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Purpose Recovery from aphasia is thought to depend on neural plasticity, that is, functional reorganization of surviving brain regions such that they take on new or expanded roles in language processing. To make progress in characterizing the nature of this process, we need feasible, reliable, and valid methods for identifying language regions of the brain in individuals with aphasia. This article reviews 3 recent studies from our lab in which we have developed and validated several novel functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigms for language mapping in aphasia. Method In the 1st study, we investigated the reliability and validity of 4 language mapping paradigms in neurologically normal older adults. In the 2nd study, we developed a novel adaptive semantic matching paradigm and assessed its feasibility, reliability, and validity in individuals with and without aphasia. In the 3rd study, we developed and evaluated 2 additional adaptive paradigms-rhyme judgment and syllable counting-for mapping phonological encoding regions. Results We found that the adaptive semantic matching paradigm could be performed by most individuals with aphasia and yielded reliable and valid maps of core perisylvian language regions in each individual participant. The psychometric properties of this paradigm were superior to those of other commonly used paradigms such as narrative comprehension and picture naming. The adaptive rhyme judgment paradigm was capable of identifying fronto-parietal phonological encoding regions in individual participants. Conclusion Adaptive language mapping paradigms offer a promising approach for future research on the neural basis of recovery from aphasia. Presentation Video https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.10257584.
Background While prior studies have linked the neighborhood environment and development of subclinical atherosclerosis, it is unknown whether living in neighborhoods with greater availability of "unhealthy" food outlets (fast-food chain restaurants and convenience stores) is associated with risk of developing coronary artery calcification ( CAC ). Methods and Results We included 2706 CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) participants who underwent CAC measurement during follow-up years 15 (2000-2001), 20 (2005-2006), and 25 (2010-2011). Neighborhood features examined included percentage of all food outlets that were convenience stores and fast-food chain restaurants within a 3-km Euclidean buffer distance from each participant's residence. Econometric fixed effects models, which by design control for all time-invariant covariates, were used to model the longitudinal association between simultaneous within-person change in percentage food outlet and change in CAC . At baseline (year 15), 9.7% of participants had prevalent CAC . During 10 years of follow-up, 21.1% of participants developed CAC . Each 1-SD increase in percentage of convenience stores was associated with a 1.34 higher odds of developing CAC (95% CI : 1.04, 1.72) after adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates; however, there was no significant association between increased percentage of fast-food chain restaurants and developing CAC (odds ratio=1.15; 95% CI : 0.96, 1.38). There were no significant associations between increases in either food outlet percentage and progression of CAC . Conclusions Our findings suggest that increases in the relative availability of convenience stores in participants' neighborhoods is related to the development of CAC over time.
Interpretation of genetic association results is difficult because signals often lack biological context. To generate hypotheses of the functional genetic etiology of complex cardiometabolic traits, we estimated the genetically determined component of gene expression from common variants using PrediXcan (1) and determined genes with differential predicted expression by trait. PrediXcan imputes tissue-specific expression levels from genetic variation using variant-level effect on gene expression in transcriptome data. To explore the value of imputed genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) models across different ancestral populations, we evaluated imputed expression levels for predictive accuracy genome-wide in RNA sequence data in samples drawn from European-ancestry and African-ancestry populations and identified substantial predictive power using European-derived models in a non-European target population. We then tested the association of GReX on 15 cardiometabolic traits including blood lipid levels, body mass index, height, blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, RR interval, fibrinogen level, factor VII level and white blood cell and platelet counts in 15 755 individuals across three ancestry groups, resulting in 20 novel gene-phenotype associations reaching experiment-wide significance across ancestries. In addition, we identified 18 significant novel gene-phenotype associations in our ancestry-specific analyses. Top associations were assessed for additional support via query of S-PrediXcan (2) results derived from publicly available genome-wide association studies summary data. Collectively, these findings illustrate the utility of transcriptome-based imputation models for discovery of cardiometabolic effect genes in a diverse dataset.
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press.
Children require adult caregivers to survive and thrive. In the absence of committed and nurturing care, children face increased risk for a number of difficulties, including internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, cognitive and language deficits, and social difficulties. Recent changes in the U.S. immigration system have resulted in a large number of children removed from their parents, drawing increased scrutiny to the impact of parent-child separation and best practices for caring for children who have been separated. Drawing from work on children exposed to institutional care, as well as research on children separated from caregivers due to validated abuse and neglect, it is clear that children belong in families that are safe and supportive and that some forms of substitute care (i.e., institutional or group-based care) are insufficient to meet children's needs. However, it is difficult to know the specific impact of parent-child separation on child outcomes given that stressors often cluster and pre-separation experiences and post-separation placements also contribute to the experience of separation from a parent and subsequent functioning. Attempts to parse the specific contributions of each separation-related stressor, examining sensitive periods in the impact of separation, studying the mechanisms by which separations affect children, and consideration of the broader social and political context are useful future directions for moving this area of study forward. We must also more fully probe the roles that caregivers play in child development. Lastly, we must endeavor to cease practices of removing children from loving and capable caregivers and, when necessary, provide support to parents and children who have experienced separation.
This review will provide an overview of the principles of pharmacogenomics from basic discovery to implementation, encompassing application of tools of contemporary genome science to the field (including areas of apparent divergence from disease-based genomics), a summary of lessons learned from the extensively studied drugs clopidogrel and warfarin, the current status of implementing pharmacogenetic testing in practice, the role of genomics and related tools in the drug development process, and a summary of future opportunities and challenges.
© 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
OBJECTIVE - To evaluate 25-year physical activity (PA) trajectories from young to middle age and assess associations with the prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS - This study includes 3175 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who self-reported PA by questionnaire at 8 follow-up examinations over 25 years (from March 1985-June 1986 through June 2010-May 2011). The presence of CAC (CAC>0) at year 25 was measured using computed tomography. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify PA trajectories with increasing age.
RESULTS - We identified 3 distinct PA trajectories: trajectory 1, below PA guidelines (n=1813; 57.1%); trajectory 2, meeting PA guidelines (n=1094; 34.5%); and trajectory 3, 3 times PA guidelines (n=268; 8.4%). Trajectory 3 participants had higher adjusted odds of CAC>0 (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 0.95-1.70) vs those in trajectory 1. Stratification by race showed that white participants who engaged in PA 3 times the guidelines had higher odds of developing CAC>0 (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.21-2.67). Further stratification by sex showed higher odds for white males (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.16-2.98), and similar but nonsignificant trends were noted for white females (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 0.79-3.71). However, no such higher odds of CAC>0 for trajectory 3 were observed for black participants.
CONCLUSION - White individuals who participated in 3 times the recommended PA guidelines over 25 years had higher odds of developing coronary subclinical atherosclerosis by middle age. These findings warrant further exploration, especially by race, into possible biological mechanisms for CAC risk at very high levels of PA.
Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All rights reserved.
Advances in understanding the biological bases of aging have intellectually revitalized the field of geriatric psychiatry and broadened its scope to include promoting successful aging and studying resilience factors in older adults. To describe the process by which this paradigm shift has occurred and illustrate its implications for treatment and research of late-life brain disorders, late-life depression is discussed as a prototype case. Prior phases of geriatric psychiatry research were focused on achieving depressive symptom relief, outlining pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences between older and younger adults, and identifying moderators of treatment response. Building on this work, current geriatric psychiatry researchers have begun to disentangle the etiologic complexity in late-life depression by focusing on the causative aging-related processes involved, identifying both neurobiological and behavioral intermediates, and finally delineating depression subtypes that are distinguishable by their underlying biology and the treatment approach required. In this review, we discuss several age-related processes that are critical to the development of late-life mood disorders, outline implications of these processes for the clinical evaluation and management of later-life psychiatric disorders, and finally put forth suggestions for better integrating aging and developmental processes into the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria.
© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.