The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES/Popdc1) is a junctional-associated transmembrane protein that is underexpressed in a number of malignancies and regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We previously identified a role for BVES in regulation of the Wnt pathway, a modulator of intestinal stem cell programs, but its role in small intestinal (SI) biology remains unexplored. We hypothesized that BVES influences intestinal stem cell programs and is critical to SI homeostasis after radiation injury. At baseline, Bves(-/-) mice demonstrated increased crypt height, as well as elevated proliferation and expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5 compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Intercross with Lgr5-EGFP reporter mice confirmed expansion of the stem cell compartment in Bves(-/-) mice. To examine stem cell function after BVES deletion, we used ex vivo 3D-enteroid cultures. Bves(-/-) enteroids demonstrated increased stemness compared to WT, when examining parameters such as plating efficiency, stem spheroid formation, and retention of peripheral cystic structures. Furthermore, we observed increased proliferation, expression of crypt-base columnar "CBC" and "+4" stem cell markers, amplified Wnt signaling, and responsiveness to Wnt activation in the Bves(-/-) enteroids. Bves expression was downregulated after radiation in WT mice. Moreover, after radiation, Bves(-/-) mice demonstrated significantly greater SI crypt viability, proliferation, and amplified Wnt signaling in comparison to WT mice. Bves(-/-) mice also demonstrated elevations in Lgr5 and Ascl2 expression, and putative damage-responsive stem cell populations marked by Bmi1 and TERT. Therefore, BVES is a key regulator of intestinal stem cell programs and mucosal homeostasis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1626-1636.
© 2016 AlphaMed Press.
Myeloid translocation genes (MTGs) are transcriptional corepressors implicated in development, malignancy, differentiation, and stem cell function. While MTG16 loss renders mice sensitive to chemical colitis, the role of MTG16 in the small intestine is unknown. Histological examination revealed that Mtg16(-/-) mice have increased enterocyte proliferation and goblet cell deficiency. After exposure to radiation, Mtg16(-/-) mice exhibited increased crypt viability and decreased apoptosis compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Flow cytometric and immunofluorescence analysis of intestinal epithelial cells for phospho-histone H2A.X also indicated decreased DNA damage and apoptosis in Mtg16(-/-) intestines. To determine if Mtg16 deletion affected epithelial cells in a cell-autonomous fashion, intestinal crypts were isolated from Mtg16(-/-) mice. Mtg16(-/-) and WT intestinal crypts showed similar enterosphere forming efficiencies when cultured in the presence of EGF, Noggin, and R-spondin. However, when Mtg16(-/-) crypts were cultured in the presence of Wnt3a, they demonstrated higher enterosphere forming efficiencies and delayed progression to mature enteroids. Mtg16(-/-) intestinal crypts isolated from irradiated mice exhibited increased survival compared with WT intestinal crypts. Interestingly, Mtg16 expression was reduced in a stem cell-enriched population at the time of crypt regeneration. This is consistent with MTG16 negatively regulating regeneration in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MTG16 loss promotes radioresistance and impacts intestinal stem cell function, possibly due to shifting cellular response away from DNA damage-induced apoptosis and towards DNA repair after injury.
Expression of the clusterin (CLU) gene results in the synthesis of a conventional secretory isoform set (pre- and mature secretory clusterin proteins, psCLU/sCLU), as well as another set of intracellular isoforms, appearing in the cytoplasm (pre-nuclear CLU, pnCLU) and in the nucleus as an ∼55-kDa mature nuclear clusterin (nCLU) form. These two isoform sets have opposing cell functions: pro-survival and pro-death, respectively. Although much is known about the regulation and function of sCLU as a pro-survival factor, the regulation and function of endogenous nCLU in cell death are relatively unexplored. Here, we show that depletion of endogenous nCLU protein using siRNA specific to its truncated mRNA increased clonogenic survival of ionizing radiation (IR)-exposed cells. nCLU-mediated apoptosis was Bax-dependent, and lethality correlated with accumulation of mature nCLU protein. nCLU accumulation was regulated by CRM1 because binding between CRM1 and nCLU proteins was significantly diminished by leptomycin B (LMB), and nuclear levels of nCLU protein were significantly enhanced by LMB and IR co-treatment. Moreover, LMB treatment significantly enhanced IR-induced nCLU-mediated cell death responses. Importantly, bax(-/-) and bax(-/-)/bak(-/-) double knock-out cells were resistant to nCLU-mediated cell death, whereas bak(-/-) or wild-type bax(+/+)/bak(+/+) cells were hypersensitive. The regulation of nCLU by CRM1 nuclear export/import may explain recent clinical results showing that highly malignant tumors have lost the ability to accumulate nCLU levels, thereby avoiding growth inhibition and cell death.
Exposure of the brain to ionizing radiation can cause neurocognitive deficiencies. The pathophysiology of these neurological changes is complex and includes radiation-induced apoptosis in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. We have recently found that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) resulted in significant protection from radiation-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons. The molecular mechanisms of this cytoprotection include abrogation of radiation-induced accumulation of p53. Here we show that pretreatment of irradiated HT-22 hippocampal-derived neurons with small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3β SB216763 or SB415286, or with GSK-3β-specific shRNA resulted in accumulation of the p53-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2. Knockdown of MDM2 using specific shRNA or chemical inhibition of MDM2-p53 interaction prevented the protective changes triggered by GSK-3β inhibition in irradiated HT-22 neurons and restored radiation cytotoxicity. We found that this could be due to regulation of apoptosis by subcellular localization and interaction of GSK-3β, p53 and MDM2. These data suggest that the mechanisms of radioprotection by GSK-3β inhibitors in hippocampal neurons involve regulation of MDM2-dependent p53 accumulation and interactions between GSK-3β, MDM2 and p53.
To protect cells from oxidative DNA damage and mutagenesis, organisms possess multiple glycosylases to recognize the damaged bases and to initiate the Base Excision Repair pathway. Three DNA glycosylases have been identified in mammals that are homologous to the Escherichia coli Fpg and Nei proteins, Neil1, Neil2, and Neil3. Neil1 and Neil2 in human and mouse have been well characterized while the properties of the Neil3 protein remain to be elucidated. In this study, we report the characterization of Mus musculus (house mouse) Neil3 (MmuNeil3) as an active DNA glycosylase both in vitro and in vivo. In duplex DNA, MmuNeil3 recognizes the oxidized purines, spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), guanidinohydantoin (Gh), 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) and 4,6-diamino- 5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyA), but not 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG). Interestingly, MmuNeil3 prefers lesions in single-stranded DNA and in bubble structures. In contrast to other members of the family that use the N-terminal proline as the nucleophile, MmuNeil3 forms a Schiff base intermediate via its N-terminal valine. We expressed the glycosylase domain of MmuNeil3 (MmuNeil3Delta324) in an Escherichia coli triple mutant lacking Fpg, Nei, and MutY glycosylase activities and showed that MmuNeil3 greatly reduced both the spontaneous mutation frequency and the level of FapyG in the DNA, suggesting that Neil3 plays a role in repairing FapyG in vivo.
Alternative and aberrant splicing of hdm2 occurs in tumor and normal tissues. However, the factors that induce these splice variants and whether they are translated to protein products in vivo is unknown, making it difficult to decipher which of these hdm2 transcripts have a normal physiologic function or contribute to carcinogenesis. We investigated the conditions that induce this post-transcriptional modification of hdm2 in tumor and nontumorigenic cell lines. We showed that UV and gamma radiation as well as cisplatin treatment induced alternative splicing of hdm2, which resulted in a single splice variant, hdm2(alt1), irrespective of the cell type. Interestingly, the mechanism of UV-induced splicing is independent of p53 status. Immunoanalysis revealed that, after UV radiation, HDM2(ALT1) protein was expressed and interacted with HDM2 that correlated to increased p53 protein levels and its accumulation in the nucleus, whereas HDM2 localized more to the cytoplasm with a decrease in its RNA and protein level. We propose that stress-induced HDM2(ALT1) regulates HDM2 at two levels, RNA and protein, further modulating the p53-HDM2 interaction or interactions of HDM2 with other cell cycle regulatory proteins. This kind of regulation may possibly restrict oncogenic functions of HDM2 and contribute to the many protective responses triggered by certain stress signals. Our data imply that HDM2(ALT1) possesses a normal physiologic function in damaged cells, perhaps facilitating cellular defense.
Lymphopenia-induced homeostatic expansion in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice may lead to autoimmunity. We demonstrated that NOD lymphocytes are more susceptible to apoptosis than those of non-diabetic C57BL/6 or NOD.H2(h4) mice in vivo and in vitro, which may be an underlying mechanism causing lymphopenia in NOD mice. Gene expression profiling identified a set of genes that are differentially expressed between NOD and B6 mice. Identity of these genes suggested that NOD T cells have a deregulated stress response system, especially heat-shock protein family, making them overly sensitive to apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesize that this strain-specific gene expression profile may confer a liability upon NOD T cells making them more susceptible to apoptosis that may lead to lymphopenia in NOD mice and contribute to development of autoimmunity.
PURPOSE - The aim of this study was to determine the safety and pathologic response rates following neoadjuvant paclitaxel and radiation in patients with stage II/III breast cancer and to evaluate the use of sequential biopsies to allow an in vivo assessment of biological markers as potential predictive markers of response to this regimen.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - Patients with high-risk, operable breast cancer were treated with three cycles of paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 every 3 weeks, followed by twice-weekly paclitaxel 30 mg/m2 and concurrent radiation. Core biopsies were obtained at baseline and 24 to 72 hours after the first cycle of paclitaxel. After completing neoadjuvant treatment, patients underwent definitive surgery. The primary end point was pathologic complete response, which is defined as the absence of any invasive cancer at surgery. Potential markers of therapeutic response were evaluated including markers of proliferation, apoptosis, p21, HER2, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor status.
RESULTS - Of the 38 patients enrolled, 13 (34%) had a pathologic complete response. There was no significant difference in baseline Ki-67 between responders (35%) and nonresponders (28%; P = 0.45). There was also no significant change in Ki-67 following paclitaxel administration. Despite this lack of immunohistologic change in proliferative activity, baseline mitotic index was higher for patients with pathologic complete response over nonresponders (27 versus 10, P = 0.003). Moreover, the increase in mitotic index following paclitaxel administration was associated with pathologic complete response.
CONCLUSIONS - Neoadjuvant paclitaxel/radiation is effective and well tolerated. Tumor proliferation at baseline and response to chemotherapy as measured by mitotic activity may serve as an important indicator of pathologic response to neoadjuvant paclitaxel/radiation.
OBJECTIVE - Patients with autoimmune disorders exhibit highly reproducible gene expression profiles in their peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This profile includes, at least in part, a collection of underexpressed genes that encode proteins that inhibit cell cycle progression and stimulate apoptosis. We aimed to determine whether this gene expression profile confers functional liability on lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS - Viability studies in response to a panel of proapoptotic stimuli revealed that T lymphocytes from patients with RA were resistant to gamma radiation-induced apoptosis, a process known to be dependent on p53. To assess p53 function in RA peripheral blood mononuclear cells, baseline levels of p53 protein and TP53 transcript were measured in patients with RA and controls. The cellular p53 response to gamma radiation was also assessed by immunoblotting.
RESULTS - Lymphocytes from patients with RA had lower baseline levels of TP53 messenger RNA (mRNA) and p53 protein than did those from control subjects and were deficient in their ability to increase p53 after exposure to gamma radiation. A subgroup of patients with RA had a second biochemical defect characterized by expression of very low baseline levels of checkpoint kinase 2 mRNA and protein.
CONCLUSION - We conclude that defects in the expression of TP53 mRNA and, in a subgroup, defects in expression of CHK2 mRNA, lead to severe defects in apoptosis in patients with RA. We hypothesize that this liability may contribute to autoimmunity.
Mdm2 directly regulates the p53 tumor suppressor. However, Mdm2 also has p53-independent activities, and the pathways that mediate these functions are unresolved. Here we report the identification of a specific association of Mdm2 with Mre11, Nbs1, and Rad50, a DNA double strand break repair complex. Mdm2 bound to the Mre11-Nbs1-Rad50 complex in primary cells and in cells containing inactivated p53 or p14/p19ARF, a regulator of Mdm2. Further analysis revealed that Mdm2 directly bound to Nbs1 but not to Mre11 or Rad50. Amino acids 198-314 of Mdm2 were required for Mdm2/Nbs1 association, and neither the N terminus forkhead-associated and breast cancer C-terminal domains nor the C terminus Mre11 binding domain of Nbs1 mediated the interaction of Nbs1 with Mdm2. Mdm2 co-localized with Nbs1 to sites of DNA damage following gamma-irradiation. Notably, Mdm2 overexpression inhibited DNA double strand break repair, and this was independent of p53 and ARF, the alternative reading frame of the Ink4alocus. The delay in DNA repair imposed by Mdm2 required the Nbs1 binding domain of Mdm2, but the ubiquitin ligase domain in Mdm2 was dispensable. Therefore, Nbs1 is a novel p53-independent Mdm2 binding protein and links Mdm2 to the Mre11-Nbs1-Rad50-regulated DNA repair response.