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SIGNIFICANCE - Oxidative stress contributes to numerous pathophysiological conditions such as development of cancer, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. A variety of measurements of oxidative stress markers in biological systems have been developed; however, many of these methods are not specific, can produce artifacts, and do not directly detect the free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative stress. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a unique tool that allows direct measurements of free radical species. Cyclic hydroxylamines are useful and convenient molecular probes that readily react with ROS to produce stable nitroxide radicals, which can be quantitatively measured by EPR. In this work, we critically review recent applications of various cyclic hydroxylamine spin probes in biology to study oxidative stress, their advantages, and the shortcomings. Recent Advances: In the past decade, a number of new cyclic hydroxylamine spin probes have been developed and their successful application for ROS measurement using EPR has been published. These new state-of-the-art methods provide improved selectivity and sensitivity for in vitro and in vivo studies.
CRITICAL ISSUES - Although cyclic hydroxylamine spin probes EPR application has been previously described, there has been lack of translation of these new methods into biomedical research, limiting their widespread use. This work summarizes "best practice" in applications of cyclic hydroxylamine spin probes to assist with EPR studies of oxidative stress.
FUTURE DIRECTIONS - Additional studies to advance hydroxylamine spin probes from the "basic science" to biomedical applications are needed and could lead to better understanding of pathological conditions associated with oxidative stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1433-1443.
The cellular production of free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to protein, lipid or DNA modifications and tumor formation. The cellular lipids undergo structural changes through the actions of enzymes (e.g. cyclooxygenases) or free radicals to form a class of compounds called Isolevuglandins (IsoLGs). The recruitment and continued exposure of tissue to ROS and IsoLGs causes increased cell proliferation, mutagenesis, loss of normal cell function and angiogenesis. The elevated concentration of ROS in cancerous tissues suggests that these mediators play an important role in cancer development. We hypothesized that tumors with elevated ROS levels would similarly possess an increased concentration of IsoLGs when compared with normal tissue. Using D11, an ScFv recombinant antibody specific for IsoLGs, we utilized immunohistochemistry to visualize the presence of IsoLG in human tumors compared to normal adjacent tissue (NAT) to the same tumor. We found that IsoLG concentrations were elevated in human breast, colon, kidney, liver, lung, pancreatic and tongue tumor cells when compared to NAT and believe that IsoLGs can be used as a gauge indicative of lipid peroxidation in tumors.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pyridoxamine (PM) is a prospective drug for the treatment of diabetic complications. In order to make zwitterionic PM more lipophilic and improve its tissue distribution, PM derivatives containing medium length alkyl groups on the hydroxymethyl side chain were prepared. The synthesis of these alkylpyridoxamines (alkyl-PMs) starting from pyridoxine offers high yields and is amenable to bulk preparations. Interestingly, alkyl-PMs were found to react with methylglyoxal (MGO), a major toxic product of glucose metabolism and autoxidation, several orders of magnitude faster than PM. This suggests the formation of nonionic pyrido-1,3-oxazine as the key step in the reaction of PM with MGO. Since the primary target of MGO in proteins is the guanidine side chain of arginine, alkyl-PMs were shown to be more effective than PM in reducing the modification of N-α-benzoylarginine by MGO. Alkyl-PMs in the presence of MGO also protected the enzymatic activity of lysozyme that contains several arginine residues next to its active site. Alkyl-PMs can be expected to trap MGO and other toxic 1,2-carbonyl compounds more effectively than PM, especially in lipophilic tissue environments, thus protecting macromolecules from functional damage. This suggests potential therapeutic uses for alkyl-PMs in diabetes and other diseases characterized by the elevated levels of toxic dicarbonyl compounds.
Free radicals and oxidants are now implicated in physiological responses and in several diseases. Given the wide range of expertise of free radical researchers, application of the greater understanding of chemistry has not been uniformly applied to biological studies. We suggest that some widely used methodologies and terminologies hamper progress and need to be addressed. We make the case for abandonment and judicious use of several methods and terms and suggest practical and viable alternatives. These changes are suggested in four areas: use of fluorescent dyes to identify and quantify reactive species, methods for measurement of lipid peroxidation in complex biological systems, claims of antioxidants as radical scavengers, and use of the terms for reactive species.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lipid and lipid metabolite profiling are important parameters in understanding the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alkynylated polyunsaturated fatty acids are potentially useful probes for tracking the fate of fatty acid metabolites. The nonenzymatic and enzymatic oxidations of ω-alkynyl linoleic acid and ω-alkynyl arachidonic acid were compared to that of linoleic and arachidonic acid. There was no detectable difference in the primary products of nonenzymatic oxidation, which comprised cis,trans-hydroxy fatty acids. Similar hydroxy fatty acid products were formed when ω-alkynyl linoleic acid and ω-alkynyl arachidonic acid were reacted with lipoxygenase enzymes that introduce oxygen at different positions in the carbon chains. The rates of oxidation of ω-alkynylated fatty acids were reduced compared to those of the natural fatty acids. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 did not oxidize alkynyl linoleic but efficiently oxidized alkynyl arachidonic acid. The products were identified as alkynyl 11-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid, alkynyl 11-hydroxy-8,9-epoxy-eicosatrienoic acid, and alkynyl prostaglandins. This deviation from the metabolic profile of arachidonic acid may limit the utility of alkynyl arachidonic acid in the tracking of cyclooxygenase-based lipid oxidation. The formation of alkynyl 11-hydroxy-8,9-epoxy-eicosatrienoic acid compared to alkynyl prostaglandins suggests that the ω-alkyne group causes a conformational change in the fatty acid bound to the enzyme, which reduces the efficiency of cyclization of dioxalanyl intermediates to endoperoxide intermediates. Overall, ω-alkynyl linoleic acid and ω-alkynyl arachidonic acid appear to be metabolically competent surrogates for tracking the fate of polyunsaturated fatty acids when looking at models involving autoxidation and oxidation by lipoxygenases.
7-Dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) is the most oxidizable lipid molecule reported to date, with a propagation rate constant for free radical peroxidation that is 200 times that of cholesterol. To better understand the high reactivity of 7-DHC and elucidate the reaction mechanism, we synthesized conjugated and skipped nonconjugated cholestadienols that would give one of the two putative pentadienyl-radical intermediates formed in 7-DHC peroxidation. The additional dienols include 6,8(9)-dienol, 5,8(14)-dienol, 6,8(14)-dienol, and the biologically important 8-dehydrocholesterol (8-DHC; 5,8(9)-dienol). We found that all of the dienols are significantly (at least 40 times) more reactive than cholesterol. Among them, dienols leading to the formation of the pentadienyl radical in ring B (termed endo-B) of the sterol are more reactive than those leading to the pentadienyl radical spanning rings B and C (termed exo-B). By comparing the oxysterol profile formed from 7-DHC and those formed from 8-DHC and 5,8(14)-dienol, products formed from abstraction of the hydrogen atoms at C-9 and C-14 (H-9 or H-14 mechanism) were clearly differentiated. When the oxidation was carried out in the presence of the good hydrogen atom donor α-tocopherol, the oxysterol profile of 7-DHC peroxidation differed distinctly from the profile observed in the absence of the antioxidant and resembles more closely the profile observed in biological systems. This study suggests that oxidative stress and the accumulation of oxysterols should be considered as two key factors in cholesterol biosynthesis or metabolism disorders, where dienyl sterol intermediates are accumulated.
Substitution of -CD2- at the reactive centers of linoleic and linolenic acids reduces the rate of abstraction of D by a tocopheryl radical by as much as 36-fold, compared to the abstraction of H from a corresponding -CH2- center. This H atom transfer reaction is the rate-determining step in the tocopherol-mediated peroxidation of lipids in human low-density lipoproteins, a process that has been linked to coronary artery disease. The unanticipated large kinetic isotope effects reported here for the tocopherol-mediated oxidation of linoleic and linolenic acids and esters suggests that tunneling makes this process favorable.
This Perspective describes advances from the author's laboratory on the free radical reactions of organic compounds with molecular oxygen. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and sterols are particularly prone to undergo radical chain oxidation, and evidence suggests that this process, known as lipid peroxidation, occurs in vivo under a variety of conditions that are the result of an oxidative stress. Cyclic peroxides, hydroperoxides, and epoxy alcohols are major products formed from peroxidation, and the basic mechanisms of product formation are now reasonably well understood. These mechanisms include reversible addition of oxygen to carbon radicals, rearrangement and cyclization of allyl and pentadienyl peroxyl radicals, and homolytic substitution of carbon radicals on the peroxide bond. A physical organic approach to the problem of free radicals in biology and medicine is highlighted in this Perspective with stereochemical, kinetic, and extrathermodynamic probes applied to the study of mechanism. A radical clock permits the determination of free radical propagation rate constants, and 7-dehydrocholesterol, the immediate biosynthetic precursor of cholesterol, is found by this clock to be one of the most oxidizable lipids known. The consequences of the extreme reactivity of 7-dehydrocholesterol on human health is the focus of a current research theme in the author's laboratory.
The peroxidation of lipids in biological membranes has been implicated in both the onset and development of most degenerative diseases. The primary products of this autoxidation process are usually lipid hydroperoxides. They form as a consequence of a free radical chain reaction: lipid peroxyl radicals propagate the chain by rate-limiting H-atom abstraction from another lipid. Studies of the mechanism of lipid peroxidation are a specific part of a wider effort to understand the more general phenomenon of hydrocarbon autoxidation, which dates back some 70 years. However, the autoxidation of lipids is generally much more complicated than that of other hydrocarbons because of additional reaction pathways afforded by a variety of uniquely positioned unsaturated bonds. Indeed, polyunsaturation is an important aspect of many of the most relevant of physiological lipids, such as linoleate and arachidonate. In this Account, we present our current understanding of the mechanism of unsaturated lipid peroxidation, effectively updating our Account on the same topic published 25 years ago. Our more recent work has, in large part, been stimulated by the discovery of the nonconjugated linoleate hydroperoxide as a product under certain autoxidation conditions. The identification of this long-elusive bis-allylic hydroperoxide prompted our kinetic characterization of the reaction leading to its formation. The product distributions obtained from autoxidations of newly synthesized model compounds, which vary in either the substitution of the bis-allylic moiety or the configuration of the double bonds, have provided key insights into the overall mechanism. These insights have in turn been reinforced by the results of theoretical calculations. The picture that emerges is one wherein the delocalized carbon-centered radicals, which arise as intermediates in these reactions, first associate with dioxygen to form pre-reaction complexes. These complexes then collapse through transition state structures that maximize the orbital interactions between the delocalized radical SOMO and dioxygen. The energies of these transition states are influenced by steric effects; thus, there are distinct changes in product distribution in the autoxidation of dienes having different substitution patterns. The radical-dioxygen complexes are also intermediates in the isomerization of allylperoxyl and pentadienylperoxyls, helping explain the high regio- and stereochemical fidelity of these processes. We have taken advantage of the rapid fragmentation of nonconjugated peroxyl radicals to develop a powerful peroxyl radical clock methodology, which can be used to determine rate constants for reactions of peroxyl radicals with molecules having rate constants ranging from 1 to 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). We can make use of this methodology to address various questions, both fundamental and applied, relating to lipid peroxidation and its inhibition by radical-trapping antioxidants.