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G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) play a key role in homologous desensitization of GPCRs. It is widely assumed that most GRKs selectively phosphorylate only active GPCRs. Here, we show that although this seems to be the case for the GRK2/3 subfamily, GRK5/6 effectively phosphorylate inactive forms of several GPCRs, including β2-adrenergic and M2 muscarinic receptors, which are commonly used as representative models for GPCRs. Agonist-independent GPCR phosphorylation cannot be explained by constitutive activity of the receptor or membrane association of the GRK, suggesting that it is an inherent ability of GRK5/6. Importantly, phosphorylation of the inactive β2-adrenergic receptor enhanced its interactions with arrestins. Arrestin-3 was able to discriminate between phosphorylation of the same receptor by GRK2 and GRK5, demonstrating preference for the latter. Arrestin recruitment to inactive phosphorylated GPCRs suggests that not only agonist activation but also the complement of GRKs in the cell regulate formation of the arrestin-receptor complex and thereby G protein-independent signaling.
© 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
There is increasing evidence that the intrarenal dopaminergic system plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, and defects in dopamine signaling appear to be involved in the development of hypertension. Recent experimental models have definitively demonstrated that abnormalities in intrarenal dopamine production or receptor signaling can predispose to salt-sensitive hypertension and a dysregulated renin-angiotensin system. In addition, studies in both experimental animal models and in humans with salt-sensitive hypertension implicate abnormalities in dopamine receptor regulation due to receptor desensitization resulting from increased G-protein receptor kinase 4 (GRK4) activity. Functional polymorphisms that predispose to increased basal GRK4 activity both decrease dopamine receptor activity and increase angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor activity and are associated with essential hypertension in a number of different human cohorts.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW - This review will highlight the recent findings concerning the role of the intrarenal dopaminergic system in hypertension, especially the role of alterations in G-protein receptor kinase 4 (GRK4) activity.
RECENT FINDINGS - Recent studies highlight the importance of the intrarenal dopaminergic system in blood pressure regulation and how defects in dopamine signaling are involved in the development of hypertension. There are recent experimental models that definitively demonstrate that abnormalities in intrarenal dopamine production or receptor signaling can predispose to salt-sensitive hypertension and a dysregulated renin-angiotensin system. Furthermore, studies in experimental animal models and in humans with salt-sensitive hypertension implicate abnormalities in dopamine receptor regulation because of receptor desensitization resulting from increased GRK4 activity. Functional polymorphisms that predispose to increased basal GRK4 activity both decrease dopamine receptor activity and increase angiotensin II AT1 receptor activity and are associated with essential hypertension in a number of different human cohorts.
SUMMARY - The ongoing elucidation of this important regulatory pathway further emphasizes the importance of the kidney in maintenance of blood pressure control and may help to delineate the underlying mechanisms predisposing individuals or populations to increased risk for development of hypertension.
A growing body of evidence suggests that siRNA could generate off-target effects through different mechanisms. However, the full impact of off-target gene regulation on phenotypic induction and accordingly on data interpretation in the context of large-scale siRNA library screen has not been reported. Here we report on off-target gene silencing effects observed in a large-scale knockdown experiment designed to identify novel regulators of the HIF-1 pathway. All of the three 'top hits' from our screen have been demonstrated to result from off-target gene silencing. Two of the three 'siRNA hits' were found to directly trigger down-regulation of hif-1alpha mRNA through a 7 nt motif, AGGCAGT, that is present in both the hif-1alpha mRNA and the siRNAs. Further analysis revealed that the generation of off-target gene silencing via this 7 nt motif depends on the characteristics of the target mRNA, including the sequence context surrounding the complementary region, the position of the complementary region in the mRNA and the copy number of the complementary region. Interestingly, the off-target siRNA against hif-1alpha was also shown to trigger mRNA degradation with high probability of other genes that possess multiple copies of the AGGCAGT motif in the 3'-untranslated region. Lessons learned from this study will be a valuable asset to aid in designing siRNAs with more stringent target selectivity and improving 'hits-follow-up' strategies for future large-scale knockdown experiments.