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Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis and cause local outbreaks of illness, especially in confined situations. Despite being identified four decades ago, the correlates of protection against norovirus gastroenteritis are still being elucidated. Recent studies have shown an association of protection with NoV-specific serum histo-blood group antigen-blocking antibody and with serum IgA in patients vaccinated with NoV VLPs. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of human monoclonal IgG and IgA antibodies against a GI.I NoV, Norwalk virus (NV). A higher proportion of the IgA antibodies blocked NV VLP binding to glycans than did IgG antibodies. We generated isotype-switched variants of IgG and IgA antibodies to study the effects of the constant domain on blocking and binding activities. The IgA form of antibodies appears to be more potent than the IgG form in blocking norovirus binding to histo-blood group antigens. These studies suggest a unique role for IgA antibodies in protection from NoV infections by blocking attachment to cell receptors.
Neutrophils hinder bacterial growth by a variety of antimicrobial mechanisms, including the production of reactive oxygen species and the secretion of proteins that sequester nutrients essential to microbes. A major player in this process is calprotectin, a host protein that exerts antimicrobial activity by chelating zinc and manganese. Here we show that the intestinal pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium uses specialized metal transporters to evade calprotectin sequestration of manganese, allowing the bacteria to outcompete commensals and thrive in the inflamed gut. The pathogen's ability to acquire manganese in turn promotes function of SodA and KatN, enzymes that use the metal as a cofactor to detoxify reactive oxygen species. This manganese-dependent SodA activity allows the bacteria to evade neutrophil killing mediated by calprotectin and reactive oxygen species. Thus, manganese acquisition enables S. Typhimurium to overcome host antimicrobial defenses and support its competitive growth in the intestine.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Nicaragua was the first developing nation to implement routine immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5). In this RV5-immunized population, understanding infectious etiologies of childhood diarrhea is necessary to direct diarrhea treatment and prevention efforts.
METHODS - We followed a population-based sample of children <5 years in León, Nicaragua for diarrhea episodes through household visits. Information was obtained on RV5 history and sociodemographics. Stool samples collected during diarrhea episodes and among healthy children underwent laboratory analysis for viral, bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens. Detection frequency and incidence of each enteropathogen was calculated.
RESULTS - The 826 children in the cohort experienced 677 diarrhea episodes during 607.5 child-years of exposure time (1.1 episodes per child-year). At least 1 enteropathogen was detected among 61.1% of the 337 diarrheal stools collected. The most common enteropathogens among diarrheal stools were: norovirus (20.4%), sapovirus (16.6%), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (11.3%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (8.3%), Giardia lamblia (8.0%) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (7.7%), with rotavirus detected among 5.3% of diarrheal stools. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli were frequently detected among stools from healthy children. Among children with diarrhea, norovirus was more commonly detected among younger children (< 2 years) and G. lamblia was more commonly detected among older children (2-4 years). The mean age of rotavirus detection was 34.6 months.
CONCLUSIONS - In this Central American community after RV5 introduction, rotavirus was not commonly detected among children with diarrhea. Prevention and appropriate management of norovirus and sapovirus should be considered to further reduce the burden of diarrheal disease.
UNLABELLED - Group A rotaviruses (RVs) remain a leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the G/P types of locally circulating RVs can vary from year to year and differ depending upon geographical location, those with G1P, G2P, G3P, G4P, G9P, and G12P specificities typically dominate. Little is known about the evolution and diversity of G2P RVs and the possible role that widespread vaccine use has had on their increased frequency of detection. To address these issues, we analyzed the 12 G2P RV isolates associated with a rise in RV gastroenteritis cases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) during the 2010-2011 winter season. Full-genome sequencing revealed that the isolates had genotype 2 constellations typical of DS-1-like viruses (G2P-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the genome segments of the isolates were comprised of two or three different subgenotype alleles; this enabled recognition of three distinct clades of G2P viruses that caused disease at VUMC in the 2010-2011 season. Although the three clades cocirculated in the same community, there was no evidence of interclade reassortment. Bayesian analysis of 328 VP7 genes of G2 viruses isolated in the last 39 years indicate that existing G2 VP7 gene lineages continue to evolve and that novel lineages, as represented by the VUMC isolates, are constantly being formed. Moreover, G2 lineages are characteristically shaped by lineage turnover events that introduce new globally dominant strains every 7 years, on average. The ongoing evolution of G2 VP7 lineages may give rise to antigenic changes that undermine vaccine effectiveness in the long term.
IMPORTANCE - Little is known about the diversity of cocirculating G2 rotaviruses and how their evolution may undermine the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines. To expand our understanding of the potential genetic range exhibited by rotaviruses circulating in postvaccine communities, we analyzed part of a collection of rotaviruses recovered from pediatric patients in the United States from 2010 to 2011. Examining the genetic makeup of these viruses revealed they represented three segregated groups that did not exchange genetic material. The distinction between these three groups may be explained by three separate introductions. By comparing a specific gene, namely, VP7, of the recent rotavirus isolates to those from a collection recovered from U.S. children between 1974 and 1991 and other globally circulating rotaviruses, we were able to reconstruct the timing of events that shaped their ancestry. This analysis indicates that G2 rotaviruses are continuously evolving, accumulating changes in their genetic material as they infect new patients.
We compared rotavirus detection rates in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and in healthy controls using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). We calculated rotavirus vaccine effectiveness using different laboratory-based case definitions to determine which best identified the proportion of disease that was vaccine preventable. Of 648 AGE patients, 158 (24%) were EIA positive, and 157 were also qRT-PCR positive. An additional 65 (10%) were qRT-PCR positive but EIA negative. Of 500 healthy controls, 1 was EIA positive and 24 (5%) were qRT-PCR positive. Rotavirus vaccine was highly effective (84% [95% CI 71%-91%]) in EIA-positive children but offered no significant protection (14% [95% CI -105% to 64%]) in EIA-negative children for whom virus was detected by qRT-PCR alone. Children with rotavirus detected by qRT-PCR but not by EIA were not protected by vaccination, suggesting that rotavirus detected by qRT-PCR alone might not be causally associated with AGE in all patients.
BACKGROUND - Although rotavirus and norovirus cause nearly 40% of severe endemic acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children <5 years of age in the United States, there are limited data on the etiologic role of other enteric viruses in this age group.
METHODS - We conducted active population-based surveillance in children presenting with AGE to hospitals, emergency departments, and primary care clinics in 3 US counties. Stool specimens from these children and from age-matched healthy controls collected between October 2008 and September 2009 were tested for enteric adenovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, parechovirus, bocavirus, and aichivirus. Typing was performed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.
RESULTS - Adenovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, parechovirus, bocavirus, and aichivirus were detected in the stool specimens of 11.8%, 4.9%, 5.4%, 4.8%, 1.4%, and 0.2% of patients with AGE and 1.8%, 3.0%, 4.2%, 4.4%, 2.4%, and 0% of healthy controls, respectively. Adenovirus (type 41), astrovirus (types 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8), sapovirus (genogroups I and II), parechovirus (types 1, 3, 4, and 5), and bocavirus (types 1, 2, and 3) were found cocirculating.
CONCLUSIONS - Adenovirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus infections were detected in 22.1% of the specimens from children <5 years of age who had medical visits for AGE and tested negative for rotavirus and norovirus. No causal role for parechovirus and bocavirus was found.
The objective of this study is to determine the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) for preventing rotavirus-related hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits during the 2006-07 and 2007-08 rotavirus seasons using two study designs. Active, prospective population-based surveillance was conducted to identify cases of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus-related hospitalizations and ED visits to be used in case-cohort and case-control designs. VE was calculated using one comparison group for the case-cohort method and two comparison groups for the case-control method. The VE estimates produced by the three analyses were similar. Three doses of RV5 were effective for preventing rotavirus-related hospitalizations and ED visits in each analysis, with VE estimated as 92% in all three analyses. Two doses of RV5 were also effective, with VE ranging from 79% to 83%. A single dose was effective in the case-cohort analysis, but was not significant in either of the case-control analyses. The case-cohort and the case-control study designs produced the same VE point estimates for completion of the three dose series. Two and three doses of RV5 were effective in preventing rotavirus-related hospitalizations and ED visits.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Cases of rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis have declined since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, but the burden of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis in children remains to be assessed.
METHODS - We conducted active surveillance for laboratory-confirmed cases of norovirus among children younger than 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in hospitals, emergency departments, and outpatient clinical settings. The children resided in one of three U.S. counties during the years 2009 and 2010. Fecal specimens were tested for norovirus and rotavirus. We calculated population-based rates of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis and reviewed billing records to determine medical costs; these data were extrapolated to the U.S. population of children younger than 5 years of age.
RESULTS - Norovirus was detected in 21% of young children (278 of 1295) seeking medical attention for acute gastroenteritis in 2009 and 2010, with norovirus detected in 22% (165 of 742) in 2009 and 20% (113 of 553) in 2010 (P=0.43). The virus was also detected in 4% of healthy controls (19 of 493) in 2009. Rotavirus was identified in 12% of children with acute gastroenteritis (152 of 1295) in 2009 and 2010. The respective rates of hospitalization, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits for the norovirus were 8.6, 146.7, and 367.7 per 10,000 children younger than 5 years of age in 2009 and 5.8, 134.3, and 260.1 per 10,000 in 2010, with an estimated cost per episode of $3,918, $435, and $151, respectively, in 2009. Nationally, we estimate that the average numbers of annual hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits due to norovirus infection in 2009 and 2010 among U.S. children in this age group exceeded 14,000, 281,000, and 627,000, respectively, with more than $273 million in treatment costs each year.
CONCLUSIONS - Since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, norovirus has become the leading cause of medically attended acute gastroenteritis in U.S. children and is associated with nearly 1 million health care visits annually. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).
BACKGROUND - We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) for RotaTeq (RV5; 3 doses) and Rotarix (RV1; 2 doses) at reducing rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (AGE) inpatient and emergency department (ED) visits in US children.
METHODS - We enrolled children <5 years of age hospitalized or visiting the ED with AGE symptoms from November 2009-June 2010 and from November 2010-June 2011 at 7 medical institutions. Fecal specimens were tested for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay and genotyped. Vaccination among laboratory-confirmed rotavirus cases was compared with rotavirus-negative AGE controls. Regression models calculated VE estimates for each vaccine, age, ethnicity, genotype, and clinical setting.
RESULTS - RV5-specific analyses included 359 rotavirus cases and 1811 rotavirus-negative AGE controls. RV1-specific analyses included 60 rotavirus cases and 155 rotavirus-negative AGE controls. RV5 and RV1 were 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78%-88%) and 70% (95% CI, 39%-86%) effective, respectively, against rotavirus-associated ED visits and hospitalizations combined. By clinical setting, RV5 VE against ED and inpatient rotavirus-associated visits was 81% (95% CI, 70%-84%) and 86% (95% CI, 74%-91%), respectively. RV1 was 78% (95% CI, 46%-91%) effective against ED rotavirus disease; study power was insufficient to evaluate inpatient RV1 VE. No waning of immunity was evident during the first 4 years of life for RV5, nor during the first 2 years of life for RV1. RV5 provided genotype-specific protection against each of the predominant strains (G1P, G2P, G3P, G12P), while RV1 VE was statistically significant for the most common genotype, G3P.
CONCLUSIONS - Both RV5 and RV1 significantly protected against medically attended rotavirus gastroenteritis in this real-world assessment.