMOX), which back-converts spermine to spermidine, contributes to regulation of polyamine levels, but can also have other effects. We have implicated SMOX in gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis due to infection by the pathogen . In addition, we reported that SMOX can be upregulated in humans with inflammatory bowel disease. Herein, we utilized -deficient mice to examine the role of SMOX in two murine colitis models, infection and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced epithelial injury. In -infected wild-type (WT) mice, there were marked increases in colon weight/length and histologic injury, with mucosal hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration; these changes were ameliorated in mice. In contrast, with DSS, mice exhibited substantial mortality, and increased body weight loss, colon weight/length, and histologic damage. In -infected WT mice, there were increased colonic levels of the chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL10, and the cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, CSF3, IFN-γ, and IL-17; each were downregulated in mice. In DSS colitis, increased levels of IL-6, CSF3, and IL-17 were further increased in mice. In both models, putrescine and spermidine were increased in WT mice; in mice, the main effect was decreased spermidine and spermidine/spermine ratio. With , polyamine levels correlated with histologic injury, while with DSS, spermidine was inversely correlated with injury. Our studies indicate that SMOX has immunomodulatory effects in experimental colitis polyamine flux. Thus, SMOX contributes to the immunopathogenesis of infection, but is protective in DSS colitis, indicating the divergent effects of spermidine.
Glycine -methyltransferase (GNMT) is the most abundant liver methyltransferase regulating the availability of the biological methyl donor, -adenosylmethionine (SAM). Moreover, GNMT has been identified to be down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite its role in regulating SAM levels and association of its down-regulation with liver tumorigenesis, the impact of reduced GNMT on metabolic reprogramming before the manifestation of HCC has not been investigated in detail. Herein, we used H/C metabolic flux analysis in conscious, unrestrained mice to test the hypothesis that the absence of GNMT causes metabolic reprogramming. GNMT-null (KO) mice displayed a reduction in blood glucose that was associated with a decline in both hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The reduced gluconeogenesis was due to a decrease in liver gluconeogenic precursors, citric acid cycle fluxes, and anaplerosis and cataplerosis. A concurrent elevation in both hepatic SAM and metabolites of SAM utilization pathways was observed in the KO mice. Specifically, the increase in metabolites of SAM utilization pathways indicated that hepatic polyamine synthesis and catabolism, transsulfuration, and lipogenesis pathways were increased in the KO mice. Of note, these pathways utilize substrates that could otherwise be used for gluconeogenesis. Also, this metabolic reprogramming occurs before the well-documented appearance of HCC in GNMT-null mice. Together, these results indicate that GNMT deletion promotes a metabolic shift whereby nutrients are channeled away from glucose formation toward pathways that utilize the elevated SAM.
© 2018 Hughey et al.
BACKGROUND - We previously showed that mice lacking MΦLRP1 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 in macrophages) undergo accelerated atherosclerotic plaque formation due to changes in macrophages including increased apoptosis, decreased efferocytosis, and exaggerated transition to the inflammatory M1 phenotype. Here we sought to explore the role of macrophage low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 during regression of atherosclerosis since regressing plaques are characterized by transitioning of macrophages to M2 status as inflammation resolves.
METHODS - Apolipoprotein E mice on a high-fat diet for 12 weeks were reconstituted with bone marrow from apolipoprotein E-producing wild-type or MΦLRP1 mice, and then placed on a chow diet for 10 weeks (n=9 to 11 mice/group). A cohort of apolipoprotein E mice reconstituted with apolipoprotein E bone marrow served as baseline controls (n=9).
RESULTS - Plaques of both wild-type and MΦLRP1 bone marrow recipients regressed compared with controls (11% and 22%, respectively; P<0.05), and plaques of MΦLRP1 recipients were 13% smaller than those of wild-type recipients ( P<0.05). Recipients of MΦLRP1 marrow had 36% fewer M1 macrophages ( P<0.01) and 2.5-fold more CCR7 (C-C chemokine receptor type 7)-positive macrophages in the plaque relative to wild-type mice ( P<0.01). Additionally, in vivo studies of cellular egress showed a 4.6-fold increase in 5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine-labeled CCR7 macrophages in mediastinal lymph nodes. Finally, in vivo studies of reverse cholesterol transport showed a 1.4-fold higher reverse cholesterol transport in MΦLRP1 recipient mice ( P<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS - Absence of macrophage low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 unexpectedly accelerates atherosclerosis regression, enhances reverse cholesterol transport, and increases expression of the motility receptor CCR7, which drives macrophage egress from lesions.
Cystic fibrosis-related (CF-related) diabetes (CFRD) is an increasingly common and devastating comorbidity of CF, affecting approximately 35% of adults with CF. However, the underlying causes of CFRD are unclear. Here, we examined cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) islet expression and whether the CFTR participates in islet endocrine cell function using murine models of β cell CFTR deletion and normal and CF human pancreas and islets. Specific deletion of CFTR from murine β cells did not affect β cell function. In human islets, CFTR mRNA was minimally expressed, and CFTR protein and electrical activity were not detected. Isolated CF/CFRD islets demonstrated appropriate insulin and glucagon secretion, with few changes in key islet-regulatory transcripts. Furthermore, approximately 65% of β cell area was lost in CF donors, compounded by pancreatic remodeling and immune infiltration of the islet. These results indicate that CFRD is caused by β cell loss and intraislet inflammation in the setting of a complex pleiotropic disease and not by intrinsic islet dysfunction from CFTR mutation.
We conducted the largest investigation of predisposition variants in cancer to date, discovering 853 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 8% of 10,389 cases from 33 cancer types. Twenty-one genes showed single or cross-cancer associations, including novel associations of SDHA in melanoma and PALB2 in stomach adenocarcinoma. The 659 predisposition variants and 18 additional large deletions in tumor suppressors, including ATM, BRCA1, and NF1, showed low gene expression and frequent (43%) loss of heterozygosity or biallelic two-hit events. We also discovered 33 such variants in oncogenes, including missenses in MET, RET, and PTPN11 associated with high gene expression. We nominated 47 additional predisposition variants from prioritized VUSs supported by multiple evidences involving case-control frequency, loss of heterozygosity, expression effect, and co-localization with mutations and modified residues. Our integrative approach links rare predisposition variants to functional consequences, informing future guidelines of variant classification and germline genetic testing in cancer.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
is responsible for a significant amount of devastating disease. Its ability to colonize the host and cause infection is supported by a variety of proteins that are dependent on the cofactor heme. Heme is a porphyrin used broadly across kingdoms and is synthesized from common cellular precursors and iron. While heme is critical to bacterial physiology, it is also toxic in high concentrations, requiring that organisms encode regulatory processes to control heme homeostasis. In this work, we describe a posttranscriptional regulatory strategy in heme biosynthesis. The first committed enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GtrR), is regulated by heme abundance and the integral membrane protein HemX. GtrR abundance increases dramatically in response to heme deficiency, suggesting a mechanism by which responds to the need to increase heme synthesis. Additionally, HemX is required to maintain low levels of GtrR in heme-proficient cells, and inactivation of leads to increased heme synthesis. Excess heme synthesis in a Δ mutant activates the staphylococcal heme stress response, suggesting that regulation of heme synthesis is critical to reduce self-imposed heme toxicity. Analysis of diverse organisms indicates that HemX is widely conserved among heme-synthesizing bacteria, suggesting that HemX is a common factor involved in the regulation of GtrR abundance. Together, this work demonstrates that regulates heme synthesis by modulating GtrR abundance in response to heme deficiency and through the activity of the broadly conserved HemX. is a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections, endocarditis, bacteremia, and osteomyelitis, making it a critical health care concern. Development of new antimicrobials against requires knowledge of the physiology that supports this organism's pathogenesis. One component of staphylococcal physiology that contributes to growth and virulence is heme. Heme is a widely utilized cofactor that enables diverse chemical reactions across many enzyme families. relies on many critical heme-dependent proteins and is sensitive to excess heme toxicity, suggesting must maintain proper intracellular heme homeostasis. Because provides heme for heme-dependent enzymes via synthesis from common precursors, we hypothesized that regulation of heme synthesis is one mechanism to maintain heme homeostasis. In this study, we identify that posttranscriptionally regulates heme synthesis by restraining abundance of the first heme biosynthetic enzyme, GtrR, via heme and the broadly conserved membrane protein HemX.
Copyright © 2018 Choby et al.