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Availability of Low-Fat Milk and Produce in Small and Mid-Sized Grocery Stores After 2014 WIC Final Rule Changes, Tennessee.
Schlundt D, Briley C, Canada B, Jones JL, Husaini BA, Emerson JS, Hull PC
(2017) Prev Chronic Dis 14: E70
MeSH Terms: Animals, Commerce, Food Assistance, Fruit, Humans, Milk, Socioeconomic Factors, Tennessee, Vegetables
Show Abstract · Added July 11, 2019
INTRODUCTION - The 2007 Interim Rule mandated changes to food packages in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) for implementation by 2009. The 2014 Final Rule required additional changes, including increasing the cash value voucher for fruits and vegetables from $6 to $8 for children by June 2014, and allowing only low-fat (1%) or nonfat milk for mothers and children aged 2 to 4 years by October 2014. This study evaluated the effect of the 2014 Final Rule changes on the food environment of small and mid-sized WIC-authorized grocery stores.
METHODS - We analyzed secondary data using a natural experimental design to compare the percentage of shelf space for low-fat and nonfat milk and the number of fresh fruit and vegetable varieties in stock before and after the changes. We collected observational data on 18 small and mid-sized WIC-authorized grocery stores in Nashville, Tennessee, using the Nutrition Environment Measures in Store tool in March 2014 and February 2016.
RESULTS - The mean percentage of shelf space occupied by low-fat and nonfat milk increased from 2.5% to 14.4% (P = .003), primarily because of an increase in the proportion of low-fat milk (P = .001). The mean number of fresh fruit and vegetable varieties increased from 24.3 to 27.7 (P = .01), with a significant increase for vegetables (P = .008) but not fruit.
CONCLUSION - Availability of low-fat milk and variety of fresh vegetables increased after the Final Rule changes in the observed stores. Future research should examine outcomes in other cities.
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MeSH Terms
Dietary intake of fiber, fruit and vegetables decreases the risk of incident kidney stones in women: a Women's Health Initiative report.
Sorensen MD, Hsi RS, Chi T, Shara N, Wactawski-Wende J, Kahn AJ, Wang H, Hou L, Stoller ML, Women’s Health Initiative Writing Group
(2014) J Urol 192: 1694-9
MeSH Terms: Diet, Dietary Fiber, Female, Fruit, Humans, Kidney Calculi, Longitudinal Studies, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Recurrence, Risk Assessment, Vegetables, Women's Health
Show Abstract · Added January 16, 2018
PURPOSE - We evaluated the relationship between dietary fiber, fruit and vegetable intake, and the risk of kidney stone formation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Overall 83,922 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative observational study were included in the analysis and followed prospectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between total dietary fiber, fruit and vegetable intake, and the risk of incident kidney stone formation, adjusting for nephrolithiasis risk factors (age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, diabetes mellitus, calcium supplementation, hormone therapy use, body mass index and calibrated caloric intake; and dietary water, sodium, animal protein and calcium intake). Women with a history of kidney stones (3,471) were analyzed separately.
RESULTS - Mean age of the women was 64±7 years, 85% were white and 2,937 (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone in a median followup of 8 years. In women with no history of kidney stones higher total dietary fiber (6% to 26% decreased risk, p <0.001), greater fruit intake (12% to 25% decreased risk, p <0.001) and greater vegetable intake (9% to 22% decreased risk, p=0.002) were associated with a decreased risk of incident kidney stone formation in separate adjusted models. In women with a history of stones there were no significant protective effects of fiber, fruit or vegetable intake on the risk of kidney stone recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS - Greater dietary intake of fiber, fruits and vegetables was associated with a reduced risk of incident kidney stones in postmenopausal women. The protective effects were independent of other known risk factors for kidney stones. In contrast, there was no reduction in risk in women with a history of stones.
Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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13 MeSH Terms
Diet, Helicobacter pylori strain-specific infection, and gastric cancer risk among Chinese men.
Epplein M, Zheng W, Li H, Peek RM, Correa P, Gao J, Michel A, Pawlita M, Cai Q, Xiang YB, Shu XO
(2014) Nutr Cancer 66: 550-7
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, Case-Control Studies, China, Diet, Feeding Behavior, Fruit, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Humans, Logistic Models, Male, Meat, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Stomach, Stomach Neoplasms
Show Abstract · Added April 4, 2014
Evidence for the association of diet and gastric cancer is equivocal, and the majority of previous studies have not evaluated the interaction of diet and infection with Helicobacter pylori, the leading risk factor for gastric cancer. We examined these associations among 226 cases and 451 controls nested within a prospective cohort. Dietary intakes were calculated from validated food frequency questionnaires. Blood levels of 15 antibodies to Helicobacter pylori proteins were assessed using multiplex serology. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using logistic regression. Among individuals infected with high-risk Helicobacter pylori (sero-positivity to 5-6 virulent H. pylori proteins), increasing intake of red meat, heme iron, and sodium increased risk (comparing highest tertile to lowest: ORs [95% confidence interval {CI}]: 1.85 [1.01-3.40]; 1.95 [1.06-3.57]; and 1.76 [0.91-3.43], respectively) while increasing intake of fruit decreased gastric cancer risk (comparing highest tertile of intake to lowest: OR [95% CI]: 0.52 [0.28-0.94]). No associations of diet with risk were found among individuals infected with low-risk H. pylori (P for interaction for red meat and sodium: 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). In this population with over 90% prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection, categorizing individuals using H. pylori multiplex serology may identify individuals for whom a diet intervention may be effective.
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19 MeSH Terms
Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely correlated with circulating levels of proinflammatory markers in women.
Jiang Y, Wu SH, Shu XO, Xiang YB, Ji BT, Milne GL, Cai Q, Zhang X, Gao YT, Zheng W, Yang G
(2014) J Acad Nutr Diet 114: 700-8.e2
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Alleles, Biomarkers, Body Mass Index, Brassicaceae, Cross-Sectional Studies, F2-Isoprostanes, Female, Fruit, Glutathione Transferase, Humans, Inflammation, Interleukin-1beta, Interleukin-6, Life Style, Linear Models, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, Nutrition Assessment, Oxidative Stress, Surveys and Questionnaires, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Vegetables
Show Abstract · Added March 20, 2014
BACKGROUND - Higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables or their constituents have been shown to lower inflammation in animal studies. However, evidence for this anti-inflammatory effect of cruciferous vegetable consumption in humans is scarce.
OBJECTIVE/DESIGN - In this cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated associations of vegetable intake with a panel of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers among 1,005 middle-aged Chinese women. Dietary intake of foods was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire.
RESULTS - Multivariable-adjusted circulating concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 were lower among women with higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables. The differences in concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers between extreme quintiles of cruciferous vegetable intake were 12.66% for TNF-α (Ptrend=0.01), 18.18% for IL-1β (Ptrend=0.02), and 24.68% for IL-6 (Ptrend=0.02). A similar, but less apparent, inverse association was found for intakes of all vegetables combined but not for noncruciferous vegetables. Levels of the urinary oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and their major metabolite, 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F2t-IsoP, were not associated with intakes of cruciferous vegetables or all vegetables combined.
CONCLUSIONS - This study suggests that the previously observed health benefits of cruciferous vegetable consumption may be partly associated with the anti-inflammatory effects of these vegetables.
Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
1 Communities
4 Members
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24 MeSH Terms
Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from the Shanghai Men's Health Study.
Vogtmann E, Xiang YB, Li HL, Levitan EB, Yang G, Waterbor JW, Gao J, Cai H, Xie L, Wu QJ, Zhang B, Gao YT, Zheng W, Shu XO
(2013) Cancer Causes Control 24: 1935-45
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, Body Mass Index, China, Cohort Studies, Colorectal Neoplasms, Exercise, Feeding Behavior, Follow-Up Studies, Fruit, Health Surveys, Humans, Male, Men's Health, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, Proportional Hazards Models, Risk Factors, Smoking, Surveys and Questionnaires, Vegetables
Show Abstract · Added March 7, 2014
PURPOSE - The observed associations of fruit and vegetable consumption with the risk of colorectal cancer have been inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with the risk of colorectal cancer among Chinese men.
METHODS - 61,274 male participants aged 40-74 years were included. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered to collect information on usual dietary intake, including 8 fruits and 38 vegetables commonly consumed by residents of Shanghai. Follow-up for diagnoses of colon or rectal cancer was available through 31 December 2010. Dietary intakes were analyzed both as categorical and continuous variables. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated for colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers using Cox proportional hazards models.
RESULTS - After 390,688 person-years of follow-up, 398 cases of colorectal cancer (236 colon and 162 rectal) were observed in the cohort. Fruit consumption was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (fifth vs. first quintile HR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.48, 0.95; p trend = 0.03), whereas vegetable intake was not significantly associated with risk. The associations for subgroups of fruits and legumes, but not other vegetable categories, were generally inversely associated with the risk of colon and rectal cancers.
CONCLUSIONS - Fruit intake was generally inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas vegetable consumption was largely unrelated to risk among middle-aged and older Chinese men.
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22 MeSH Terms
Development of a community-sensitive strategy to increase availability of fresh fruits and vegetables in Nashville's urban food deserts, 2010-2012.
Larson C, Haushalter A, Buck T, Campbell D, Henderson T, Schlundt D
(2013) Prev Chronic Dis 10: E125
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bread, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S., Commerce, Community Health Planning, Community-Institutional Relations, Food Supply, Fruit, Humans, Milk, Minority Groups, Obesity, Poverty, Residence Characteristics, Tennessee, United States, Urban Population, Vegetables
Show Abstract · Added March 7, 2014
BACKGROUND - Food deserts, areas that lack full-service grocery stores, may contribute to rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases among low-income and racial/ethnic minority residents. Our corner store project, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative, aimed to increase availability of healthful foods in food deserts in Nashville, Tennessee.
COMMUNITY CONTEXT - We identified 4 food deserts in which most residents are low-income and racially and ethnically diverse. Our objectives were to develop an approach to increase availability of fresh fruits and vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, and 100% whole-wheat bread in Nashville's food deserts and to engage community members to inform our strategy.
METHODS - Five corner stores located in food deserts met inclusion criteria for our intervention. We then conducted community listening sessions, proprietor surveys, store audits, and customer-intercept surveys to identify needs, challenges to retailing the products, and potential intervention strategies.
OUTCOME - Few stores offered fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, or 100% whole-wheat bread, and none stocked items from all 4 categories. Major barriers to retailing healthful options identified by community members are mistrust of store owners, history of poor-quality produce, and limited familiarity with healthful options. Store owners identified neighborhood crime as the major barrier. We used community input to develop strategies.
INTERPRETATION - Engaging community residents and understanding neighborhood context is critical to developing strategies that increase access to healthful foods in corner stores.
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18 MeSH Terms
Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of CHD: results from prospective cohort studies of Chinese adults in Shanghai.
Yu D, Zhang X, Gao YT, Li H, Yang G, Huang J, Zheng W, Xiang YB, Shu XO
(2014) Br J Nutr 111: 353-62
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Animals, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, China, Cohort Studies, Coronary Disease, Feeding Behavior, Female, Fruit, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Risk Factors, Vegetables
Show Abstract · Added March 7, 2014
The protective effects of fruits and vegetables against CHD have been suggested by many epidemiological studies among Western populations. However, prospective data are lacking for Asian populations. In the present study, we examined the associations of fruit and vegetable intake with CHD incidence among 67 211 women (aged 40-70 years) and 55 474 men (aged 40-74 years) living in Shanghai, China. Food intake was assessed using validated FFQ through in-person interviews. Coronary events (non-fatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD) were identified by biennial home visits and further confirmed by medical record review. During a mean follow-up period of 9·8 and 5·4 years, 148 events in women and 217 events in men were documented and verified. After adjustment for potential confounders, women in the highest quartile of total fruit and vegetable intake (median 814 g/d) had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0·62 (95 % CI 0·38, 1·02) for CHD (P for trend = 0·04) compared with those in the lowest quartile (median 274 g/d). This association was primarily driven by fruits (HR for the highest v. the lowest intake in women: 0·62, 95 % CI 0·37, 1·03). The strength of the association was attenuated after further controlling for history of diabetes or hypertension. For men, no significant association was found for fruit and vegetable intake when analysed either in combination or individually. The present findings suggest that a high consumption of fruits may reduce CHD risk in Chinese women.
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15 MeSH Terms
Vegetable-based dietary pattern and liver cancer risk: results from the Shanghai women's and men's health studies.
Zhang W, Xiang YB, Li HL, Yang G, Cai H, Ji BT, Gao YT, Zheng W, Shu XO
(2013) Cancer Sci 104: 1353-61
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Animals, Carcinoma, Hepatocellular, China, Disease Progression, Feeding Behavior, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Fruit, Humans, Life Style, Liver Diseases, Liver Neoplasms, Male, Meat, Middle Aged, Proportional Hazards Models, Prospective Studies, Risk, Risk Factors, Socioeconomic Factors, Urban Population, Vegetables
Show Abstract · Added May 4, 2017
Although dietary patterns, specific foods, and their constituents have been linked to cancer risk, the role of dietary patterns and specific food groups in liver cancer risk has not been investigated. In the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS), two cohort studies of 132 837 Chinese women and men, we evaluated the relationship between dietary patterns, food groups, and liver cancer risk. Through in-person interviews, dietary information intake over the preceding year was collected by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Cox regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals with adjustment for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 10.9 (SWHS) or 5.5 (SMHS) years, 267 incident liver cancer cases were identified after the first 2 years of study enrolment. Three dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. A vegetable-based dietary pattern was inversely associated with liver cancer; hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the lowest to highest quartiles were: 1.00; 0.98 (0.71-1.35); 0.93 (0.67-1.29); and 0.58 (0.40-0.84); P(trend) = 0.01. The association was stronger among participants with a history of chronic liver disease. Further analyses showed high intakes of celery, mushrooms, allium vegetables, composite vegetables (including asparagus lettuce and garland chrysanthemum), legumes and legume products were associated with reduced liver cancer risk (all P(trend) < 0.05). Fruit- and meat-based dietary patterns were not associated with liver cancer risk. Our study suggests that a vegetable-based dietary pattern is associated with reduced liver cancer risk.
© 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.
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24 MeSH Terms
Meat, milk and risk of lymphoid malignancies: a case-control study in Uruguay.
De Stefani E, Ronco AL, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Boffetta P, Correa P, Barrios E, Acosta G, Mendilaharsu M
(2013) Nutr Cancer 65: 375-83
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Alcoholic Beverages, Animals, Case-Control Studies, Female, Food Handling, Fruit, Hodgkin Disease, Humans, Leukemia, Lymphoid, Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin, Lymphoproliferative Disorders, Male, Meat, Meat Products, Middle Aged, Milk, Multiple Myeloma, Risk Factors, Surveys and Questionnaires, Uruguay, Vegetables, Wine
Show Abstract · Added September 3, 2013
In the time period 1996-2004, 697 cases with lymphoid neoplasms and 3606 controls with nonneoplastic conditions were included in a case-control study conducted in the Cancer Institute of Uruguay. They were administered a routine questionnaire that included 8 sections and a food frequency questionnaire focused on intakes of total meat, red meat, salted meat, barbecued meat, processed meat, milk, total vegetables and total fruits, and alcoholic beverages. Lymphoid cancers were analyzed by multiple polytomous regression. Red meat, salted meat, and milk were positively associated with risk of lymphoid cancers [odds ratios (OR) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest one of red meat = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-2.08, OR for whole milk = 2.92, 95% CI 2.63-3.63). On the other hand, plant foods, particularly total fruits, and alcoholic beverages (mainly red wine) were protective. We could conclude that these foods could play a significant role in the etiology of lymphoid malignancies.
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25 MeSH Terms
Intakes of fruits, vegetables, and related vitamins and lung cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009).
Takata Y, Xiang YB, Yang G, Li H, Gao J, Cai H, Gao YT, Zheng W, Shu XO
(2013) Nutr Cancer 65: 51-61
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Ascorbic Acid, Carotenoids, China, Cohort Studies, Eating, Folic Acid, Follow-Up Studies, Fruit, Humans, Lung Neoplasms, Male, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Vegetables, Vitamin A, Vitamins
Show Abstract · Added March 7, 2014
Most epidemiological studies evaluating the association of fruit and vegetable intakes on lung cancer risk were conducted in North American and European countries. We investigated the association of intakes of fruits, vegetables, dietary vitamins A and C, and folate with lung cancer risk among 61,491 adult Chinese men who were recruited into the Shanghai Men's Health Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire during in-home visits. Multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of lung cancer risk associated with dietary intakes. During a median follow-up of 5.5 yr, 359 incident lung cancer cases accrued after the first year of follow-up and 68.8% of them were current smokers. Intakes of green leafy vegetables, β-carotene-rich vegetables, watermelon, vitamin A, and carotenoids were inversely associated with lung cancer risk; the corresponding HR (95% CI) comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles were 0.72 (0.53-0.98), 0.69 (0.51-0.94), 0.65 (0.47-0.90), 0.63 (0.44-0.88), and 0.64 (0.46-0.88). Intake of all fruits and vegetables combined was marginally associated with lower risk. Our study suggests that the consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables is inversely associated with lung cancer risk.
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19 MeSH Terms